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C I C L t-JE'D I A:_ 

O R, A N ^s~ 

UNIVERSAL DICTIONARY 

O F 

ARTS and SCIENCES; 

CONTAINING 

The DEFINITIONS of the TERMS; 

And ACCOUNTS of 

The T H I N G S fignify d thereby, 

In the feveral ARTS, 
Both LIBERAL and MECHANICAL, 

And the feveral SCIENCES, 

HUMAN and DIVINE: 

The Figures, Kinds, Properties, Productions, Preparations, and Ufes, 
of Things Natural and Artificial -, 

The Rife, Progrefs, and State of Things Ecclesiastical, 

Civil, Military, and Commercial: 

With the feveral Syftems, Sefts, Opinions, &c. among Philofophers, Divines, 
Mathematicians, Phyficians, Antiquaries, Criticks, &c. 

The Whole intended as a Courfe of Antient and Modern LEARNING. 

Compiled from the beft Authors, Dictionaries, Journals, Memoirs, 

Tranfactions, Ephemerides, &c. in feveral Languages. 

In T W O VOLUMES. 
By E CHAMBERS Gent. 

Floriferis tit apes in faltibus omnia libant, 
Omnia nos — L v c r e t. 

Volume the First. 

L N T> O A r .- 

Printed for James and John Knapton, John "Darby, "Daniel Midwinter, Arthur Bettefworth, 
John Senex, Robert Go/ling, 'John Temberton, William and John Innys, John Osborn and Tho. 
Longman, Charles Rivington, John Hooke, Ranew Robinfon, Francis Clay, Aaron Ward, 
Edward Symm, "Daniel Browne, Andrew Johnfon, and Thomas Osborn. M.DCC.XXVUI. 




V 






TO T H E 



itf 




I N G. 



SIR, 




jHE ARTS and SCIENCES humbly crave Audience of Your Majefty. 
The near Concern they have in the Happinefs of a People, aflures 'em of 
the favourable Attention of a Prince who makes that Happinefs his own.' 
'Tis by Thefe, the Parfimony of Nature is fupplied, and Life render 'd 
eafy and agreeable under its numerous Infirmities. By thefe the Mind is reclaim'd 
from its native Wildnefs ; and enrich 'd with Sentiments which lead to Virtue and 
Glory. 'Tis thefe, in fine, that make the Difference between your Majefty 's Sub- 
jects, and the Savages of Canada, or the Cape of Good Hope. 

THE Protection of Arts has ever been efteemed the proper Province of the 
Great. 'Tis a Branch of the Regal Office 5 which a Prince, like Your Majefty, equal 
to the whole Charge of a Crown, will not fuffer to be alienated into other Hands. 
From this, do the firft and moft diftinguifh'd Names in the Lift of Fame, derive a large 
Share of their Glory : and if there be any Age or Nation more confpicuous than the 
reft, and which is look'd on with Envy by our own ; 'tis that wherein the Sovereigns 

have fignaliz'd themfelves moft in this Quality. Indeed, the Time feems at hand, 

when we are no longer to envy Rome her A u G u s T u s and Augustan A g e, but 
Rome in her turn fhall envy ours. 

SOMETHING extraordinary is apparently intended by Providence in calling 
fuch a Prince, to fuch a People : A Prince who feels a generous Impulfe to devote his 
Cares and all his Toils to the Welfare of Mankind 3 and a People confpiring with unex- 
ampled Ardor and Unanimity to all his glorious Views. Some of our beft Princes 
have had their Hands ty'd down ; check'd by reluctant Factions, who oppofed 
every nobler Defign : Your Majefly has found the happy Secret, to make even 
Contention do you Homage 5 and turn Oppofition itfelf into Approbation, and Ap- 
plaufe. 

THERE is a Time referv'd in Fate for every Nation to arrive at its Height; 
and the uppermoft Place on the Terreftrial Ball is held fucceffively by feveral States. 
May not the numerous Prefages which uflier in Your Majefty's Reign, give us room 

to 



'DEDICATION. 

to expedr. that our Turn is next 5 and that what Greece was under -AleundeU, 
and Rome under Augustus Cafar, 'Britain fhall be under GEORGE and 
CAROLINE? 

BUT even this were to under-rate our Hopes, which are rais'd, by Your Ma- 
jefty, to fomething ftill more truly glorious. Greatnefs, fo fondly coveted, has 
already coll the World very dear ; and, tho ftill puriiied by unthinking Men under 
almoft every Shape, is only defirable in a few. Of it felf it is rather an Object 
of Terror and Alarm, than Delight ; and at beft -only pleaies, when join'd with 
fomethino- naturally amiable. From the Practice of Your Majefty, Men may correct 
their Sentiments, and learn, that Greatnefs has no Charm except when founded in 
Goodnefs. To be Great, and a King, is but a fmall Matter with Your Majefty ; 
'tis a Quality many others enjoy in common with You, and to which fome have 
even been doom'd, to their Infamy : 'tis what Herod was, and Nebuchadnezzar was ; 
and Nero, and Domitian were. But, while other Princes chufe to be great in 
what is deftruitive, and others in things wholly indifferent ; 'tis Your Majefty 's Praife 
to be great in what is the Perfection of our Nature, and that whereby we approach 
neareft the Deity. Happy Choice ! to ufe Power only as the Means of rendering 
your Beneficence more diffuiive 3 and thus make Power and Royalty minifter to the 
Happinefs of Mankind, which they have too often invaded. 

YOUR Majefty commands a People capable of every thing. Not more fitted 
to fhine in Arms, or maintain an extended Commerce 5 than to fucceed in the 
ftiller Purfuits of Philofophy and Literature. And it will be Your Majefty's Glory, 

not to let any of their Talents lie unemploy'd. If Your Majefty gives the 

Word, while fome of 'em are bufied in avenging Your Caufe, by humbling fome 
turbulent Monarch ; fome in extending your Dominions by new Settlements, and 
fome in increafing your Peoples Wealth, by new Trades : Others will be employ 'd 
in enlarging our Knowledge, by new Difcoveries in Nature, or new Contrivances of 
Art 5 others in refining our Language ; others in improving our Morals ; and others 
in recording the Glories of your Reign, in immortal Verfe. 

THE Work I here prefume to lay at Your Majefty's Feet, is an Attempt towards 
a Survey of the Republick of Learning, as it ftands at the Beginning of Your Majefty's 
aufpicious Reign. We have here the Boundary that circumfcribes our prefent ProfpecT: ; 
and feparates the known, from the unknown Parts of the Intelligible World. Under 
Your Majefty's Princely Influence and Encouragement, we promife our felves this 
Boundary will be removed, and the Profpeit extended far into the other Hemifphere. 
Methinks I fee Trophies erecting to Your Majefty in the yet undifcover'd Regions 
of Science ; and Your Majefty's Name inferibed to Inventions at prefent held im- 
poffible ! 

I am, with all Sincerity and Devotion, 

May it p/eafe Tour MJJESTT, 

Tour Majejiy's mojl 'Dutiful, 

and Obedient Subject, 

and Servant, 



Ephraira Chambers. 



THE 




P R E F A C 



'/ ft* Mr " W fome Concern tkt I put this Work in the Reader's Hands, a Work fo 

disproportionate to a f.ngle Perfon's Experience, and which might have employ'd an Academy 

What adds to my Jealoufy is the little meafure of Time allow'd for a Performance to which 

M a Mans whole Life fcarce feems equal. The bare Vocabulary of the Academy della Crufca 

* ™ abov f f "?/ ;:;", compiling, and the Dictionary of the French Academy much longer -, 

c u- fl- V f n nJ" th f e ,P refent W ° rk ls r as much mor <= extenfive than either of them in its Nature and 

Subjed, as it rails fhort of 'em in number of Years, or of Perfons employ'd 

THE Reader might be here led to fufpeft fomething of Difingenuity ; and think I firft put a Book upon 
him and then give him Realons why I mould not have done it.— But his Sufpicions will ceafe, when he is ap- 
pnzd of the Advantages under which I engaged ; which, in one Senfe, are fuperior to what had been known 
in any former Work of the Kind ; all that had been done in them accruing, of courfe, to the Benefit of this 
I come like an Heir to a large Patrimony, gradually rais'd by the Induftry, and Endeavours of a long Race 
of Anceftors. What the French Academljh, the Jefuits de Trevoux, Daviler, Cbomel, Saturn, Cbauvu, Harris 
Wolfing and many more have done, has been fubfervient to my Purpofes. To fay nothing of a numerous Clafs 
of particular Dictionaries which contributed their Share ; Lexicons on almott every SuBjecL from Medicine 
and Law, down to Heraldry and the Manage. 

Yet this is but a. Part. I am far from havfng contented my felf to take what was ready procured ; but have 
augmented it with a large Acceffion frorn other Charters. No part of the Commonwealth of Learning, but 
has been traffick d to on this Occafion. Recourfe has been had to the Originals themfelves on the feveral Arts - 
and not to mention what fmall Matters could be furnifhed de propria penu, the Reader will here have Ex- 
trafts and Accounts from a great Number of Authors of a ll Kinds, either overlook'd by former Diftionarifts 
or not then extant; and a Multitude of Improvements m the feveral Parts, efpecially of Natural Knowledge 
madem thefe laft Years. I mould produce Inftances hereof; but I hope this would be needlefs as it h 
endleis ; and that there are few Pages which will not afford feveral. 

SUCH are the Sources from whence the Materials of the prefent Work were derived; which it ,mft 
be allowed, were rich enough not only to afford Plenty, but even Profufion : So that the chief Difficult lav 
an the Form ; in the Order and CEconomy of the Work : To difpofe fuch a Variety of Materials in fuch 

manner, as not to make a confufed Heap of incongruous Parts, but one confident Whole And here it mull be 

confefs'd there was no Afiiftance to be had ; but I was forced to ftand wholly on my own Bottom Former 
Lexicographers have not attempted any thing like Strufture in their Works ; nor feem to have been aware that a 
Dictionary was 111 fomc meafure capable of the Advantages of a continued Difcourle. Accordingly we fee 
nothing like a Whole in what they have done : And hence, fuch Materials as they did afford for the prefenc 
Work, generally needed further Preparation, ere they became fit for our Purpofe ; which was as different from 
theirs, as a Syftem from a Cento-. 

THIS we endeavoured to attain, by confidering the feveral Matters not only abfolutely and independently 
as to what they are in themfelves ; but alfo relatively, or as they refpeft each other. They are both treated 
as fo many Wholes, and as fo many Parts of fome greater Whole ; their Connexion with' which is pointed 
out by a Reference. So that by a Courfe of References, from Generals to Particulars ; from Premif-s to 
Conclufions ; from Caufe to EftecT: ; and vice verfa, i.e. in one word, from more to lefs complex and from 
lefs to more : A Communication is opened between the feveral Parts of the Work ; and the feveral Articles 
are m fome meafure replaced in their natural Order of Science, out of which the Technical or Alphabetical 
one had remov'd them. r 

FOR an Inftance----The Article Anatomy is not only confider'd as a Whole, i. e. as a particular Com- 
bination or Syftem of Ideas ; and accordingly divided into its Parts, Humane and Comparative: and Humane 
again fubdivided into the Analyfis of Solids and Fluids, (which are referr'd to in the feveral Places in the Book 
where they themfelves being treated of, refer to others ftill lower, and fo on) but alfo as a Part of Med i- 

c I n e ; which accordingly it refers to, and which it felf refers to another higher, fc?r. By which means a Chain is 

carried on from one End of an Art to the other, i. e. from the firft or fimpleft Complication of Ideas appropria- 
ted to the Art, which we call the Elements or Principles thereof ; to the moft complex or general one, the 
JSame or Term that denotes the whole Art. 

NOR is the Purfuit dropt here : but as the Elements or Data in one Art, are ordinarily quafita in fome 
other fubordmate one, and are furnifhed thereby ; (as here for Inftance, the Elements of Anatomy are furnifhed by 
Natural Hjtory, Fhyjuks, and Mecbanich ; and Anatomy may be confidered as a Datum, or Element fur- 
nifhed to Medicine) We carry on the View farther, and refer out of one Art or Province into the adjoining 
ones, and thus lay the whole Land of Knowledge open : It appears indeed with die Face of a Wildernefs •, 
but tis a Wildernefs thro' which the Reader may purfue his Journey as fecurely, tho not fo expeditioufly and 
eafily, as thro' a regular Parterre. v i 

IT may be even laid, that if die Syftem be an Improvement upon the Dictionary ; the Dictionary is fome 
Advantage to the Syftem; and chat this is perhaps the only Way wherein the whole Circle or Body of Know- 
f F^o- J T ■ In an ? other Form > man y thousand Things muft neceflarily be hid and overlook'd- 
All the Pins, the Joints, the binding of the Fabrick muft be invifible of courfe ; all the leffer Parts, on* mi^ht 
lay an the Parts whatsoever, muft be in fome meafure fwallowed up in the Whole. The Imagination ftretch'd 



and 



ii The 9 R E F A C E. 

and amplified to take in fo large a Structure, can have but a very general, indiftinguifhing Perception of any 

of the Parts. Whereas the parts are not lefs Matter of Knowledge when taken feparately, than when put 

together. Nay, and in ftrictnefs, as our Ideas are all Singulars or Individuals, and as every Thing that exifts is 
one ; it feems more natural to confider Knowledge in its proper Parts, i. e, as divided into feparate Articles denoted 
by different Terms ; than to confider the whole Affemblage of it in its utmolt Competition : whichris a thing 
merely artificial and imaginary. 

AND yet the latter Way muft be allow'd to have many and real Advantages over the former ; which in 
truth is only of ufe and fignificance as it partakes thereof: For this Reafon, that all Writing is in its own Nature 
artificial ; and that the Imagination is really the Faculty it immediately applies to. Hence it mould follow, that the 
molt advantageous way, is to make ufe of both Methods : To confider every Point both as a Part ; to help the 

Imagination to the Whole : and as a Whole, to help it to every Part. Which is the View in the prefent Work — 

fo far as the many and great Difficulties we had to labour under would allow us to purfue it. 

IN this View we have endeavoured to give the Subilance of what has been hitherto found in the fever a 1 
Branches of Knowledge both natural and artificial ; that is, of Nature, firjf, as me appears to our Senfes *, either 
fpontaneoufly, as in Natural Hiftory ; or with the Affiftance of Art, as in Anatomy, Chymiftry, Medicine, 
I griculture, &e. Secondly, to our Imagination ; as in Grammar, Rhetorick, Poetry, fcfV. Thirdly, to our Rea- 
fon -, as in Phyficks, Metaphyficks, Logicks, and Mathematicks. With the feveral fubordinate Arts arifing 
from each ; as Architecture, Painting, Sculpture, Trade, Manufactures, Policy, Law, &c. and numerous remote 
Particulars, not immediately reducible to any of thefe Heads ; as Heraldry, Philology, Antiquities, Cuftoms, £sV. 

THE Plan of the Work, then, I hope, will be allow'd to be good ; whatever Exceptions may be taken to the 
Execution of it. It wou'd look extravagant to fay, That half the Men of Letters of an Age might be em- 
ploy'd in it to advantage ; and yet it will appear, that a Work accomplifh'd as it ought to be, on the Footing 
of this, would anfwer all the Purpofes of a Library, except Parade and Incumbrance ; and contribute 
more to the propagating of ufeful Knowledge thro* the Body of a People, than any, I had almoft faid all, 
the Books extant. — After this, let the Reader judge how far I may deferve Cenfiire for engaging in it, even 
difadvantageoufly ; and whether to have fail'd in fo noble a Defign, may not be fome degree of Praife. 

BUT, it will be here necefiary to carry on the Divifion of Knowledge a little further ; and make a precife 
Partition of the Body thereof, in the more formal Way of Analyfis : The rather, as an Analyfis, by fhewing 
the Origin and Derivation of the feveral Parts, and the Relation in which they ftand to their common Stock 
and to each other -, will affift in reftoring 'em to their proper Places, and connecting 'em together. 



_ -,, , f. A . , _ . r -nu C METEOROIOGY *, 

Senjtble ; confuting in the Perception or Pnaeno-\ t. a, 

mena, or External Objects- - called Physiology, ) . . „ „ *, 

' -, ' , ,. ■ ,. '< MlNEROLOGY J . 

or Natural History j and which according to )p HYTOLOGY 4 
the different Kinds of fuch Obje&s, divides '"'o/, fllOG j 



*f Natural and Scientifical,j 
which is either* 



Or, 



Rational; confiftlng in the Perception 

of the intrinfick Characters or Ha-«( 
. bitudes of fenfible Objects— either 



Quantities thereof, called Ma- ( 
thematics— — which di- 
vides, according to the Sub- * 
jeft of the Quantity, into. 



Or, 



Artificial and Technical, 
(confiding in the 
Application of Na- . 
tural Notices to' , 
further Purpofes) 
which is either 



"Their Powers and Properties — called Physicks, and Natural PHILOSOPHY fi . 
Abflracts thereof — called Metaphysics 7 5 Ontology. 

which fubdivides into £Pneumatology. 

Arithmetic 8 —whence < AnaLy tics 9 . 
C Algebra ,0 . 
^Trigonometry^ 
Geometry " — whence ^Conics. 
Statics » CSpherics. 

Relations thereof to our Happi-T Ethics 13 , or Natural £ Politics 1 *. 
nefs— - called Religion,) Religion — whence £ Law 15 . 
or the Doftrine of Offices, j 
„ which fubdivides into' (^Theology ,fi , or Revelation. 



Internal i employ'din dtfcoverlng their Agreement and Difagreement; or their Relations in refpeft of Truth — call'd Logics' 7 . 
"Further Powers and Properties of Bo- £ Alchemy. 

dies — called Chymistry l8 — whence <> Natural Magic, &tc. 

r OpTics l 9 f Catoptrics,.$Perspective 19 . 

Dioptrics whence £ Painting ". 

Phonics whence Musick **. 

Hydrostatics aj , Hydraulics. 
Pneumatics *+. 

(^Architecture afi , 
-whence <Sculpture ' 7 . 

CTrades aB ,and Manufactures. 
The Military Art 3 °. 
Fortification 3i . 
Chronology ij . 
._ Dialling 3 *. 
Geography iS , Hydro- C Navigation j6 . 

graphy whence £ Commerce ". 

Structure and Oeconomy of Organical Bodies called Anatomy 38 , 



Or, 



External, 
Which is, 
either— 



"Real, employ'd in 
difcovering and^ 
applying the— 



Quantities oFBodies— — 
call'd Mix'd Mathe- 
matics ; which accor-< 
ding to the different 
Subjects refolves into 



Or; 



Symbolical, 
^.ploy'd in framing' 



Mechanics zs - 

Pyrotechnia * 9 — whence - 
Astronomy** whence - 



Animals ■ called ■ 



Medicine 3 ?. 
Pharmacy 40 . 
Agriculture 4I . 
Gardening **. 



Relations thereof to the | x , ,. „ , 

o r ■ , T J Vegetables — ca led 

Preservation and Im- "% s 

provement — either of I r c . , 

Brutes called 5 J**™« \ 

^ c Manage — whence 



C Word: 

< Figures *-i 

C Fables < 



or Articulate Signs of Ideas- 
called Rhetoric * 5 — whence 
called Poetry 47 . 



called Grammar 4+ . 

S The making of Armories, called 
C Heraldry 4S . 



THIS is a View of Knowledge, as it were, in femine ; exhibiting only the grand, conftituent Parts 
thereof. It would be endlefs to purfue it into all its Members and Ramifications ; which is the proper Bufinefs of the 
Book it felf. It might here, therefore, feem fufficient to refer from the feveral Heads thus deduced, to the fame in 
theCourfe of the Work ; where their Divifion is carried on. And yet this would fometimes prove inconvenient 
for the Reader ; who to find fome particular Matter muft go a long Circuit, and be bandied from one part 
of the Book to another : To fay nothing of the Interruptions which may frequently happen in the Series of Refe- 
rences. To obviate this we mall take a middle Courfe, and carry on the Diftribution further, in a Note in the Mar- 



The PREFACE. 



Hi 



as this muft 



gin -, but this in a loofer manner, to prevent the Embarrafs of an Analyfis fo complex and diffufive 
prove. Some of the principal Heads of each Kind will here come in fight, and fuch as will naturally & 
and lead to the reft; fo that this .will afford the Reader a fort of Summary of the Whole ■ And at the fame 
time will difpenfe a kind of auxiliary or fuccedaneous Order thro'out the Whole ; the numerous Articles 
omitted, all naturally enough ranging themielves to their proper Places among thefe. A Detail of this Kind 
is of the more Confcqucnce, as it may not only fupply the Office of a Table of 'Contents, by prefenting thedifoerf-d 
Materials of the Book in one View ; but alfo that of a Diredlcry, by indicating the Order they arelnoft advanta 

geoufly read in. Note* then, That the initial Articles here, tally to the final ones of the Analyfis \ and that 

the feveral Members hereof, are fo many Heads in the Book, 



1 METEOROLOGY, or the Hiftory of Air and Atmo- 
sphere: including, i°, that of its Contents, JEther,Pire,Vapour, Ex- 
halation, Sec. z°, Meteors form'd therein, as Cloud, Rain, Shower, 
Drop, Snow, Hail, Dew, Damp, Sec. Rainbow, Parhelion, Halo, 
Thunder, Water- fpout,Sec. Winds, Mon-foon, Hurricane, and the like. 

1 HYDROLOGY, or the Hiftory of Water* including 
that of Springs, Rivers, AciduU, Sec. of Lake, Sea, Ocean, Sec. of 
Tides, Deluge, and the like. 

3 M I N E R O L O G Y, or the Hiftory oFEahth; i°, Its Parts, 
as Mountain, Mine, Mofs, Bog, Grotto ; and their Phenomena, as Earth. 
quake, Volcano, Conflagration, Sec. Its Strata, as Clay, Bole, Sand- 
&c. i°, Foffils or Minerals, as Metals, Gold, Silver, Mercury, Sec. with 
Operations relating to 'em, as Fufion, Refining, Purifying, Parting, 
Effay'tng, Sec. Litharge, Lavatory, Pinea, Sec, Salts, as Nitre, Na- 
tron, Gemma, Allum, Armoniac, Borax, Sec. Sulphurs, as Arfenic, 
Amber, Ambergreafe, Coal, Bitumen, Naphtha, Petrol, Stc. Semi- 
metals, as Antimony, Cinnabar, Marcafite, Magnet, Bifmuth, Calamine, 
Cobalt, Sec, Stones, as Marble, Porphyry, Slate, Asbeflos, &c. 
Gems, as Diamond, Ruby, Emerald, Opal, Turcoife, Sec. Emery, Lapis, 
Sec. whence Ultramarine, Azure, Sec. Petrifactions, as Cryjlal, Spar, 
Stalactites, Trochites, Cornu Ammonis, and the like. 

4 PHYTOLOGY, or the Hiftory of P t A N T s ; their Origin, 
in the Seed, Fruit, Sec. Their Kinds, as Tree, Herb, Sec. extraordinary 
Species, as Tea, Coffee, Paraguay, V'me,Ginfeng,Cotton,Tobacco, Sec. Coral, 
Mufhroom, Truffle, Parafite, Miffelto, Mofs, See. Parts, as Root, 
Stone, flower ; Wood, as Guaiacum, Saffafras, Ebony, Aloes, Sec. 
Leaf, as Foliation, Roll, Sec. Bark, Quinquina, Sec. Piflil, Farina, 
Stamina, Sec. Operations thereof, as Vegetation, Germination, Cir- 
culation, Sec. Circumftances, as Perpendicularity, Parallelifm, Fer- 
tility, Sec. Productions, as Honey, Wax, Balm, Sugar, Manna, Sec. 
Cum, Reftn, Camphor, Sec. Indigo, Opium, Galls, and the like. 

5 ZOOLOGY, or the Hiftory of Animals: Their Origin in 

Egg, Embryo, Foetus, Generation, Conception, Gefiation, Hatching, Migra- 
tion, Sec. Their Kinds, as Quadruped, Bird, Fijh, Infect, Reptile, Rumi- 
nant, Carnivorous, Sec. Extraordinary Species, as Unicorn, Torpedo, 
Tarantula, Tortoifie, Cameleon, Salamander, Sec. Barnacle, Anchovy, 
Death-Watch, Sec. Monfters, as Double Animals, Hermaphrodite, 
Mule, Pigmy, Giant, Sec. Metamorphofes, as Aurelia, Metempfychofis, 
Sec. Parts, as Head, Hand, Foot, Finger, Tail, Fin, Wing, Gills, Stc. 
Covering, as Hair, Wool, Silk, Feathers, Sec. Armature; as Nail, 
Sting, Horn, Tooth, Shell, Probofcis, Web, Sec. Productions, as Pearl, 
Bezoard, Cafioreum, Civet, Meconium, Mummy, Ufnea, Sec. Kermes, 
Cochineal, Sec, Motion, as Flying, Swimming, and the like. 

6 P H Y S I C S, or the Doctrine of Cadsis; as Nature, Law, 
Sec. Occasions or Means, as Principle, Matter, Form, Sec. Their 
Compofition or Conftitution, in Element, Atom, Particle, Body. 
Chaos, World, Vniverfe, Space, Vacuum, Sec. Properties of Body, as 

Extenfion, Solidity, Figure, Divifibility, Sec. Powers thereof, as At- 
traction, Cohefion, Gravitation, Reputjion. Elafiicity, Electricity, Magne- 
tifm, Sec. Qualities, as Fluidity, Firmnefs, Ductility, Hardnefs, Volatility, 
Denftty, Polarity, Sec. Light, Heat, Cold, Sec. Operations or Effects 
thereof, as Motion, Rarefaction, Dilatation, Condenfation. Dijfolution, 
Ebullition, Freezing, Evaporation, Fermentation, Digeftion, Effervcfcence, 
Sec. Vifion, Seeing, Hearing, Feeling, Smelling, Sec. Modifications or 
Changes, as Alteration, Corruption, Putrefaction, Generation, Degene- 
ration, Tranfmutation, Sec. Syftems or Hypothecs hereof, Corpufcu- 

lar, Epicurean, Ariflotelian, Peripatetic, Cartesian, Newtonian, Sec. . 

Occult and Fictitious Qualities, Powers, and Operations, Antipe- 
riftafis, Sympathy, Antipathy, Arch&us, Sec. Magic, Witchcraft, Vir- 
gttla Divina, Ligature, Tali [man, Cabbala, Sec. Druid, Bard, Brach- 
man, Gymnofophifi, Magi, Roficrucian, and the like. 

7 METAPHYSICS, or the Doctrine of E n s, E fence, Exif- 
tence, Power, Act, Undemanding, Sec The M 1 n d, Its Facul- 
ties, Apprehenfion, Judgment. Imagination, Reafon, Wit, Sec. Its 
Operations, Retention, Reflection, Afciation, Abfiraction, Sec, Its 
Perceptions, as Subftance, Accident, Mode, Sec. Relations, as Unity, 
Multitude, Infinity, Univerfal, Sec. Quantity, Quality, Whole, Part, 
Sec. Genus, Species, Difference, Sec. Proper, Oppoftte, Circumflance, 
External, Sec. Effects hereof, Knowledge, Science, Art, Experience, 
&c. Conditions, Probability, Certainty, Fallacy, Sec. Syftems here- 
of, Nominal*, Scotifts, Sec. 

ARITHMETIC, including the Doctrine of Discrete or 
Difcontimtom Qu A N t i t v, viz. Number, Ratio, Proportion,Sec. Kinds, 
as Integer, Fraction, Decimal, Surd, Sec. Relations, as Root, Power, 
Square, Cube, Sec. Rules or Operations thereof, as Notation, 
Numeration, Addition, SubtraStion, Sec. Reduction, Practice, Position, 
Sec Extraction, Approximation, Sec. Inftruments fubfervient thereto, 
as Logarithms, Nepair's Bones, Sec. 



9 ANALYTICS, or the Refolution of Problems by 
Species or Symbolical ExprefTions : Rules or Operations hereof. Ad- 
dition, Subtraction, Multiplication, Sec, Application thereof, in Com- 
binations, Permutations, Magic Squares, Chances, Gaming, Sec. Se- 
ries, Progreffions, Sec. Methods de Maximis, Fluxions, Exponentials;, 
^"■""'nts, Sec. 



10 ALGEBRA, or the Doctrine of Equations; Simple, 
Quadratic, Cubic, Sec. Operations thereof, as Reduction, Ceti- 
ftruction, Sec. 

11 GEOMETRY,or theDoctrine of Extended, or Continu- 
ous Quantity, viz. l°,Liass t Right, Perpendicular, Parallel fib liqne, 
Sec. Angles, Acute, Scalenous, Vertical, Oppofite, Sec. z°, Figures, 
or Surfaces, Triangle, Square, Parallelogram, Trapezium, Polygon, See. 
Circumftances hereof, as Perimeter, Area, Sec. Operations relating 
hereto, as Biffiecting, Dividing, Multiplying, Meafuring, Sec. In- 
struments ufed therein, as Compajfes, Ruler, Square, Parallelifm, Scale, 
See. Curves, as Circle, Cycloid, Ciffoid, Catenaria, Cauflic, Evolute, 
ggadratrix, Sec. Circumftances thereof, as Axis, Diameter, Radius, 
Centre, Circumference, Abfcifs, Ordinate, Sec. Arch, Chord, Sine, 
Tangent, Secant, Sec. Inftruments ufed herein, as Artificial Lines, 
Canons, Sec. Operations arifing herefrom, as Surveying, taking An- 
gles or Bearings, Sec. with ^tadrant, Plain-Table, Semicircle, Circum- 
ferentor, Sec. taking Di/lances, with Chain, Perambulator, Sec. Plot- 
ting into Draught, Map, Sec. with Protractor, Sec. 3 , Solids Or 
Bodies, as Cube, Parallelepiped, Prifm, Pyramid, Cylinder, Polyhedron, 
Sec. Their Surface, Solidity, Sec. Operations relating hereto, as Cu- 
bature, meafuring of Timber, Gauging, Sec. Inftruments ufed herein, 

as Carpenters Rule, Sector, Sliding Rule, Gauging Rod, Sec. The 

Sphere, its Doctrine, Projection, Sec. Application thereof, in Plani- 

fphere, Analemma, Sec. The Cone, its Sections, Ellipfis, Parabola., 

Hyperbola, Sec. Their Afymptotes, Foci, &c. Their Con fruition, 
Quadrature, Rectification, Sec. 

STATICS, or the Doctrine of M o t I o n ; Its Laws, Veloci- 
ty, Momentum, Sec. Caufes. as Gravity, Percuffton, Communication, Sec. 
Modifications, as Compofition, Acceleration, Retardation, Reflettion, 
Refraction, Sec. Kinds, as Afcmt, Defcent, Central, Centripetal, Sec. 
Ofcillatton, Undulation, Projection, Sec. Powers or Applications there- 
of, in Lever, Screw, Sec. Pendulum, Projectile, Sec. Operations 
directed hereby, as Gunnery, the Mechanical Arts, Sec. enumerated 
hereafter. 

13 ETHICS, or the Confederation of Natural Inclinations, Paf- 
Jtons,TaJles, Sec. Objects thereof, as Good, Evil, Virtue^ Vice, Beauty, 
Deformity, Sec. Pleafure, Pain, Sec. Rectitude, Equity, Confidence, Sec. 
Law, Obligation, Sec. Will, Liberty, Action, Affent, Sec. Neccffity, Pre- 
motion, Providence, Sec. Syftems hereof, Stoicifm, Platonifm, Acade- 
my, Cynic, and the like. 

** POLICY, or the Confideration of Society and Com- 
monweal; Its Origin, in Contract, Sec. Conftitutions and 
Forms thereof, as, i°, Monarchy, Defpotifm, Sec. Powers thereof, King, 
%ueen, Prince, Duke. Emperor, Sultan, Sophy, Caliph, C&far, Czar, 
Inca, Ethnarch, Tetrarch, Defpot, and the like. Their Titles, Majefiy, 
Highnefs, Grace, Excellence, and the like. Their Reaalia, Crovjnj, 
Sceptre, Tiara, Fafces,Sec. i°, Ariftocracy ; its Powers, as Archon, Dic- 
tator, Doge, Senate, Council, Sec. 3°, Democracy j States-General, Stadt- 
holder, Protector, Sec. Their Succefllon, Elective, Hereditary, by Prti 
mogeniture, Sec. Their Tranfactions, as Peace, War, Treaty, Union, 
League, Croifade, Sec. By Armies, Fleets, Embaftes. Secretary, Ple- 
nipotentiary, Envoy, Legate, Nuntio, Sec. Their Territories, Empire, 
Principality, Signory, Sec. Their Eftates, Nobles, Commons, Cler- 
gy. Cenfus, Enumeration, Tribe, Quarter, Sec. Province, Circle, 
County, City, Town, Sec. Magiftrature, Chancellor, Judge, Sheriff, 
Juflice, Mayor, Alderman, Bailiff, Confiabte. Inter-Rex, Conful, Pretor r 
Cenfor, Vizir. Tribune, Triumvir, Provo ft, Ephori, JEdile, Prefect, gluefior, 
Proconful. Vice-Roy, Lieutenant, Steward, War den, Keeper. Juriftonfultus, 
Procurator, Advocate, Barrifier, Prothonotary, Cuflos, Philazer, Chiro- 
grapher, Ufher, Clerk, Sec. Their Jurifdiction ; Courts, as Areopagus, 
Comitia, Sec. Parliament, Diet, Divan. Chamber, Affize, Privy Coun- 
cil, Sec. Chancery, King' s-Bench , Exchequer, Admiralty, Verge, Sef- 
fions, Turn, County Court, Leet, Eyre, Sec. Terms, Circuits, Commif- 
fions, Oyer. Convocation, Arches, Prerogative, Faculties, Delegates* 
Rota, Inquifition, Sec. Their Revenues, Treafury, Fife, Exchequer, 
Tally, Political Arithmetic. Duties, Cnfioms, Gabel, Excife, Sec. Coin- 
age, Money, Intercft, Ufitry, Sec. Their Houfhold, Chamber, Green- 
Cloth, Ward-robe, Sec. Under Steward, Chamberlain, Comptroller, Cof- 
ferer, Aga, Oda, Sec. Guard, Stables, Ordnance, Sec. directed by 
Captain, Mafter, Equerry, Sec. Militia, Navy, Pofl, Timariot, 
Arriere-ban, Sec. Dignities, Dauphin, ^lector, Palatine, Grave, Palf- 
grave. Thane, Earl, Count, Knight, Garter, Baronet, ' Bath, Teuto- 
nic, Malta, Elephant, Sec. Gentleman, Yeoman, Sec. Their Names, 
Sirnames, Titles, Precedence, Sec. Factions, Patrician, Guelf, Tory, 
&c. Corporations, or lefler Communities, Univerfity, Academy, CoU 

ligfj 



The P R E F A C R 



IV 

■ I MIGHT hero have ended my Prefect and perhaps the Reader wodd be willing enotigh to be thus 
diimiiVd. Bat ibmething has been already flatted which will require a further DOpBaon^Cht Dtfnbution we 
have made of Knowledge is founded on- this, That the fever. Branches thereof commence euhei Art ox Science 
according to the Agency or Non-agency of the human Mind m refpeft thereof : I remains to take the Matter 
up a little higher ; and explain the Reafon and Manner of this Operation, To confide* Knowledge m its Prmq- 



lege, Society, Chapter, School, Hofpital, Inn. Public Edifices , Guild- 
hall, Prilon, Tower, Arfenal, Library, Mufmm, Circus Sec. Solemn 
Ceremonies, as Triumph, Tournament, Canoufel, ®uadril. Donative, 
Medal, Trophy, Monument, Funeral, Tomb, Catacomb, BCC. 

x * LAW or the Rules and Meafures of S o c i et y; publifh'd 
in Act, Statute, Charter, Refcript, Conjhtution, Decretal, Senatus-con- 
fultum, Pragmatic Sanction, Sec. Recorded, in infiitute,Code, Navel, 
Regifter, Pande£t, Corpus, Dvmefday, &c. Kinds, Civil, Canon, Sump- 
tuary,^. Reflecting, i°, Perfons, as the King; his Prerogative, Roy- 
alties Sec viz granting Difonfation, Pardon, Commendam, Exemption. 
Dignities' FrancUs. Foreft, Park, Purlieu, Vert, Chafe. Impofl, Subftdy, 
TolL Tax, Aid, Hidage, Scutage, Pnjagc. Waif, Efiray, Efcheat, Trea- 
fureTrove Sec. Officers and Magiftrates, erected by Writ, Warrant, 
Commffion, Sec. Their Oath, Tefi, Declaration. Vifttamn, Procura- 
tion, Sec. Corporations, Regular, Secular, Sec. made by Charter, 
Patent, Sec. diflblved by Quo Warranto, Mandamus, &c. Sub/efts, 
as Denizen, Naturalization. Husband, Wife, Marriage, Concubine, 
Separation, Alimony, Bower, Affinity, Baflard. Adoption, Emancipa- 
tion. Lord, Tenant, Villain, Vajfal. Client, Patron. Servant, Slave, 
Retainer. Manumiffion, Enfranchifing, Sec. Tenure, Service, Homage, 
Fealty, Serjeanty, Efcuage,Relief, Guardian, Wardfirip, Socage. Heir, Inte- 

Jlaie, Ar.ccftor, Sec. i°,Eftates or Things ; either Real, us Tenement s r 

Hereditaments. Freehold, Fee, Cuflomary, Tail, Gavelkind, Courtefy, Sec. 
In Revtrfion, Mortgage, Hypotheca, Sec. Manor, Demefn, Honours, 
Common, Glebe, Advowfon, Sec. Acquired by Occupancy, Prefcription, 
Defcent, Deed, Feoffment, Fine, Recovery. Defeizance, Leafe, Devife, 
Attornment, Invefliture, Livery, Sec. Loft by Alienation, Mortmain, 
Diffieiftn, Abatement. Surrender, Difccntinttance, Difclahner, Forfeiture, 
Refignation, Deprivation, Lapfe,Sec. Or Perfonal, as Goods, Chattels, 
Emblements, Annuity, Debts, Specialty, Recognizarice, Sec. Acquired 
by Succefiion, Heriot, Mortuary, Heir Loom. Teflament, Executor, Ad- 

miniflrator, Ordinary. Judgment, Fieri facias, Sec. 3°, Wrongs 

or Injuries ; either Criminal, and'to Perfons, as Treafon, Parricide, 
Murder, Felony, Affault, Rape, Affaffin. Adultery, Fornication, De- 
floration, Polygamy, Herefy, See. Profecuted by Indictment, Accufa- 
tion, Actions of Confpiracy, and upon the Cafe, Habeas Corpus, Sec. 
Punim'd, with Hanging, Crucifixion, Wheel, Furca, Scala, Pillory, 
Tranfportation, Divorce, Scaphifm, Sec. Or Civil, and to Things; 
as Trefpafs, Nuifance, Deforcement, Sec. Remedied by Writs of fuare 
Impedit, Darrein Preferment, Appeal, Atteint, Error, Right, Difceit, Stt- 
ferfedeas, Audita Querela, Sec. Suit, or Courfc of Proceedings whereby 
Redrefs is procured; including, i°, Vrocefs, either by Bill, Summons, 
Subpcrna, Attachment, Capias, Exigent, Sec. to which belong Appear- 
ance, Attorney, Bail, Effoign, Default, Nonfuit, Arraignment, Sec. i°, 
Pleading ; whence Count, Declaration, Aid Prater, Voucher, Age Prier, 
Bar, Abate, Releafe, Replication, Outlawry, Sequeflration, Sec. 3 , 
Ufiie; whence Demurrer. 4°, Trial; whence Proof, Evidence, Pre- 
emption, Oath, Affidavit, Affirmation. Jury, Challenge, Array, Ver- 
dict. Battel, Duel, Champion, Purgation, Ordeal, Sec. Paine fort z? 
duret, Rack, Torture, Sec. $°, Judgments whence Artefi, &c. 6°, 
Execution} whence Scire facias, Reprieve, Sec. 

■ 6 THEOLOGY, or the Confederation of God: his Nature 
and Attributes, as Eternity, Ubiquity, Sec. His Unity, Trinity, Sec. 
Perfons, Hypoftafis. Sec. Our Duty to him, difcover'd by Infpiration, 
Revelation, Prophecy, Sec. by the Mefiah, Evangelifis, Apofiles, Sec. 
In the Bible, Pentateuch, Hagiographa, Pfalter, Gofpel, Apocalypfe, 
Sec. Canon, Deuterocanonical, Apocrypha, Sec. Circumftances thereof, 
Style, Allegory, Type, Parable, Myjlical, Sec. Text, Verfim, Sep- 
tuagint, Vulgate, Sec. Paraphrase, Targum, Sec. Points, Quotations, 
Sect Matter thereof; Declarations, of Incarnation, Paffion, Cruci- 
fixion, Miracle, Sec, Inunctions, as Worflnp, Prayer, Sacrifice, Sec. Sa- 
craments, as Eucharifi, Baptifm, Sec. Promifes, as Grace, Jufii- 
fication, Sec. Decrees, as Predcft'mation, EleCHon, Reprobation, Sec. 
Breaches on our Part, Sin, Apoflacy, Imputation, Sec. Remedies 
thereof, by Repentance, Confeffion, Sec. Rewards and Punifhments 
allotted thereto, Heaven, Hell, Refurrection, Immortality , Sec. His 
Minifters, Angels, Devil, Sec. His Church, either Triumphant, as 
Saints, Martyrs, Confeffors, Fathers, DoClors, Sec. or Militant, Sec. Its 
Office's, Creed, Liturgy, Decalogue, Doxology, Trifagion,Sec. Difcipline, 
Rites, ©v. as Abfolution, Anathema, Excommunication, Sec. Catechu- 
men,' Confirmation, Genuflexion, Sec. Its Priefthood, as Biflwp, 
Priefi, Deacon, Sec. Patriarch, Archb'tfhop, Primate, Dean, Canon, 
Prebend, Archdeacon, Chantor, Sec. Their Enfigns, Mitre, Crazier, 
Pallium, Sec. Their Ordination, Con fecration, Collation, Impofition, Sec. 
Benefice's, Revenues, Tithes, Sec. Places fet apart, as Church, Chapel, O- 
ratory, Sec. Cathedral, Parochial, Cardinal, Sec. Choir, Nave, Altar, 
Font &c. Dhcefe y Province, Sec. AfTemblies, as Sy?iod, Council, 
Convocation, Conjiftory, Chapter, Presbytery, Sec. Feafis, Fafls Lent, 
VmU &c. Eajler, Ephhany, Penteccfl, Annunciation, Purification, 

Pre Cent rtion, Sec. Particular Syftcms or Profeffio'ns thereof, viz. 

Reformed or Protcftant, as the Chttrch of England, Lutheranifm, Cal- 
vmifm Sec Romifh or Lath % its Mafs, Breviary, Legend, Sec. 
'Fravfubftantiaticn, Extreme Unction, Supererogation, Penance, &c. 
Hierarchy ; Pope, Cardinal, Sec. Secular, Regular, Monk ftrffcw*. Abbot, 
Prior, Sec. Order, Congregation, Monafiery,General,c<c. Jefmtfiarthuftan, 
Carmelite, Francifan, Dominican,^. Third Order, Cenobite, Ancho- 
rite, Hermit, Reclufe, Monaflery, Cell, Sec. Rule, Few, Reform, No- 
viciate, See. Image, Relicks, Sxint, Virgin, Rofary, Sec. Canonization, 
Beatification, Sec. indulgence, J&kilee, Exorcifm, Sec. Greek, its 



Anthologue, Prothefis, Particles, Sec. Maronite, Jacobite, Tho- 

m&an, Sec. Armenian, Cophti, Solitary, Sec. Sect", and Here- 

iies ; as Manhhees, Gnofiics, Ar'ians, Sec. Ebionites, Ntftorians, Mil- 
lenaries, Sluartodecimans, Sec. Montanifls, Soc'mians, Armimans, Sec. 
Presbyterians, Anabaptifis, Independents, §lual;ers, Sec, Quietifls, Ser- 

-vetifls, Pre-adamites, Sec. Deifi, Athe'ifi, Sfimofifm, Sec Jewifh, 

its Talmud, Tradition, Sec. Temple, Tabernacle, Sanc'luary, Ark, Sec. 
Pontiff, Lev'ite, Tribe, Sec. F.phod, Theraphim, Circumcifion, Sabbath, 
Sanhedrim, Sec. Rabbin, Dottor, Cabbala, -Maffora, Sec. Pharifee, 
Sadducec, Effean, Caraite, Sec. Nazarite, Therapeuta, Sec. Samaritan, 

Dofithean, Hellenifi, Sec. Paffover, Scenopegia, Gehenna, Sec. . 

Mahometan ; Their Alcoran, Mufti, Derv'ice, Mofyue, Mufftilman, Sec. — 
Heathen ; Their Idolatry, Theogony, Sec. Their Gods ; Penates, Lares, 
Lemur es, Sec. Panes, Sylvans, Nymphs, Tritons, Sec. Demi-god, Hero, 
Fortune, Defliny, D&mon, Genius, Sec. Apothcofts, Sacrifice, Sec. Fcafi, 
Lttflrdiion, Sec. as Eleufinia, Saturnalia, Cerealta. Sec. Minifters there- 
of j Rex, Pontifex, Flamen, Vefial, Corybantes, Sec. Games ; 
Olympic, Iflhmean, Sec. Divination, Oracle, Pythian, Sibyl, Sec. Au- 
gur, Aufpcx, Sec. Temple, Fane, Pagod, &c. Sefts ; as Banians, 
Bramans, Sab&ans, Sec. 

17 LOGICS, or the Confideration oflfaEAs orNonoNS; 
Their Kinds, Simple, Complex, Adequate, Sec. Difpofition, into Clafes or 
Categories, Predicaments, Predicates, Sec. Their Compofition, or Af- 
fociation into Axioms, Propofitions, Problems, Theorems, Thefes, Hy- 
pothefes. Arguments, as Syllogifm, Enthymeme, Sorites, Sophifm, 
Dilemma, Crocodilus. Sec, Their Resolution, Definition, Divifisn, Sec. 
into Premiffes, Cenfequences, Terms, Sec. Their Truth, Falpood, Evi- 
dence, Demonfiration, Sec. Operations therewith, as Argumentation, 
Induction, Difcourfing, Philofophizing, Sec. Difputaiion^Diflinclion, Con- 
tradiction, Reditclio ad abfurdum, Sec. 

18 CHYMISTRY, including the Ufe ofFiRE, Water, Baths, 
Ferments, Menfiruums, furnaces, Retorts, and other Inftruments j to 
change Animal, Vegetable, and Fofil Bodies ; by inducing Fufton, Pu- 
trefaction, Fermentation, Dijfalution, Exhalation, Sec. and hereby 
procuring Spirits, Salts, Oils. Acid, Alcaline, Aromatic, Urinous. Whw y 
Vinegars, Flowers, Calces, Cryfials, Soaps, Tartars. Regulus, Magiflery, 
Extract, Elixir. Cerufs, Minium, Litharge. Quint effence, Phofphorits t 
Alcahefl, Philofopher's Stone, and the like i by the Operations of Dif- 
tillation, Expreffion, Cohobation, Sublimation, Reclification, CryfiilHza- 
tion, Calcination, Amalgamation, Digefiion, Precipitation, Vitrification, 

Fixation, Tranfmutation, and the like. Arbor Dians., Aurum Fttl- 

minans, Artificial Earthquake, Magic, Divination, Sec. 

19 OPT I CS, including the Laws and Confiderau'on of Vision, 
and Vifible Objects ; efFected by means of Light, its Rays. Their Re- 
frangibility, Refiexibility, Sec. Focus, Tranfparency, Opacity, Shadow, Sec. 

Reflection thereof, in Mirror, Look'wg-glafs, Catoptric dflula, 

Sec. .Refraction, in Lens, Priftn, Glafs, Sec. Application, in Tele- 

fcope, Microfcope, Magic Lanthorn, Sec. Spectacle, Polemofcope, Polyhe- 
dron, Camera Obfcura, Sec. 

10 PERSPECTIVE, or the Projection of Points, Lines, 
Planes, Sec. in Seriography, Orthography, Ichnography,Anamorphofis, Sec 

11 P A I N T I N G, or the Designing of Objects in Clair-ob- 
fcure, Proportion, Sec. with Crdonnance, Expreffion, Sec. Circumftances 
hereof, Attitude, Contrafl, Group, Sec. Kinds, Limning, Miniature, 
Camieux, Frefco, Sec. Enamelling, Mofaic, Sec. 

11 PHONICS, or the Doctrine of Sounds, Voice, Sec, 

Their Modifications in Echo, Refinance, Whifpering-Place, Speaking- 
Trumpet, Sec— —Their Tune, Gravity, Interval, Sec. Time, Tri- 
ple, Sec. exprefs'd by Note, Chord, Sec. Comparifons thereof, Con- 
cord, as Unifon, Octave, Third, Fourth, Difcord, Sec. Compofition, 
as Melody, Harmony, Counter-point. Symphony, Synaul'ta, Chime, Song, 
Rhythmtts, Sec. Kinds, Genera, Mode, Sec. Circumftances, Key, 
Cleff, Signature, Tranfpofnion, Sec. Staff, Scale, Gammut, S'Afaing, 
Modulation, Sec. I nftrumerits. Organ, Bell, Trumpet, Lyre, Cymbal, 
Violin, Harpfichord, Sec. 

*3 HYDROSTATICS, or the Confideration of Fiuids 3 
their Specific Gravity. Denfity, Equilibrh-m. Sec. Inftruments to mea- 
fure the fame, as Ar&omeier, Hydrofiatical Balance, Sec. Syphon, Tor- 
ricellian, Sec. Morion thereof, in Pump, Fountain, Spiral Screw, 

Hydrocanifieritim, Hydromantic, Sec. 

:+ PNEUMATICS, or the Confideration of the Aik ; its 
Weight, Denfity. Prejfure, Elafticity, Sec. Condenfation, RarefaSlhn, 
Motion, Wind, Sec. In Air-pump, Suction, Vacuum, Sec, Mca- 
fur'd by Barometer, Thermometer, Hygrometer, Manometer, &c. 
Anemometer, Windmill, Sec. 

*S MECHANICS, including, the Structure and Contrivance of 
M a c h 1 n e s. as Balance, Steelyard, Pulhj, Pdyfpafl, Sec. Wheel, Clock, 
Watch, Pendulum, Spring;. Fufee. Sec. Clepfydra, Coach, Rota Arifio- 
telka. Perpetual Motion- Sec. Mill, Prefs, Vice, Lath, Loom, Windlafs, 
Sec. Operations of Swimming, Diving, Plying, Sec. 



A R C H r- 



The P £ £ F A C R 



fles, antecedent to fitch Intervention of ours" 5 and even purfuc it up to its Caufe, and fhew how it' eftfts 
there, before it be Knowledge : And to trace the Progrefs of the Mind thro' the Whole, and the Order of 
the Modifications induced by it. This is a Dcfideratum, hitherto fcarce attempted ; but which we could nor, 
here decline entering upon, on account of its immediate Relation to the prefent Defign. 'Tis the Bafis of all 
Learning in general ; the great, but obfeure Hinge, on which the whole Encyclopedia turns. 

TO 



16 ARCHITECTURE, including die Conftruftion of B u i l d- 
INGS ; as Houfe, Temple, Church, Hall, Palace, Theatre, Sec. Ship, 
Galley, Galleon, Ark, Buccentaur, Boas, Sec. Pyramid, Alan/oleum, 
Pantheon, Sec. Capitol, Seraglio, Efcurial, Sec. Arch, Vault, Bridge, 
Monument, Tomb, Sec. Forms thereof. Rotondo. Platform, Pinnacle, 
gcc. Plans, Defign, Ichnography, Profile, Sic. Parts, as Foundation, 



lis Zones, Climates, SfCi Its Places ; their Longitude, Latitude, bif 
tanci, Elevation, Sec. Inhabitants, Antipodes, Aborigines, Trmhditest 
Afcii, Perifcii, Sec. lnftruments relating thereto, Globe, Map, Sec. 

jS NAVIGATION, or the Confideration of Sailing ; iri 
Ship, Frigate, Bdrk, Sec. Parts thereof, Mafi, Anchor, Sails, Yards, 



Wall, Roof, Sec. Door, Window, Stairs, Chimney, Sec. Orders, as Cordage, Capjian, Rudder, Deck, Sec. Their Coitrfe, Rhumb, Sec. fhewri 

Tufcan, Doric, Corinthian, Sec. Caryatides, Rufiic, Gothic, Sec. Co- by Cempafs, Needle, Variation, Sec. Dire&ed by Steerage, Current, 

tunin, Pilafier, Attic, Sec, Parts thereof, Entablature, Capital, Pe- Sec, Didance or Reckoning, by Log, Obfervation, Longitude, Lat'i- 

defial, Sec. Cornice, Frieze, Bafe, Sec. Volute, Pediment, Modillion, tude, Sec. Taken by Fore-Jlaf. Back-fiaf, Ajlrolabe, Nocturnal. S't- 

Confole, Sec. Mouldings, Ogee, Tore, Afiragal, Scotia. Abacus, nical Quadrant, Sec. Wrought by Gunter, Chart, Mercator, Tra- 

Gvolo, Sec. Materials, as Brick, Stone, Tyle, Slate, Shingle, Sec. verfc, Sec. The Operations of Sounding, Weighing, Careening. Sig- 

Timber, Wainfcot, Glafs, Lead, Plafier, Sec. Beam, Rafter, Mortar, rials, Buoy, Sec. 



Nail, Hinge, Key, Lock, Sec. Quarry, Mafonry, Sic. 

*7 SCULPTURE, or the framing of Statue, Figure, Orna- 
ment, Sec. in Relievo, Creux, Sec. as Carving, Pottery, Porcelain, 
Sec. Engraving, Seal, Dye, Sec. Etching, Cutting. Mezzo Unto, 
&c. Foundery, of Bell, Letter, Ordnance, Sec. Coining, Money, 
Medal, Medallion, Sec. Pile, Legend, Sec. Lapidary, Turnery, Inlaying, 
Vaneerlng, Damafqueening, Enchajing, Sec, 

1 TRADES and MANUFACTURES; as Printing, Paper- 



37 COMMERCE, or the Affairs of Merchandize, in- 
cluding, Money, Coin, Species Sec. as Pound, Cro-ivn, Shilling, Penny, 
Sterling. Ducat, Dollar, Piece of Eight, lalent, Seflcrce, Shekel, and the* 
like. Weights, Libra, Ounce, Sec. Meafures, Foot, Yard, Standard, 
Sec. Given in Exchange, Truck, Permutation, Commutation, Sec, foe 
Manufatiurc, Spice, Drug, Woollen, slave. Negro, Sec. hnperted, Expor- 
ted, Tranfponed, Convoy , Flota,Sec. Conditions thereof, Tarijf Contra- 
band, Charter-party, Freight, Average, Sec, Cufioms, Duty, Tunnage, 
Poundage, Sec. Bottcmry, Ajfiirance, Pike, Sec. Tranfactcd by Corn- 
making, Book-binding, Sec. Gilding, Japanning, Glafs-making Grind- pany ; as Hans, Steel-yard, Eafi India, Tiirky, Hamburg, M'ififippt, 



tng. Sec. Plumbery, Glaziery, Forging, Hammering, Sec. Weaving, 
Bleaching, Whitening, Sec. Fulling, Dying, Prejfing, Sheering. Calen- 
dring, Taby'mg, Freezing, Sec. Woollen, Silk, Linum Incombufiibile, Sec. 
Cloth, Serge, Tajfety, Stocking, Sec. Velvet, Tapifiry, Hat, Sec. Tan- 
ning, Currying, Taking, Sec. Chamoifing, Chagreen, Marroquin, Sec. 
Making Parchment, Glue, Gun-ponder, Smalt, Soap, Starch, Sec. 
Candle, Taper, Torch, Sec. Steel, Button, Pin, Needle, Pipe, Fan, Pe- 
ruke, Sec. 

*9 PYROTECHNY, or Artificial Fir E-fcfW; ; including the 
Confideration and Ufe of Gun-pouder, Match, Fttfee, Sec. Of Ord- 
nance, Cannon, Gun, Mortar, Sec. Carriage, Charge, ProjecTwn, Range, 
Point-blank, Recoil, Sec. Petard, Carcafs, Shot, Bomb, Granado, Sec. 
Rocket, Star, Sec. 

3° MILITARY Art, including the Confideration of Ar- 
mies, Fleets, Cavalry, Infantry, Sec. Confiding of Regiments, 
Troops, Companies, Phalanx, Legion, Sec. Soldiers, Dragoon, Grena- 
dier, Fufileer, Cuiraffier, Archer, Janifary, Spahi, Velites, Argyrafpi- 
des, Gend'armery, Sec. Divided into Squadron, Battalion, Brigade, 
Sec. Commanded by General, Marflml, Bafiiaw, Admiral, Sec, 



South Sea, Ajfiento, Reg'ifier. Colony, Fifiiery, Faihry, Sec. At Sta- 
ple, Fair, Market, Bank, Burfe, Sec. By Ccmmitfion, Paclor, Broker, 
Sec. Weighing, paying by bill ; at Ufance, Acceptance, Par. Pro- 
tefi, Difcount, Rechange, Sec. Aclion, Subfcription. Bookkeeping, 
Sec. 

38 ANATOMY, or the Analyfis of Animal Bodies, and 
their Parts, viz. Bones, as Cranium. Rib, Vertebra, Radius, Fe- 
mur, Tibia. Sacrum, Pubis, Patella, Sec. Their Articulation, Apophyfes, 
Sec. Mufcles, Abdnihr, Adductor, Ereclor, Deprepr, Deltoules, Sar- 
torius, Cucullaris, Orbicularis, Sphinc'ter, Sec. Their 'tendons, Fibres, 
Sec. Veilels, as Artery, Aorta, Afpera, Trachea, Pulmonary, Sec. 
Veins, as Cava, Porta, Jugular, Carotid, Sec. Gla?lds, as Pancreas, 
Parotides, Profiates, Sec. Nerves; Optic, Olfaiiory, Auditory, Sec. 
Lymphatic, Lac'leal, Mefaraic, Mucilaginous, Sic. Their Valves, Tu- 
nics, Anaflomafes, Sec. Their Humours, as Chyle, Blood, Spirit, Seed, 
Gall t Urine, Milk, Sweat, Marrow, Sec. Membranes ; Pannicle, Cu- 
tis, Cuticula, Papilla, Sec. Venters, Head, Meninges, Brain, Sec. 
Eye, Far, Pupil, Tympanum. Tongue, Teeth, Palate, Larynx, Glot- 
tis, Oefophagus, Sec. Vifcera, Stomach, Lungs, Heart, Sec. Liver, 
Spleen, Kidney, Intefiines, Bladder, Sec. Functions or Operations 



Lieutenant, Brigadier, Colonel, Captain, Serjeant, Major, Adjutant, hereof, Refpiration, Deglutition, Digeftion, Chylification, Sanguification, 



Enfign, ^uarier-Mafier. Tribune, Centurion, Primipilus, Sec. In 
Battle, Siege, March, Camp, Sec. Ranged in Line, Column, Sec. Mo- 
tions, Attack, Retreat, Halt, Sec. Evolutions, Wheeling, Counter- 
wheeling, Sec. Signals, Word, Drum, Chamade, Sec. Guards, Gari~ 
fan, Piquet, Patroll, Round, garter, Place of Arms, Sec. Standard, 
Banner, Eagle, Labarum, Sec. Their Arms, Artillery, Carabine, Mufi 
quel, Sec. Helmet, Buckler, Pelt a, Cuirafs, Sec. Aries, Balifia, Cata- 
puita, Fundus, Sec. 

3 1 FORTIFICATION, or the Conftruaion of For- 
tresses; as Citadel, Cafile, Tower, Sec. Fort, Star, Redoubt, 
Sec. Works, or Parts thereof, Rampart, Bafiion, Ditch, Crunier- 
fcarp, Curtain, Sec. Ravelin, Horn-work, Crown-work, Sec. Ap- 
proaches, Trench, Sap, Mine, Sec. Line, Parallel, Circumvallation, 
Sec. Battery, Attack, Sec. 

; ASTRONOMY, or the Doftrme of the He A 



Circulation, Syftole, Nutrition. Secretion, Excretion, Perforation, Vo- 
miting, Sec. Genitals, Penis, Tefticle, Clitoris, Matrix, Nympha, Hy- 
men. Embryo, Zoophyte, Mole, Sec. Erection, Generation, Conception, 
Geflation. Delivery, Lochia, Menfes, Sec. 

J9 MEDICINE, including the Confideration of Life and 
Health; Conditions thereof, Longevity, Strength, Temperament, 
Sec. Means, as Food, Drink, Exercife, Sec. Oppofites, as Death, 
Difeafe, Sec. Kinds hereof, Chronic, Epidemic, Contagious, Sec, as 
Plague, Fever, Gout, Apoplexy, EpiUpfy, Palfy. Pox, Polypus, Palpi- 
tation. Madnefs, Hydrophobia, S?afm, Hypochondriac- Phthifis, Scor- 
butus, Dropfy, Tympanites. Lepra, Itch, Plica, Ophthalmia, Gutta t 
Cataract, and the like. Wound, Vlcer, Cancer. Erasure, Fifjure, 
Caries, and the like. Symptoms, Sign, Diagnojlk, Pulfe, Urine, Sec. 
Prefcription, Crifis, Cure, Sec. Regimen, Diet, Medicine, Sec. Kinds 
hereof, Specific, Purgative, Emetic, Diaphoretic, Diuretic, Alterative, Styp- 
tic, Afiringent, Emollient, Opiate. Abforbent, Caitfiic, Anodyne, Sympathe- 



Their Circles, Ecliptic, Zodiack, Meridian, Equator, Vertical, Azi- tic. Cardiac, Cephalic, Febrifuge. Antimonial, Chalybeat, Mercurial, 



muth. Galaxy, Sec. Points, as Pole, Zenith, Nadir, Sec. Celeftial 
Bodies, viz. Stars, Sun,Sec. A flcmblage thereof, into Sign, Confiella- 
tion, Sec. Their Precelfion, Culmination, Refratlion. Declination, 
Afcenfton, Longitude, Latitude, Altitude, Amplitude, Azimuth. Pla- 
nets, as Saturn, Venus, Earth. Moon, Satellite, Comet, Sec. Their 
Places, AfpeSis, Syzygy, Conjunction, Quadrature. Diameter, D'tftance, 
Period, Revolution, Orbit, Node, Sec. Their Station, Retrogradation, 
Equation, Sec. Their Phafes, Eclipfe, Penumbra., Occupation, Paral- 



and the like. Operations, as Evacuation, Phlebotomy, S'tture, Litho- 
tomy, Amputation, Inoculation. Salivation, Couching, Cupping, Tre- 
panning. Touching, Tapping, Stroking, Transfufion, Cafiration, Circum- 
cifion, and the like. 

40 PHARMACY, or the Preparation and Compofithn of Re-, 
M E d 1 e s ; as Muhridate, Treacle, Hiera Picra, Laudanum, Diafenna, 
Turbith, Calomel, Sec. in the Form of Electuary, Confeblion, Extras!, 



lax, Crepufadum, MacuU, Sec. Obfervations thereof, taken with the TinHure, Syrup. Troche, Pill, Pouder, Lohoc, Potion, Apazem, 



Quadrant, Gnomon, Micrometer, Reticula, Sec. Collected in Cata- 
logue, Tables, Sec. Hyporhcfes, or Syftems thereof, Copern'ican, Ty- 
chonic, Ptolemaic, Sec, Exhibited in Sphere, Globe, Sec. 

33 C H R O N O L O G Y, or the Doftrine of T i M e ; meafur'd 
by Year, Month, Week, Day, Hour. Age, Period, Cycle, Sec. Com- 
mencing from Epocha, Creation, Hegira, Sec. Laid down in Fdfti, 
Almanack, Calendar, Julian, Gregorian, Sec. Accommodated to 
Feafis, Peru, Eafier, Sec. by means of Epail, Golden Number, Do- 
minical, Sec. 



medicated Ales, Wines, Waters. Unguent, Emplafier, Purge, Clyfler, 
S-ippofitory, Peffary, Collyrium, Sec. From Drugs, or Simples ; as, 
Guaiacum, Sajfafras, Colocynthis, Crocus, Rhubarb, Cajp.a, Senna, Cor- 
tex, Styrax, Jalap, Scammony, Opium, Sec. Fats, Claws, Horns,Scc. 
of Viper, Crab, Elk, Sec. Cantharides, Millepedes, Mummy, Ufnea, 
Ichthyocolla, Sec. Antimony, Orpiment, Afphaltus i Bifmuth, Marca- 
fite, Bole, Cinnabar, Mars, Venus, Sec. 

41 AGRICULTURE, or the Tillage and Improvement of 

Soils, Clay, Sand, Earth, Sec. By the Operations of Ploughing, 

Fallowing, burning, Sembradore, Sowing, Manuring, Sec. To pro-. 

34 DIALLING, including the Furniture and Projection of Di- duce, Com, Hemp, Flax, Liquorice, Safron, Sec. For Malt, Bread, 

als, Horizontal, Declining, Reclining, Deinclining, Sec. Moon-Dial, Sec. Granary, Threfhing, Sec. The Culture of Trees, Timber, Sec. 

King-Dial, HsrodicTtcal, Sec. lnftruments, as Declinator, Analemma, by Planting, Lopping, Barking, Sec. For Ccpphe, Park, Paddock, 

Scales, Sec. Hedge, Pafiure, Sec. 

Js GEOGRAPHY, including the Doftrine of the Earth, or 4a GARDENING, including the Culture of H E r b s, Flow- 

GtOEE: ir s circles; Parallel, Tropic, Horizon^ Axis t Poles, Sec. ers, Fruits, Sec* as Dwarf, Standard, Stone, Wall, Efpalier, Salted, Sec. 

b Th* 



vi The 9 R E V A E. 

TO be a little more explicit---^/; are the next Matter of Knowledge ; I mean of Knowledge conHderd 
aS it now ftands, communicable, or capable of being tranlmitted from one to another We fhould have known ma- 
ny Things without Language ; but it would only have been fuch Things as we had Teen or perceived our felves 
The Observations of others could no way have been added to our own ; but every Individual muff have gone thro 
a Courle for himfelf, exclufiveof all Advantages to, or from Cotemporaries, Predecefibrs, orPoftenty,-- Tis evi- 
dent that, in this Cafe, nothing like an Art, or Same- could ever have arofe ; not even in the Mind of the moll 
fegacious Obferver : The little Syftem of Things which come immediate y in one Mans way, won d but have 
afforded a Mender Stock of Knowledge ; efpecially to a Being wnole Views were all to terminate m tomfelf. 
Add tint as the chief Occafions of his Obfervation would be ot the fame kind with thofe of other Animals ; tis 
probable his Knowledge would not have been very di.ferent whether we confider its Quantity or Quality. 
'Tis confefs'd that all our Knowledge, in its Origin, is no other than Senfe -, whence it fhould follow that 
one Beino- has no natural Advantage over another in its Diipohtion for Knowledge, other than what it has in 
the fuperior Number, Extent, or Acutenefs of its Senfes. 

'T IS in eft'eft to Language that we are chiefly indebted for what we call Science. By means hereof our 
Ideas and Notices' tho things in their own nature merely perfonal, and adapted only to private ufe ; are 
extended to others' to improve their ftock : and thus, by a kind of fecond Senfe, we get Perceptions of the 
Objefls that are perceived by all Mankind ; and are prefent, as it were by proxy, to things at all Diitances 
from us- We hear Sounds made a thoufand Years ago, and fee Things that pafs a thouland Miles off. If 
the Eairle really fees, the Raven fmells, and the Hare hears, further and better than Man ; their Senfe, at 
beft is" but narrow, in comparifon of ours, which is extended, by the Artifice of Language, over the whole 
Globe They fee with their own Eyes only ; we with thofe of the whole Species.— -In efteO, by Language 
we are upon much the fame footing, in refpeft of Knowledge, as if each individual had the natural Senfe of 
a thoufand • an Acceffion which alone mult have fet us far above any other Animals. But at the fame time, 
this very acceffion of a multitude of Ideas more than naturally belong'd to us, muft have been in great 
meafure ufelefs ; without certain other Faculties of ordering and arranging em ; of abftracting, or mak.ng_ 
one a Reprefentative of a Number ; of comparing 'em together, m order to learn their Relations ; and of 
compounding, combining 'em, &c. to make 'em a& jointly. The Effect hereof is what we call Dijcourfmg 
and Pbilofophmm : And hence arife Docfrines, Theories, &c. 

EVERY Word is fuppofed to ftand for fome Part, or Point of Knowledge ; fuch as do not, have no 
bufinTs in the Language, and ought of Confequence to be thrown out of doors. It follows, that the Vo- 
cabulary of any Language, is reprefentative of the feveral Notices of the People among whom it obtains: 
I mean of the primary or abfolute Notices ; for by the Conftruflion ot thefe Words with one another, a 
new Set of fecundary or relative Notices are exprefs'd.--To enter better into this, it is to be obferv'd, that 
the feveral Obiefls of our Senfes, with that other Set of Things analogous hereto, the proper Objects ot the 
Imagination, are reprefented by fixed Names * ; denoting, fome of 'em, Individuals t ; others Kinds J, tiff. 
Now thefe which make the firft or fundamental Part ot a Language, tis obvious, are no other than a Re- 
prefentation' of the Works of Nature, as, they exift in a kind ot foil Life, or in a State of Independency 
one upon anorher But in regard we do not confider the Creation as thus quielcent, but obferve a great 
number of Mutations arife in the Things we are converfant among; we are hence put under a neceffity of 
framing another Set of Words, to exprefs thefe Variations, and the Aaions to which they are owing, with 
the feveral Circumftances and Modifications thereof ||. By this means, Nature is remov'd out of her dormant 
Conftitution, and fh wn in Aftion ; and thus may occafional Defcnptions be framed, accommodate to the 
prefent State of Things. . 

HENCE arife two Kinds of Knowledge ; the one abjolute, including the Handing Phenomena: the other 
relative, or occafional, including what is done, or paffes, with regard to them. The former is in fome Senfe 
permanent ; the latter merely tranfient, or hiftorical. The firft is held forth, as already oblerved, in the Voca- 
bulary • the f-cond vague, and uncircumfcrib'd by any Bounds ; being what fills all the other Books extant. 
In effect, this laft, being in tome meafure cafual, may be faid to be infinite : for that every new Cafe, 
i. e. every new Application and Combination of the former, furnifhes a new Acceffion. 

IN the wide Field of Knowledge, appear fome Parts which have been more. cultivated than the reft ; either 
on account of the Goodntfs of the Soil, and its eafy Tillage, or by reafon they have fallen under the Hands 
of induftrious and able Husbandmen. Thefe Spots, being regularly laid out and planted, and conveniently 
circumfcrib'd or fenced round, make what we call the Arts, and Sciences : And to thefe have the Labours, and 
Endeavours of the Men of Curiofity and Learning in all Ages, been chiefly confin'd. Their Bounds have 
been enlarg'd from time to time, and new Acquifuions made from the adjoining Watte ; but ftill the Space 

The Operations of Planting, Tranfplanting, Replanting, Watering. « RHETORIC, ot the Means of Persuasion; as 

Engrafting Inoculating, Primal, Pinching, Variegating, 6cc. Pre- Invention, Amplification, Topic, Place, Argument. Papons, Manners, 

Tenting Difiafis, Blights, Gum, "sec. The Ufe and Ordering of a &c. Difpofition, Exordium, Narration, Confirmation, Peroration, 

Hot-bell Gree'n-houfe, Seminary. Nurfery, Garden, Vineyard, Sec. Their 6cc. Elocution, Sublime, Style, Numbers, Sec. figures, as Excla- 

Expofiire, Walls, Horizontal Shelter, Sec. V, alks, Grafs-Plot, Terrace, nation, Pleonafm, Eptphonema, Apojlropue, Profopopceia, Antithefis, Sec. 

Quincunx, Parterre &c. Tropes, as Metaphor, Allegory, Synecdoche, Sarcafm, Hyperbole, Ca- 

*^- ' tachrefis, Sec. A£tion, Gefiure, Monotonia, Sec. Compofitions, as 

« MANAGE, including the Consideration of Horses; Oration, Declamation, Panegyric, Sec. Parable, EJfay, Dialogue, Htf- 

tlieir Age Colour, Teeth, Hoof, Star, Sec. Paces, as Amble, Gallop, tory, Sec. 
Sec. Airs, as Volt, Demivolt, Curvet, Capriole, Sec. Aid, Cor- 

rettion, Hani, Bit, Sec. Saddle, Shoe, Bridle, Sec. Difeafes, as * 6 HERALDRY, or the ConEderation of Co a t s ; confift. 

Halting, Farcy, Staggers, Scratches, relievos, 8cc. Operations, as ing of Pield, Charge, Figure, Sec. as Crofs, Chevron, Bend, Palo, Sec. 

Rciuelting, Dotting, Gelding, &c Hawk, Hawking, Hood, Sec. with Abatement, Difference, Su mrler ;„g, & c . Compofed of Colour, 

Reclaiming, Cafling, Sec. Pip, Filanders, Sec. Hound, Hunting, Metals, Points, Sec. Bore on Efcutcbeon, shield, Sec. Accompanied 

Sec. Rut,' Stalking, Birdlime, Tramel-net, Bat-fowling, Sec with Supporters, Helmet, Crefl, Mantling, Moll; Sec. Device, Em- 

Filh Fiflnng, Fifhery, Sec. Angling, Hook, Rod, Float, Sec. Bait, blem, Rebus, Enigma, Sec. And defcribed by Blaz.cn. 

Fy, uxmg, . ^ POETRY, including the Confideration of Veise; its 

44 GRAMMAR, or the Confideration of Language; as Meafure-. Feet, Quantity, Sec. as Hexameter, Alexandrine, Spondee, 

Enelifh Latin Greek, Hebrew, French, Sec. Their Dialed, Idiom, Iambic. Sec. Rhyme, Stanza, Sec. Compositions, as Epigram, Ele- 

Patavinity Sec. Matter thereof, Letter ; Vowel, Confonant, Diphthong, gy. Song, Madmal, Hymn, Ode, Pindaric, Sec. Eclogue, Satire, 

Afpirate Character, Symbol, Hieroglyphic, Sec. Syllable, Particle, Sec. Georgie, Sec. Anagram, Acroflic, Burlefque, Macaronic, Leonine, 

Word ■' Kinds hereof, Noun, Pronoun, Verb, Sec. Subftantive, Ad- Troubadour, Sec. Dramatic, as Tragedy. Comedy, Hilaro-tragedia, 

ieclive', Sec. Their Conflrutfion, Concord, Regimen, Sec. In Cafe, No- Farce, Sec. Parts thereof, AS, Scene, Protafis, Epitafts, Cataflrophe, 

minative Genitive, Sec. Gender, Mafctdine, Sec. Number, Perfon, Mood, Sec. Circumftances, Prologue, Epilogue, Soliloquy, Chorus, Sec. Laws, 

Tenfe, Sec. Into 'sentence, Phrafe, Period, Sec. Diftinguiih'd by Point, Unity, Aclion, Sec. Epic, its Fable, Hero, Machines, Sec. CharaC' 

Accent, Comma, S:c. Deliver'd by Pronunciation, Writing, Orthogra- ters, Manners, Sentiments, Sec. Perfonification, Proportion, Invocation, 



gec, Epifode, Sec. Mad, Odyffee, Rhapfody, Sec. 

Nouns. J Proper Names. $ Apptllativts. \\ Verbs, Participles, Adverbs, Sec. 



Of 



The p k I F A c $ vii 

bf Ground they poffefs is but narrow ; and there is room either to extend 'em vaftly, or to lay Out new ones. 
Thev mew like the Cyclades at a diftance : Apparent rari nanies in Gurgite vafto. 

THEY were divided, or canton'd out by their Jfirft Dii'coverers, into a number of Provinces, under di- 
ftinct Names ; and have thus remain'd for time immemorial, with little Alteration. And yet this Diftributiori 
of the Land of Science, like that of the Face of the Earth or Heavens, is wholly arbitrary and occa- 
sional ; and mi^ht eafily be broke thro', and alter'd, and perhaps not without advantage. Had not Alexander 
and C/zfiir liv'd, the Divifion of the Globe had doubtlefs been very different from what we now find it ; and 
the Cafe would have been the fame with the World of Learning, had no fuch Perfon been born as Arijlule. 
The firft Divifions of Knowledge were as fcanty and ill concerted as thofe of the firft Geographers ; and for the 
like Reafon : And tho future Columbia's and Baca's, by opening new Tracts, have carried our Knowledge 
a oreat way further •, yet the Regard we bear to the antient Adventurers, and the eftablifhed Diyifion; has 
made us take up with it, under all its Inconveniencies, and ftrain and ftretch things, to make our Difcoveries 
quadrate thereto. I do not know whether it might not be more for the general Intereft of Learning, to 
have all the Inclofures and Partitions thrown down, and the whole laid in common again, under one undif- 
tinmrilh'd Name. Our Inquiries, in fuch cafe, would not be confin'd to fo narrow a Channel ; but we mould 
be°led to explore, and purfue many a rich Mine and Vein, now doom'd to lie neglected, becaufe out or the 

ART and Science are indeed two Words of familiar Ufe, and great importance ; but, I doubt little un- 
derftood. The Philofophers have long labour'd to explain and afcertain their Notion and Difference ; but all 
their Explanation amounts to little more than the fubftituting one obfcure Notion for another. Their At- 
tempts ufually terminate in fome barren Definition, which rather cafts Obfcurity than Light on the Subject 
Nor is the Reafon far to feek, however it may have efcap'd Notice ; but evidently lies in an Abufe of Lan- 
oua"e, whereby thofe differen.t Words come to be applied to Things of the fame. Nature ; and each of 'em 
m their turn to Things wholly different. Whence, any Definition that can hold of 'em univerfally, muff needs 
be very abftracted, and general ; and may hold of almoft any thing elfe ; and of confequence can _ exprefs 
very little of the Effence, and obvious Phenomena thereof : To come at which, we muft be at the Pains ot a 
new Inveftigation. . . - 

TO SCIENCE, then, belong fuch Things as Men may difcover by the ufe of Reafomng, and Senle : 
Whatever the Mind defcries in virtue of that Faculty whereby we perceive Things, and their Relations, is matter 
of Science : Such are the Laws of Nature, the Affeaions of Bodies, the Rules and Canons of Right and 
Wrono- Truth and Error, the Properties of Lines and Numbers, &c. Science, in effect, is the Refult of mere 
Reafon' and Senfe in their general or natural State, as imparted to all Men ; and not modifi d, or circumftan- 
tiated by any thing peculiar in the Make of a Man's Mind, the Objeas he has been converf>nt among, or 
the Ideas he has prefent to him. Confequently, Science is no other than a Series of Deductions, or Cdnclu- 
fions which every Perfon, endued with thofe Faculties, muft, with a proper degree of Attention, i.e, na/ 
and draw : And A Scienc e, i. e. a form'd Science, is no more than a Syftem of fuch Conclufions, i la- 
ting to fome one Subject, orderly and artfully laid down in Words, to five Others the Laboui and E.ipence 
of Dnakinp 'em at firft hand. Thus a Perfon who has all the Ideas exprefs'd in Euclid's Definitions, and 
fees the immediate Connexion of thofe in his Axioms ; which no Man acquainted with the Language car be 
fuppofed without ; has it in his Power, with Attention and Induftry, to form all the Theorems and Problems 
that follow : He has nothing to do but to range thofe Ideas orderly in his Mind, compare 'em togetiier, one 
by one in all their Changes, and put down the immediate Relations obferv'd in the Comparifon, ,. e. their 
parity 'imparity, &c. And after the Relations of each to each are thus got ; which make a kind of primary 
Propbhtions ; to proceed to combine 'em, and take down the Relations refulting from a Comparifon of 
feveral Combinations. By fuch means, without any other Helps than Penetration and Perfeverance, might 
he make out an infinite Number of Propofitions : more by half than Euclid has done ; there being a neW 
Relation i. e. a new Proportion, refulting from every new Combination. 

TO ARi on the other hand, belong fuch Things as mere general Reafon would not have attained to: 
Things which 'lie out of the direct Path of Deduction, and which required a peculiar Caft, or Byafs of Mind 
to fee or arrive at. A Man might call thefe the Remits of particular, or perfonal Reafon, in oppoBtion to 
the former ; but that fuch a Denomination would be thought unphilofophical. It may, perhaps, be more 
iuft to confider the Reafon, here, as modified, or tinctured with fomething in the Complexion, Humour, or 
Manner of thinking of the Perfon* ; or as reftrain'd or diverted, out of its proper courfe, by fome Views, or 
Notices peculiar to him. — The Difference between Art and Science, amounts to much the fame as between 
Wit and Humour ; the former whereof is a general Faculty of exciting agreeable and furprizing Pictures in the. 
Imagination t, by the affociating of Ideas, which at the fame time have both a notable Diverfity and a Con- 
fruity ; and the latter, a particular one : The former is pure and abfolute in its kind ; the latter tinged with 
fomething foreign and complexional. . . 

'T I S effential to Art, therefore, as to Humour, to partake of the Perfon from whom it proceeded ; and 
confequently there are as many Arts, as Inventors of Methods of performing, or doing things. Henc, there 
is no coming at an Art, otherwife than by learning it. A Perfon left to his own Thought, will fcarce 
ever hit on the fame thing, unlefs either we fuppofe a marvellous Agreement between the Characters and Cir- 
cumftances of the Perfons ;°or that the Art is in great meafure fcientifical, and partakes but little of the G:mus 

and Humour of the Inventor. There is no fuch thing, properly fpeaking, as ftudying an An or learning a 

Science : The firft, every Man befide the Inventor muft be taught ; the latter, every Man mull .'.id. In 'ffect, 
to attain to an Art, there is fome previous Knowledge requir'd, which a Man's own Reafon would never nave 
fu^o-efted i whereas a Science requires no more than clear Ideas, and clofe Attention. With thefe H-lps a Man 
maf of himfelf go the whole length of a Science, fo far as it is properly a Science. Indeed if the Impro^ 
vers, or rather Writers thereof, have gone a jot out of the common way, in compliance with their own perional 
Views ; they have fo far adulterated the Science, and put it on the footing of an Art. And to tins very 
Caufe are owing a great part of the Difficulties we meet withal in attaining the Sciences: The reft art ; from 
want of Senfe, i. e. of Clearncfs and Precifion in our Perceptions, and want of Perfeverance and Attention to 
'em. Thefe render Geometry it-felf, little other than an Art : We want Preliminaries to it as to otner ArtSj 
And thus every Science is an Art to fome People, and only to be attained, as we do mechanic Arts, by 

Habit, and Remembrance; inftead of Contemplation and Deduftion. Reafon, clogg'd and embaralsd by 

Genius and Complexion, can no more rife to the heights of Science, than when pure and refin'd, it can deicend 
to the depths of Art. 

S Vd. Boffu, Traite du Poeme Epicjiie, U c. i. } Locke, m Hum. Vnderfland. lih. ii. c. u. 

AN 



yiii The 9 R E F A C & 

AN Art and a Science, therefore, only differ as lefs and more pure: A Science is a Syftem of Deductions 
tnade by Reafon alone, undetermin'd by any thing foreign or extrinfic to it-felf : An Art, on the contrary, requirrs 
a number of Data and Poftulata to be furnilri'd from without, and never goes any length, but at every turn 
it needs new ones. 'Tis the Knowledge or Perception of thefe Data that in one Senfe conftitutes the Art ; 
the reft that is, the dodrinal Part, is of the nature of Science ; which attentive Reafon alone will defcry. 

AN Art, in this light, appears to be a Portion of Science, or general Knowledge, confider'd, not in it-felf, 
as Science but with relation to its Circumftances, or Appendages. In a Science, the Mind looks directly back- 
wards and forwards, to the Premifes and Conclufions : in an Art we alio look laterally, to the concomitant Cir- 
cumftances. A Science, in effed, is that to an Art, which a Stream running in a dired Channel, without regard 
to any thinw but it-felf and its own progrefs ; is to the fame Stream turn'd out of its proper Courfe, and running 
in a different one difpos'd into Cafcades, Jets, Cifterns, Ponds, &c. and ferving to water Gardens, 
turn Mills" and other particular Purpofes. In which cafe, the Progrefs of the Stream is not confidered with 
regard to i't-felf, but only as it concerns the Circumftances of the Works : every one of thefe Works, nay each 
part thereof, are fo many Data, which modify the Courfe of the Stream, and vary it from its original Habitude. 
'Tis eafy to trace the Progrefs of the former, from its Rife to its Mile ; in regard it flows confequenthlly : But 
a Man ever fo well acquainted with this, will never be able, of himfclf, to difcover that of the Second, for want 
of Acquaintance with the Circumftances, which his Reafon can never find out, in regard they depend on the 
Genius, Humour and Caprice of the Engineer who laid the Defign. 

THESE are fo many different Characters, or Conditions of Art and Science : But diere is a Difference 
between 'em prior to any of thefe, and of which thefe are only Confequenccs. The Origin of 'em all lies 
higher, in the Principle of Adion or Operation above fpecified ; namely, as the Miad is either adive or 
paffive therein. With regard to this ; thofe Things may be faid to belong to Science "which we only fee, or 
perceive ; which flow from the Nature and Conftitution of Things, by the idle Agency offthe Author thereof ; 
fubfervient only to His general Purpofes, exclufive of any immediate Agency or Intervention of Ours : And, on 
the contrary, thofe Things belong to Art, wherein fuch Science or Perception is further modified and circumftan- 

tiated in our Mind, and direded and applied by us, to particular Purpofes and Oc.cafions of our own. From 

hence arife the fevcral Differences abovemention'd : For the Matters of Art are only Perfonal, as they are 
according to the Meafure of the Artift's natural Faculties, in refped of Quantity and Degree ; and to the 
Complexion and Caft of his moral Faculties, in refped of their Quality. The Perception, even of Matters of 
Art, is of the Nature of Science : fo that thus far the two agree : And their Difference only commences from 
the fuperinducing a further Modification, in the Matter of fuch Perception ; and the giving it a new Diredion 
to fome particular End. By means hereof, it becomes invefted with a new Set of Conditions and Circum- 
ftances, wholly perfonal ; as being all framed and adapted to the particular View and Aim of the Artift, (which 
is the mere Refult of his particular Difpofition, Humour, Manner of thinking, Situation, Occafion, CSV.) and 
conduded according to his particular degree of Knowledge, and Addrefs ; which is the Effed of a particular 
Set of Objeds, and a particular Organifm of Body. In a word, in Art there is a moral View or Modve 
fuperadded to the natural Science, or Perception ; which Motive is the proper Principle, or primum Mobile of 
Art : Perception is its Matter ; and fome Member of the Body its Organ or Inftrument. And from fuch 
new Principle, &c. arife a new Set of fecundary Perceptions, analogous to the natural and primary ones. The 
whole, therefore, ends in this, That Science arifes from a natural Principle, Art from a moral one ; or even, 
as moral Matters are alfo in one Senfe natural, Science may be faid to be of divine Original ; Art, of 
human. 

FROM this View may appear the deficiency of that eftablifhed Definition of ' Art ; An eft habitus mentis cum 
reSa ratione operativus ; A habit of the Mind operative according to right Reafon : which is evidently 
taken from a partial Consideration of the Subjed. If it be the Cliarader or Condition of Art to proceed 
according to right Reafon ; then, the more and purer this Reafon, the more perfed the Art. But, in a great 
part of the Arts, Reafon appears to have very little to do -, and the lefs, as thofe Arts are in greater Purity 

and Perfedion Thus it is in Poetry ; a Man that would undertake an Ode, or an Epic Poem on the 

ftrength of his Reafon, would be miferably out : All his Efforts would never carry him above the humble 
Sphere of Verification, where he muft be contented to wait for an Impulfe of another kind. So far is Reafon 
from leading the way, that it can fcarce follow at a diftance, fo as to keep in fight. The Principle of Mo- 
tion is evidently fomething other than Reafon ; otherwife, the greateft Philofophers would be the beft Poets, 
and vice versa. On the contrary, moft of us know of People very weak in Reafon, who yet are powerful in 
Poetry : The Poetical Talent we have feen follow fome People to Bedlam, others it has conveyed thither ; and, which 
is ftill more, fome People have firft found it there. Poetry is found an Appendage of one kind of Lunacy, 
and accordingly pafles among Phyficians for a Symptom thereof ; nor is it to be queftion'd, but, upon a Computa- 
tion, Moorfields might number double the Poets with any other Spot of the like Dimenfions in the Kingdom. — Let 
not this pafs as any Refledion upon the Poets : A Spice of Madnefs is not fo unreputable a thing as fome 
imagine; and a Man that is feated on that Bench, finds himfelf in the beft Company in theWoild. Some 
of the greateft Philofophers, Poets, Prophets, and Legislators ; I might have faid Divines, Fathers, and Afce- 
ticks too, of all Ages, are confeffedly his Affeffors. 'Tis remarkable with what Refped and Awe the Antients 
treated People fufpeded to be touch'd : The very Names they call'd 'em by import the utmoft Veneration, 
and place 'em, as it were, at the Threfhold of Jupiter *. One of their moft common Appellations, Numine afflali, 
is at the fame time the moft juft and philofophical that can be thought of. In effed, a Share of Fury and 
Enthufiafm, is held by them a fine qua non, a Circumftance abfolutely necefiary to become any thing extra- 
ordinary ; and hence fo many Proverbial Expreffions to that Purpofe : " No great Genius fine aliqua mixtura, 
" dementia ; No great Man fine aliquo afjiatu Divino, &c." — We may add, that the Poets themfelves have an 
hundred times exprefly attributed all their greater, and happier Thoughts, to Enthufiafm, Extafy, and Fury ; 
and they do it implicitly almoft in every Piece they write : it being their ftanding Pradice, to take a formal 
leave of Reafon, at firft fetting out, and call a Mufe for their future Guide : which, to talk out of the Poe- 
tical Style, is as much as to fay, They refign themfelves over to the Condud of G.:nius and Imagination, 
which they now find ftrong and prevalent in 'em. Thus infpired, a new Scene of Objeds arifes ; Caftles on 
Caftles : They fee things invifible to other Eyes, that is, the Phenomena of their own Fancy, which exift no 
where elfe. For tho what one Man's Reafon perceives, all others, equally good and perfed, will perceive ; 
even tho it have no Exiftence but what diat Perception gives it : yet it is not fo with Imagination, which is 
a perfonal Thing, arifmg from the particular Difpofition or Organifm, which is different in every t\vb Perfons ; 
whereas Reafon fprings from the general one, which is the fame in the whole Species. — From fuch prevalency 
of the Imagination, arifes what we call Poetry, nO'IEglg, q. d. making, feigning, inventing; which is common 

J ©smiths, uiWMSWt «5asf«»'i Hhvwiti, him J»J»jJii Ecftatici, Phrcncuci, Pythii, Siderii, &c. 

to 



The P R M F A C & 



to all Men in a greater or lefs degree : Philofophers have a little of it, the Poets a great deal, but the Lunaticks 
fcarce any thing elfe. 

IT may look ftrange to fay that the Principle is precifely of the fame kind in 'em all. We are ufed to 
confider it, in the two firft, as Conftitution ; in the latter as Difeafe : In the one 'tis perpetual j in the other only 
occafional : In the one, arbitrary and uncontroulable ; in the other, limited and reftrained. The Barque in 
the one cafe, drives of neceffity, as wanting Cable and Anchor to hold her ; and in the other, fails out of 
choice, as finding die Wind favourable and the Voyage defirable. But all this amounts to little more than a 
difference in Degree, between the Fictions of the Poet and the Lunatic : The moving Principle is the fame 
in both, tho its Effects be various. If die proper Balance and Adjuftment between the Powers of Reafon and 
Imagination be wanting, yet they ftill retain their Nature ; as the Wind is the fame whether the Pilot direct the 
Helm or not. 

SOME People give more ear to Authority than to Reafon: to fuch it may not be amifs to obferve 
that this Doctrine is countenanced by the Antients ; who, in fome refpects, feem to have had clearer and 
jufter Notions than the Moderns ; as being lefs embarafs'd with the Jargon, and Refinements of the fcho- 
laftick Learning. Plnlofophy, with them, was one degree more fimple, and obvious than among us. Nature 
was not yet cover'd and conceal'd under fo much Elucidation, but afforded more frequent and nearer Views of 
her-felf. — Accordingly, the Divine Plato, in his Phadrus, afferts, " That Enthufeafm and Mania are one and the 
" fame thing ;" and has a long, and cogent Difcourfe, to prove that it mult be fo : And among the feveral Spe- 
cies of Enthufiafm, he exprefly ranks Poetry. In effect, Tharmit and Kama,, make two of the principal 
Branches in his Divifion of Enthufiafm, or Infpiration. And Plutarch *, tho he divide Enthufiafm fomewhat 
differently from Plato ; yet clearly agrees with him in making Poetry a Species of it. Nay, the moft referved 
of all the antient Criticks, Longinus, declares, that " the Poet is poffefs'd with a kind of Enthufiafm ; that he 
" believes he really fees what he fpeaks ; and reprefents it fo to others that they catch the Enthufiafm, and 
" fee it hkewife t." Add, that fpeaking of the Orators, he does not fcruple to ufe Waiiu. tfatuant,, as fynony- 
mous with Mwi«. — But this Point will be confider'd more fully hereafter. 

THE Principle then of the Art of Poetry is fomething other than Reafon ; and I know of no Art that has 
more of the Nature and Effence of an Art, than Poetry : Nothing that can fafhion, build, produce things, &c. 

at that rate : Sculpture, Architecture, Agriculture, &c. are Arts, but in a much inferiour Degree. And yet, 

turning another fide of Things forward, Poetry will fcarce appear to have any thing of an Art in it, but rather 
to be all the Work of Nature ; wherein human Thought and Study have the leaft hand. It is produ- 
ced by a Principle fuperiour to that of Reafon, i. e. a more immediate Action of the Author of Nature. — But 
the fame may be faid of moft of the other Arts -, and when we fay that Art produces Effects, we mean Na- 
ture does fo. The Poet's Imagination may be confidered as a Field, wherein the Author of all Things ihews his 
Handy-work, by the Production of a Set of Objeas which exifted not before : New Images arife here, like new 
Plants, according to the fettled Laws of the Creator; fo fruitful is the Womb of Nature ! New Worlds innumerable 
arife out of a Tingle old one. 

THE Fadive Arts, as fome love to call 'em, i. e. thofe from which permanent Effects arife, may be confider'd 
as fo many fecondary or derivative Natures, rais'd by Engraftment from the old Stock, and fpreadin<* or 

projecting out from this, or that part thereof. Here, at firft fight, Man appears fomewhat in quality of 

Creator ; the Potter's power over his Clay has been made a Shadow or Similitude of that of the Deity over 
his Works : and yet the Potter, at beft, is only acceffary or occafional to his own Produftions. Nature, that 
is, the Power or Principle of Action and Motion to which we owe this vifible Frame and all the Appearances 
and Alterations therein, ads by fixed Laws, which neceffarily produce different Effects, according to the dif- 
ferent Circumftances of Things : Thus a glafs Globe being fwifdy revolved about its Axis, and a Hand applied to 
its Surface ; feels hot, emits Light, attracts Bodies, &fc. i. 'e. is a hot, luminous, electrical Body, tho without 
thefe Conditions it has none of thofe Properties. So Gunpowder, otherwife a Mafs of dark, inert, motionlefs 
Matter ; being only touched with a lighted Brand, initantly blazes up, and fmokes, with Noife ; perhaps burfts 
a Rock, or drives a Ball, in a parabolic Direction, and levels a Tower, or other Work. Now, nothing arifes 
here but in confequence of pre-eftablifh'd Laws, which import that the Globe and the Powder, whenever by any 
means they come under thefe or t'other Circumftances, ihall have thefe or t'other Effeds. There are no two 
Bodies in Nature more different than the fame is from it-felf, under the different Circumftances of Contiguity 
or Non-contiguity with this or the other Body, e. g. a Spark of Fire. But both States are equally natu- 
ral ; and in effect there muft be a Law of Nature for the one, as well as the other. — Now the Agency 
of Man amounts to this, that he has it in his power to put Bodies in fuch Circumftances as are neceffary 
to bring 'cm under this or that Law, or to make this or that refpedive Law take effect. And this we call Art ; 
and by this means we can produce a number of things, or bring 'em into act, which otherwife would have 
remained in eternal Non-entity, or barely in Potenlia. Man may be faid to create 'em, but no otherwife 
than the Apothecary creates the Blifter, or the Gardner the Apple ; :'. e. thofe Effects would neceffarily have 
arifen, upon the fame Pofition of the Candiarides and the Cutis, or the Scion and Stock, if there never had 
been Apothecary or Gardner in the World. 

W E may define the Works or Productions of Art, therefore, to be all thofe Phenomena or Effects which 
would not have arofe without the Agency or Intervention of Man. Now Man can only be faid to act or inter- 
vene, fo far as what he does is of his own Source or Principle, without being moved or directed by any efta- 
bhftied Law or Nature, i. e. fo far as he is exempted from the Influences of any neceffary Laws of Nature con- 
curring, however remotely, to fuch Effect. So that if, as fomePhilofophershave maintained, Man were not really and 
truly a free Agent ; there would be no fuch thing as Art, in the Senfe here underftood : but Art would only be 
a name given to that Syftem or Series of Effects, to which Man is made by Nature, and in her hands, fubfervient; 
and might with equal reafon be attributed to fuch Effects as any other natural Production, e. g. a Plant, or Mine- 
ral, is fubfervient. 

_. I7 HAD a not been for rhe infpired Writers, we mould not have known but that the whole Syftem of our 
World is a Production of Art ; the Refult of a new Application of Things made by fome created Being, in 
virtue or confequence of fome pre-eftabli(h'd Laws of the Almighty. Our general Laws of Nature, and Motion, 
might only be particular Cafes of fome more univerfal one ; fpecial Inftances, emerging out of fome more general 
one which it-felf was not perhaps the firft. Thus there might be an infinite Series or Subordination of Syltems 
of Nature, each more univerfal, extenfive, and, as we call it, more metaphyfical, i. e. nearer the Source of 
Power and Action, than other. 

SOMETHING like this, we adually fee in our own litde Syftem: The Mineral World is fubfer- 
Vlent to tne Vegetable ; and this to the Animal. Mineral Matters, under certain Conditions which bring them 
under the Laws of Vegetation, pafs into Plants ; and from particular Applications of Parcels of Plants, Animal 

* In ' EfBT - + nm u«*- 

c Sub- 



x The 9 R E F A C & 

Subftances wife. Under other Circumftances, the fame Matters become fubjeft to other Laws, (i. e. other 
Actions of the Creator, for Laws are no other) and return the way they came ; Animals into Plants, 
and thefe into Minerals. — Nothing can be more fimple and uniform than the whole Difpenfation : A Body 
is only what it is, in virtue of a Law of Nature, i. e. of the Will of the Creator ; and confequendy 'tis 
this alone can alter it. Hence, a piece of Matter, under the different Circumftances of Motion or Reft, 
Contiguity with this or with that "Body, falling in with new Laws ; by the Concurrence and Activity thereof, 
becomes a Means of exhibiting different Phenomena : on occafion whereof we give it a different Denomination, 
and range it under a different Clafs of natural Things : And to the Means whereby thofe Circumftances are deter- 
min'd, we give the Names of Generation, Corruption, Putrefaclion, Fermentation, Vegetation, Animation, Affimilation, 
Accretion, &c. which are all accountable for on the fame Principle. 'Tis no more wonderful, a Fungus, with 
all its Furniture of Flowers, Seed, (3c. mould arife from a Mixture of Earth and Dung ; than to behold 
fo wonderful a Body as Flame, arife from a cafual Collifion of Flint and Steel ; or Air from the mere Diffo- 
lution of a Metal. 

WE fee then, how far Man is concern'd in the Productions or Art. Our Endeavours are contriv'd by 
Nature to 'be Means acceffory to the Law's taking place, from whence the Effects are to arife. We are part 
of the Chain whereby the Effect is connected to the Caufe. The Circumftances are in our Power on which fuch, 
and fuch Laws depend ; and thus far we may be faid to be ASive, in the Cafe of Art : fuppofing that 
there is nothing higher, or further ; and that the Chain ends with us ; in a word, that our Agency is not fub- 
ordinate, but collateral to that of the Almighty. But if there be other fuperior Laws which refpect. thofe fame 
Circumftances, and which are not in our Power, i. e. if the Circumftances neceffary to the former Law, be 
themfelves fuppofed neceffary Laws, and the immediate Work of Nature ; our Agency will dwindle into nothing. 
The utmoft that can be faid of us in fuch cafe, is, That we are Active in refpect of the one, and Paf- 

five in that of the other ; which to moft People may appear a kind of Contradiction. The Statue can't 

be form'd, unlefs our Defire or Inclination concur thereto ; fo far its Exiftence depends on us : But are 
our Defires and Inclinations with refpect thereto of our own growth •, or do they arife naturally, in confequence 
of an Apprehenfion of Good, and Advantage in the Subject ? That is, does any thing appear good and ad- 
vantageous to us abfolutely and of it felf ; or only what the Creator represents to us as fo ? And do we 
defire or purfue this feeming Good, from any Principle or Tendency that is in us, other than what we owe to 
his Laws ? The Difficulty feems to amount to this ; whether between our Faculties of apprehending and 

willing, and their refpeftive Objects, there be any Relation which he did not create or eftablifh ? If any 

alledge, that 'tis fuch Relation conftitutes the Faculty ; and therefore that the Queftion ends in this, Whe- 
ther our Faculties are from God or our felves : i. e. whether they can be the Caufes of themfelves ? I mould 
fufpeft fome Sophifm in the Cafe, which at prefent I have not leifure to detect. 

BUT having traced the Agency of Man thus far, we muft be obliged here to defift ; and from the Fac- 
tive Arts refume the Confideration of the Atli-ve ones ; i. e. pafs from what Art does out of us, to what it 
is in us : or rather, from the Arts whofe Source is fuppofed in our felves, and which proceed outwards ; to 
thofe whofe Source feems without us, and tend inwards : That is, from thofe which arife from our Obfer- 
vation and Reafon, directing us how to minifter Occafions to the Laws which obtain in the external World ; 
to thofe which flow into our Imagination, and furnifh Occafions to the Laws which obtain in the internal 
World, — An Inquiry which may perhaps carry us where the Reader little imagines ; but which will afford an 
ample Difcuffion of the Principle above eftablifh'd ; and a further Might into the Origin and Caufe of Science 
and Art ; and the Nature and Meafure of our Agency and Paffion therein. 

WE have already fpoke fomcthing concerning Poetry ; not for its own fake, but as a proper Inftance to illu- 
ftrate the Nature of Art in. It makes the loweft Article in our Analyfis ; which, in reality, is the higheft in 
the Scale of Art ; there being a fort of progreffive Rifing from the Beginning of the Analyfis to the End. It 
begins with the firft Matter of Knowledge, the common Objects of our Senfcs ; and proceeds thro' the various 
Modifications they undergo by the other Faculties of Imagination and Reafon, till thofe fenfible Objects be- 
come fo much our own, are fo affimilated to us, and as it were humaniz'd ; that they are part of our felves, 
and obey and take Directions from our Will, and minifter to all our Views and Purpofes : of which, this of 
producing Images and making Fables, is in one Senfe the higheft ; inafmuch as the greateft Effects here arife 
from the flendcreft Means and Endeavours. The Poet ftirs but little in the Matter -, but Nature co-operates fa 
ftrongly with him, that this little fuffkes, even to make new Worlds. In effect, the Poet feems, as it were, to 
fit nearer the Spring of Action than other Men ; and to have only to do with the general and higher Principles 

thereof, which command and direct a Number of other fubordinate ones, that he himfelf is not aware of What 

we fhall fay of Poetry, therefore, will hold proportionally of all the other Arts ; and we have only kept to that, 
becaufe the Influence or Infpiration is here confeffedly the pureft, and the neareft to Heaven of all others *. 
The Principle or Spirit of Poetry, may be faid to be that of Art in general ; and hence many f Authors 
make no fcruple to make all Arts the Invention of Poets : Thus it is Homer is often complimented with being 
the Father of all Arts. — This has, indeed, an Appearance of Truth ; but 'tis only an Appearance : For Homer, 
fuppofing him the Inventor of Poetry, or at leaft the beft Poet ; has no other Title to the Invention of other 
Arts, than what he derives either from a greater Share of the Spirit whereby they are produe'd, than other 
People ; or from his having communicated that Spirit, by the Force of his Poems, thro' other People, where 
it has generated, and brought forth other Arts ; or from the Seeds and Principles of Arts and Inventions 
which his Imagination was fo pregnant withal, and which he diffeminated over the World, where many of 'em, 
by due Cultivation, have fprung up into the Form and Maturity we now fee 'em. 

THE Mind is allowed to be paffive in refpect of the Matter of the Art of Poetry. We need not quote the Poets 
to prove it : No true Poet ever queftion'd his Infpiration : Every body knows that their whole Syftem is built on 
the Suppofition. And hence the Stories of Apollo and the Mufes, of Helicon and Parnajjiis ; the Dreams of Pindus 
and the Aonian Maids : with a thoufand other Reveries %. But the Philofophers, and Criticks alfo, give 'em their 
Suffrages, and atteft their Infpiration, in the ftrongeft Terms. Plato has already been cited to this Purpofe : He 
contends, at large, that all Poetry is " by immediate divine Infpiration, in the proper, and literal Senfe of the 
Word ||." Arijlotle confirms it: " Ufat ine'iitm, Poetry comes by divine Infpiration **." And Plutarch fays as 
much of all the Branches of Enthufiafm ; Poetical, Divinatory, Bacchical or Corybantical, Martial, and Erotick : to 
all which, he afferts, the Appellation, 'Erittiatair, or 'KtSttK-mie «•**©• t*> equally agrees.— -And not only fo, but they 
hold the Enthufiafm communicable from one to another. It arifes from the Poet, as its Centre, and is diffus'd, in 
Orbem ; in a lefs degree of intenfenefs, the further it recedes from him. Plato afferts, that the 'p*4Woi, or 
thofe who fung and rehears'd the Poets Works on the publick Theatres s nay, and the Spectators themfelves 

* Cafaul). of Entbiif. t Vid. Rapin. Reflex. Dacier't Homtr, in Pre/. Max. Tyrius. Porphyry n«a* 

r~f '0//SJ8 tfihwvpix;. % Vid. Perf. in Prol. ad Satyr, i. || In Dial. Ion. or «fei T m IhtiW. 

** Xitel UhUtA. t* l a VfVz 

were 



The P & S F A C E> ji 

Were all divinely infpir'd, in fome degree : which he illuftrates in the Cafe of a Needle touch'd by a Magnet 
which communicates an attractive Property to another Needle ; that* to a third ; and fo on, with a continual Di- 
minution. — Nor does the Effect end here, but the Profeffors of other Arts, as Sculpture, Criticifm, and even Pln- 
lofophy it felf, borrow their Flame and Infpiration from this Fire. Thus Phidias declared he was infpired to 
make that wonderful Statue of Jupiter Olympus, by the reading of Homer ; And thus Ariftotle may be faid 
to have been infpired by the fame Poet, to compofe his immortal Poeticls : The like is faid of Lominus : 
that he was infpired by the Mufes, or with the Fire of a Poet *. 

BUT after Poetry, Rhetorick comes neareft, and fhares mod of the Spirit thereof, even more than CritU 
cifm. Accordingly, Plato, in his Dialogue infcribed Menon, allows that " as we fay Pythians, Prophets, and 
" Poets are divinely agitated ; fo we do Orators." Elfewhere he adds, " That they are certainly infpir'd 
" of God, and plainly poffefs'd." So Dion. Halicamajfeus | relates, that " Demoftbenes did plainly «8«7w." 
And adds, that the Diftemper caught fo among his Audience, that " they were poffefs'd at fecond hand, 
" and brought to do many things againft their own Reafon, and Judgment :" And Alfchines, his profeffed 
Enemy and Antagonift allows as much. I need not fay that Plutarch relates the like of Cicero, in the Inftance of 
his Oration to Ciefar, for Ligarius. 

SOMETHING like this has been obferved, even in the Cafe of Prayer to God: Several Hereticks are 
on record for poffeffing their Hearers that way. Racket, executed for Blafphemy under Queen Elizabeth, is laid, 
by the Hiftorian, " to have ravifh'd all that heard him at his Devotions ; and converted many in fpite of their 
" Teeth :" And Sarravia relates, the People were perfuaded that " God directed his Tongue." St. Baftl. even 
affirms t, " that our Prayers are never right or acceptable, till the Ardor thereof carry us out of our felves, fo 
«' that God poffefs us in fome extraordinary manner." And hence the learned and pious Cafaubon eftablifhes a 
new kind of Enthufiafm, which he calls Supplicative, or Precatory ; as he does divers others, as MufjCal Enthu- 
fiafm, Mechanical Enthufiafm, fcfr. To fay no more, the Author laft mentioned makes no fcruple to make 
even " the ordinary Delights and Benefits Men receive from the Harangues of Orators, Sophifts, Preachers,^. 
" the Effeft of Enthufiafm and Infpiration ; as being what could never arife from mere Reafon." And Plu- 
■tarch, and others, make that Ardor which the Soldier feels in Battle, of the fame kind with that which infpir'd 
the Prophet, Orator, and Poet **. 

WE have here little lefs than a Syftem, fufficient to account for moft of the Phenomena in the Animal World, 
on Principles of Enthufiafm. Reafon, it may be obferv'd, has here little to do ; and it mould feem, that Man 
ought rather to be defined, Animal Enthujiafticum, than Animal Rationale. And yet this is- only a few, out 
of infinite Inftances, of the immediate Agency and Infpiration of the Deity. We find the fam<* Principle in every 
Art, every Invention, every Difcovery, where no natural and neceffary Connection is perceiv'd between the Difco- 
very, and fomething known before, ;'. e. where the Reafon of fuch Difcovery, is not apprehended by any intuitive 
Knowledge. What has no immediate Dependance eidier on what we perceive by Senfation or Reafort, comes by 
the Vehicle of Infpiration, i. e. of Imagination or Invention, for there it ends. The Imagination may be called the 
Medium of Art, as Senfe is of Science. The Faculty of Reafon, can make no great Difcoveries ; it can only ad- 
vance from one Step to another, which muft be ready laid to its Hand ; and if thefe be any where interrupted or 
difcontinued, there it is at a Stand. 'Tis, in fine, a limited Principle, fubject to very narrow Bounds ; whereas 
the Imagination i feems to be indefinite, and ftill kept in the Creator's Hand, to be occafionally made ufe of for 
the Conduct of Mankind. ' 

THE Truth is, when we fay, fuch a Thing is the Effect of Enthufiafm, or Infpiration; fpeaking I mean 
of profane Matters ; (the Infpiration, for inftance, of Scripture, being Matter of a very different Confideration' 
and quite befide our prefent Purpofe) this does not remove it out of the ordinary Courfe of Things : It does 
not put it on any other Principle, different from that whereby Caufes and Effects fucceed each other in the phyfical 
World. We can account for the Phenomena of the Imagination, as well as thofe of Senfation. They have their 
refpective Laws, like other things ; which they are fubject to ; and to which we have Arts, and Procefles appropria- 
ted. In effeft, all the Infpiration here fpoke of, may be produced without any great Conjuration.- If the Rea- 
der will not take Offence at this novel Philofophy, he may be convine'd of it. And i°, in the Inftance of the 
Mujical Kind. 

ENTHUSIASM is defined, in an antient Author ft, to be " when a Perfon engaged in fome Office of 
" Religion ; and hearing the Sound of Drums, Trumpets, Cymbals, tiff, becomes alienated, or tranfported out 
" of himfelf, and fees Things unfeen to others." And what is here called Enthufiafm, is more fignificantly call'd 
by another t, Mfxhvm y.*.,U, Madnefs occafioned by the Sound of brazen Inftruments : which coincides with 
the Furor Corybanticus, fo much fpoke of among the Antients. 

NOW, as we do not know any immediate Correfpondence or Connexion between any one Spund, and any 
Idea ; 'tis no more ftrange that one Idea fhould be excited by it, than another. There is a Law of the Crea- 
tor, whereby a certain Order and Succeffion of Vibrations of the Air, is arbitrarily made the Occafion of a 
certain Perception in our Minds ; and as the Circumftances of this Vibration are alter'd, a different Idea arifes : i. e. 
to every different Combination of fuch Circumftances, a different Idea is attach'd •, to ufual and ordinary Combina- 
tions, ordinary Ideas ; and to unufual and extraordinary, extraordinary Ideas. And hence there is, perhaps, no Idea, 
no Image whatever, but may be raifed by means of Sound. Now, I do not know what Common Senfe is, unlefs it 
be, the having common Ideas. Juft fo far as new Perceptions are rais'd in us, in Exclufion of the old ones s we 
may be faid to be removed out of our felves, i. e. we are fo far got into another Syftem ; the Phenomena which 
n0W u P, a e n themfe,ves t0 us > beln g f° &r different, from what they were before, and even from what they 
would ftill be, to another Perfon in the fame Place, but under other Circumftances. On this Principle, we fhall 
fcarce find any thing but might be produced by Mufick; efpecially, when to the Force of well-adjufted Inftruments, 
which the Antients feem to have ftudy'd more, and underftood better, than we ; was added to the Solemnity of a 
Temple, the fuppofed Refidence of a God, whofe Statue there flood before 'em ; with the awful Rites of Invo- 
cation ; accompanied with furious Gefticulations, Dancings, and all the Devices that could be thought of, to 
unhinge the natural Senfe, and Reafon, which we find is but frail and precarious at beft, and apt to play us 
falfe when moft duly looked to. Few People are able to ftand up againft mere Mufick; which, unaffiftcd 
with any thing elfe, has been made to produce, and remove fettled Madnefs; cure Fevers tt ; drivfPerfons 
to kill themfelves, or their Friends. 'Tis not long fince the Italian died, who had reduced the turning of People 
mad by his Mufick, into a regular Art ; which he could depend on at any time II. — -The Reader that has a 
mind to fee further on this Head, may confult the Articles, Sound, Musics, Tarantula, fit, in 
the Body of the Book. 



Jj.'*»C««./». f nsaf t« AII//.JS-: % Apud.CalMib. ubifupra, p. 

« m 7m tt °Oh " CMill. of Med. Defin. tferiied tt> Galen.' *f Epigr. in Anthol. Grac. 

■h- nui. as i Acad. R. des Scien. An. 1708, & 1718. || Niewentiit, Rel. Philofoph. Tom. I. Contetnp. 14. 



74- 



THE 



x ii The T R E F A C E. 

2° THE Infpiration of Poetry is of a ftiller, and purer Kind ; and needs lefs Artifice and Apparatus to pro- 
duce' it in an Imagination naturally difpofed for it. The attentive Confideration of fome interefting Objeft, 
ufually fuffices to fet it agoing. And the Gentlemen of that Faculty have all Nature to chufe out of: The 
fineft Seafons, the moft agreeable Scenes, and the moft moving Objects. Hence it is, that they are continu- 
ally harping on " Groves, and Shades, and Gods, and Nymphs, and Darts, and Flames." How do they 

riot in " Meadows trim with Daifies pied ; fhallow Brooks, and Rivers wide : Towers and Battlements they 
" fee bofomed hi°h in tufted Trees." Sometimes, they raife up " Knights, and Squires, and Maids 
" forlorn ; or, Lover pendant on a Willow Tree, or Lady wandring by a River's Side." Then, " Tilts 
" and Tournaments, and Feats of Arms : Pomp, and Feaft, and Revelry, with Mafque and antique Pageantry : 
" Stories of Thebes or Pelops Line ; or the Tale of Troy divine : Of Arthur and Cambufean bold ; of Cambal 

" and of Algarfife, and who took Canacc to Wife." If thefe fail, they have all that is gloomy, and folemn, 

and terrible in Nature at their Beck ; we may now expect to fee " the red Bolt, or forked Lightning glare." 
Earthquakes and Tempefts feldom roar in vain : if by chance they do, the " ill-boding Raven's Croke" is ready 
at hand ; or elfe " the far-off Curfew founds, o'er fome wide watery Shore, fwinging (low with folemn roar." 
And now for " baleful Ebon Shades, and ragged "low brow'd Rocks :" Next enter " horrid Shapes, and 
" Shrieks and Sights unholy : Gorgons, and Hydra's, and Chimera's dire." Images of things moft mo- 
ving to Senfe, readily alarm and raife a Commotion in the Imagination. And the new Ideas thus procured, 
coming to be mixed, and combined in the Imagination, with others there before ; new Effects arife from 'em, 
in confequence of the Laws of the Creator : much as intelligibly as Fire and Flame, upon mixing two chy- 
mical Liquors. 

SCALIGER, in his Poetics, makes two Kinds of eumikm, or Poets divinely infpired. The firft, thofe 
on whom the Infpiration falls, as it were, from Heaven ; without any thought or feeking, or at lead by means 
of Prayer and Invocation. The fecond, thofe in whom it is procured by the Fumes of Wine. 

ALL that is required to the firft, is only a delicate, pregnant Imagination ; fufceptible of any feeble Impref- 
fions that may happen to be made in the Courfe of Things ; and ready to take fire at the leaft Spark. The 
Surfaces of the finer Fluids, we find, are kept in continual motion by the bare Tremor of the Atmofphere, 
tho to us infenfible : And thus the Air is never fo ftill, but that the Afpin Leaf feels its Impulfe, and bends 
and trembles to it ; when others require a ruder Guft to move 'em : Yet thefe, too, give way in a general 
Storm ; whole Forefts then totter indifferently : even the Trunks of fturdieft Oaks, now yield like the reft. 

And, accordingly, we read, in antient Hiftory, of whole Nations . being at once feiz'd with the poetical 

Fury. Few of the Cities of Greece, not even Athens it felf, with all its Philofophy, but has one time or other 
labour'd under thefe epidemical Enthufiafms. 

WE have already obferv'd, that Invention is the Principle, or Source of Poetry. An excellent modern 
Poet adds *, that 'tis this which furnifhes Art with all its materials -, and that without it, Judgment it felf 

can, at beft, but fteal wifely. Now, this Faculty of Invention it felf, is ufually no other than a Delicacy, or 

Readinefs of taking Hints : but even at moft, what we are faid to invent, is only what refults, or arifes from 
fomething already in us. There is no new Matter got by inventing : that can only come by the way of Senfe 
and Obfervation : All that paffes in the other Cafe, is, that from the Memory of certain Things, i. e. the Com- 
prefence of certain Ideas to the Mind ; certain new Ideas arife, according to the Order of Things. The fpright- 
ly Imagination is led, on various Occafions, to compound its Ideas, and many of 'em fo oddly and boldly, 
that we take its Productions for new Things ; and thus think we invent 'em, becaufe they did not exift in us 
before in that form -, tho the Matter or Elements thereof did. There is no more real Invention in the Poet, 
than in the Tapeftry or Mofaic Worker, who ranges and combines the various colour'd Materials furnilh'd to 
his Hand, fo as to make an Affemblage or Picture, which before had no Exiftence. 

THE Reader who has any doubt about this, need only take the firft piece of Poetry that comes in his 
way, to be convinced, that all that is new and moving in it, is no other than new Compofition or Combi- 
nation of fenfible Ideas. In the // Allegro and II Penjerofo, for inftance, two of the moft poetical Pieces in 
our, or perhaps any other Language ; how eafy is it to refolve all that is fo magical and ravifhing, to the 
new, uncouth, and frequently wild and romantick Affemblages of Imagery. Indeed, who can contain himfelf 

at " Sport which wrinkled-Care derides, and Laughter holding both his Sides. Cynthia peeping thro' a 

" Cloud, while rocking Winds are piping loud. To hear the Lark begin her Flight, and finging ftartle the 

" dull Night : Or the Cock with lively Din, fcatter the Rear of Darknefs thin : Or liften how the Hound and 

" Horn, loudly roufe the (lumbering Morn. Or, fee glowing Embers thro' the Room, teach Light to 

" counterfeit a Gloom. Or ftoried Windows richly dight, calling a dim religious Light. Or hear Orpheus 

" ling fuch Notes as warbled to the String, drew Iron Tears down Pluto's Cheek. Or Verfe with many a 

" winding Bout, of linked Sweetnefs long drawn out, with wanton Heed and giddy Cunning, the melting Voice 
" thro' Mazes running ; untwifting all the Chains that tie the hidden Soul of Harmony." 

PERSONIFICATION, which is of that Extent and Importance that it is ufually held the Life and Effence 
of Poetry ; is a vaft Source of new Imagery. By this, not only different Objects, but different Syftems and Worlds, 
are combined and blended together ; and what belongs to one Kind of Beings, Man, is attributed to every 
other : each Object, either of Senfe or Imagination, being occafionally inverted with all the Characters and Pro- 
perties belonging to the human Kind. Thus, an Arrow grows impatient, and tbirfis to drink the Blood of a Foe ; 
or loiters and ftops half way, loth to carry Death, &c. So an Action of the Body, Laughter, is above reprefented 
as it felf laughing, ready to burft its Sides. And in the fame Piece we have one of the Planets, the Moon, repre- 
fented as trick'd up and frounced ; and again, as kerchief d, and in a decent Undrefs, and thus going a Hunting. To 
tell us, that a fine Spring Morning, attended with a gentle Gale of Wind, is very pleafant ; prefently, — " Zephyr 
" with Aurora playing, as he met her once a Maying, on a Bed of Violets blue, and frelh blown Roles dipt 
" in Dew, fill'd her with a Daughter fair, yclep'd in Heaven Euphrofyne, and Mirth on Earth." How con- 
fident with the Nature of Things, that a Breath of Air fhould lay an early Hour of the Day down ; and 
that from a green Gown thus given, a PalEon of the Mind fhould in time be brought forth ? In effect, 
the Infpiration of the Poet amounts to little more than relating things that are naturally incongruous. He pre- 
fents new Objects, new Worlds, but 'tis only by differently combining the Parts of the old one. He does not 
make any thing, he only patches : He does not invent, he only tranfpofes : Nor has he the leaft Power to move, 
other than what he derives from the Novelty and Strangenefs of his Combinations ; to which nothing exifts 

in the ordinary Syftem, any thing conformable. To fay no more, if Invention furnifh Art ; Memory furnifhes 

the Invention ; and Senfation the Memory, where all Knowledge originally commences. And the whole Pro- 
cefs is nothing but the Action, or Operation of the Deity in a Courfe of Laws. 

A S to the fecond Kind of Poets, in whom the Infpiration is promoted or excited by means of Wine s Ca- 
faubon is perfectly frighted at it ; judging it the higheft Strain of Impiety, to fuppofe a Man may be divinely 

* Pope i» Pre/, to Homer. 

V infpir'd 



the f & E P A € k $iii 

ififpir'd by the Fumes of Liquor. — And yet I don't know whether his Fright be not founded on a Mifaptire- 
henfion. If Scaliger or any other Perfon alledge, that the Juice of the Grape may be an Occafion of fuch an 
Effea, i. e. a Means or Condition neceffary to make the Laws that concur to Invention take place ; I do not 
fee what Religion has to do here, rhore than in any other Enthufiafm', The life of fuch a Means, 'is no ways 
derogatory to the Power or Goodnefs of God ; who ftill remains the Author Of this, as of any other Infpira- 
tion ; whether it be by Virions, by Voices, Dreams, or the like. What matters it whether the Sound of a Cym- 
bal, or the Sight of an Image, or the Effluvia of a Liquor be the Occafion ? So long as he is the Caufe, 
what matters it what Inftrurnent he makes ufe of? And of all the Bleffings this Juice is made the Occafion of 
to us ; why mould it be precluded from that, which none of God's Creatures, not even the vileft, but occa- 
fionally minifters ? The Antients did not think fo meanly of it : they fet up a God on purpofe to prefide over 
it ; and it even had the largeft Share in their moft folemn Ceremonies of Religion. 

THE Infpiration of Orators, bears a near Relation to that of the Poets ; tho being fomewhat groffer, it be- 
comes more technical, and demands more Induftry, and Art. Quintilian tells us how a Rhetor is to get infpir'd * ; 

" not by fupinely lolling and gazing at the next moveable, and carelefly turning things over in his Mind ; but by 
" imagining the Judge and the Audience prefent, and ftrongly reprefenting to himfelf the Time, the Occafion," 
&c. He adds, that no body ought to pretend to be an Orator, unlefs he have this Art of Infpiration at com- 
mand ; fo that he can raife it at pleafure. 

WHAT has been faid above, contains fome of the general Principles of Enthufiafm, and their Conneftion 
•with other phyfical Efieds : and 'twill be eafy to trace and purfue the fame, where they appear in other Cafes, 
and with other Circumftances. Thus the Infpiration excited by the Orator in his Audience, is refolved, by Ca- 
faubon, into the Mufick of the Speaker, i. e. the Tone and Cadence of his Voice ; and the 2w!W, or order and 
placing of his Words : In which laft, how fimple and trivial foever it mdy feem, all the great Matters on the 
Subjeft allow fomewhat myfterious and unaccountably forcible ; and accordingly make it die principal Patt of 
Rhetorick. And yet there is nothing in the Whole, bat what refults from the Powers, Properties,' fciV. of the 
feveral Letters, confider'd as fo many Sounds, artfully combin'd. In effea, there is fome 'Pvfyis, or Dimenfion, 
and fome UiTeji, or Numbers in all Diction ; much more in that of Oratory : And Mufick it iclf has no Charm 
in it, but what it derives from thofe very Sources. 

NOR muft it be omitted, that the ufe of Metaphors contributes its (hare to the Effea. The Secret whereof 
confifts in this, that they are, as it were, accommodated to the Senfes ; and prefent fuch Images to the Imagi- 
nation, as move us moft when perceived in the Way of Senfation f. 

A S to that Enthufiafm felt in Prayer, its Caufe is not far to feek. The Powers of Rhetorick, and Mufick -, 
and of a peculiar Fervour of Imagination, rais'd by an Apprehenfion of the Frefence of God, fsfc will go a 
great way. We may add, that the antient Heathens made ufe of Dithyrambi'cs in all their moft folemn Prayers ; 
which Proclus obferves, are peculiarly fit to ftir up enthuflaftical Difpofltions. A Man that rides Pindar's Horfe, 
cannot well fail of going at a great rate. 

BUT the moft extraordinary and unaccountable kind of Infpiration is ftill behind, viz. that of Prophecy, 
Divination, clifcovertng of Cures by Dreams, &c. which yet may all be produced by Art ; and accordingly, 
have all been taught and ftudied like other Arts : not to fay, alfo, praftifed like them, for a Livelihood. Schools 
and Colleges of Prophets, Divines, Augurs, £sV. were numerous both among Jews and Gentiles ; and 
there was little in their Difciplme, but what may be refolved into what has been already faid. Here, 
all the Means above mentioned, all the Springs of Enthufiafm, were ufed ; and frequently combin'd together, to 
make the more compound and extraordinary Effea. The Sight of vaft Objefls, as Rocks and Mountains, wild 
Profpeas, folitary Groves, gloomy Caves, furious Rivers, Seas, &c. which We find to work fo ftrongly on the Mind, 
were indulged ; and $ frequent Changes, and fudden Tranfitions made from one to another **. Such unufual Ob- 
jeas neceffarily fuggefted unufual Ideas ; which were heighten'd by proper Applications to all the other Senfes. And 
when the Man Was at length got out of the ordinary Syftem of Thinking, into another more unufual and ex- 
traordinary, tho equally phyfical, or if you will, mechanical one ; what he utter'd was iudged all oracular : It 
wasnot hisSenfe, or Reafon that fpoke ; and therefore it muft be that of God himfelf. And among a large 
Train of Objeas which prefented themfelves to him, fome of 'em could not want an Analogy to Things that 
were really to come ; at leaft, in the Opinion of a Perfon already poffeffed with the Notion thereof. It may 
be added, that the Prophefies themfelves, had their Share in producing Futurity ; the Evenrs whereof partook of 
the Prediaions, fome more, others lefs, according to the degree of Poffeffion of the Parties concerned in 
them. In effea, the Revelations ftill retain'd fomething of the Means made ufe of to raife 'em. Thus, if 
the one were either agreeable or difpleafmg, the other would be of the fame Kind : And hence a Revelation 
was artificially produceable of the Complexion required : which was the very Apex of the Art. So that 
the Divination, when moft perfea, really fuppofed a natural Knowledge of the Thing demanded, and was 
built on it. 

AS to Dreams, &c. there was a Formula for 'em ; the Circumftances whereof might be appropriated to 

raife in the Imagination an Idea of the Thing required. After a number of Ceremonies, the Party was to 

fieep in the Temple : Pellibus incv.iuit ftratis, fomnumque petivtt. And the Priefts had not only the placing of 
his Body, and the ftrewing of his Bed ; but alfo the Management of Odours, Sounds, &c. in the Night-time. 
So that if any natural Means were known for the Cure, here was room enough to fuggeft it to the Patient's 
Imagination, which was made acceffible to 'em, and as it were put into their Hands. But, if no proper Re- 
medy were known ; as, 'tis probable, they hardly enter'd fo far into the Part : yet, What was thus fuggefted, 
perhaps at random, how ftrongly muft it operate, when inforced by the Opinion of its coming by Miracle and 
Infpiration ? We fee what the bare Prefence and Affurance of a Phyfician will frequentlv do ; even cure Dif- 
orders far out of the Reach of his Skill : and what an Improvement would it not be to the' Faculty, to have the 

furdier Affiftance of a little Shew of Religion and Ceremony ? A deal more might be faid on this Head* 

from the Praaice of Exo r c i s m s, Amulets, Phylacteries, cjfV. to which the Reader may turn Iri 
the Book ; as alfo to the Articles Witchcraft, Ephialtes, fciV. 

IT appears then, that 'tis in vain that we pretend to pervert the Order of Nature. Senfation does arid 
muft inevitably precede Imagination ; which cannot by any human Means come at the fmalleft Grain of any- 
thing, but what paffes thro' that Canal. There is no harm in faying, that fuch Things are of Divine Infpira- 
tion ; the Mifchief lies in fuppofing, that thefe are more fo than others ; that what appears only to the Imagina- 
tion, is more of God than what appears to Senfation : which is, in effea, to fay, that we have fome Know- 
ledge which we do not receive from God* 

T *""''• Lil >- v - ** Livy, relating the horrible Rilei of the Saturnalia, fays, " ken 

J y:' ct '° i- de ° rat - " -would hereupon be taken as if mad, fall Mo ftrattge fanatical Agi, 

T Multos Nemora Sytaque, nmltos Amnes aut Maria comraoVcnr, " fattens of Body, and break out Into Prophefies :" Velut mente cap; 

quorum luribunda mens, ere. cic.de ohin, ti, cum agitations Eanatica corporis vaiicuaiii Dec. iy.l. j. 

d N© 



^iv The PREFACE. 

NO body can imagine, that what we have faid tends to exclude God, and Providence out of the World ; 
but rather to cftablifh, and confirm 'em in it. So far is it from {hewing, that the Deity has no hand in the 
Production of fuch and fuch Effects ; that it fhews, nothing elfe has any. The Whole is His ; and the Agency 
of Man is only circumftantial. For, what neceffary Connexion between any of the Means here ufed, and 
the Effect ? And in whofe Hand but God's, could fuch incompetent Inftruments produce fuch Ends ? In 
reality, we not only confefs his Prefence and Agency in the great and extraordinary Phsenomena ; but fee 
and admire it every where, in the moft ordinary ones. Nor does this imply any thing to the Difadvantage of 
Reveal'd Religion ; which is a Point quite foreign to the prefent Purpoie. The Infpiration and Prophecy we 
have fpoke of°is all natural, and ordinary ; and does not any way preclude the Deity from more extraordinary, 
and miraculous Manifeftations of his Will. On the contrary, if weak Man can do fo much, a<5ting fubordinately 
to certain Laws of Nature, and by means of others ; what may we not conceive of the Author of thofe Laws, 
whenever in the Wifdom of his Councils, he fliall think fit to interpofe : as, in the two great Difpenfations whereof 
the facred Writings (peak ? . 

BUT, if we have not made Philofophy encroach too far on Religion ; it may, perhaps, be objected, that we 
have made Religion of too much Concern in Philofophy ; in that we are continually recurring to the dernier 

Refort the Deity ; which is held unphilofophical. But let it be confider'd what it is to pbilofothize ; and 

whether our Theories amount to any thing more, than Enumerations of Laws, i. e. Actions, of the Creator? 'Tis 
certain all the Structure and CEconomy difcover'd by Diffection, Microfcopes, Injection, &V. furnifti no 
more fcientifical Account of the Origin of an Animal, than of a Spark of Fire. The ufual Syftem of Genera- 
tion amounts to no more than Augmentation -, as it fuppofes the Animal already form'd, and only undertakes to 
enlar°e and fhow how it arrives at its Bulk. An Animalcule is to be given us, either in femine, or in ova, 
or we labour in vain ; Affimilation being all the Generation we have any Idea of. We find our felves loft 
and bewilder'd, when we come to think " How the dim Speck of Entity began," and here begin to con- 
fefs, and mourn the Imperfection of our Knowledge. As if there were any Difficulty here, which did not equally 
obtain in every Step of the Procefs. All the difference is, in the one Cafe we are fenfible we only know 
the What, and in the other we alfo think we know the How : Which is a Delufion : And were it not for 
the Paradox, one might atmoft affirm, that we know thofe Things beft, which we think we know the leaft. 
For that here we more immediately fee the real Caufe, without the Cloud and Embarafs of Occafions, which at 
other times confound us. Occafions, are Caufes, with refpect to us, who only act at fecond hand ; and the great 
Source of our Error, is, that we can't ealily fee thro' 'em to the real Caufe. Whence, the greater number of 
Means and Occafions we perceive ; the further is the Caufe apt to be involved, and the more Attention is re- 
quired to extricate it. And by this way alone can Philofophy lead to Atheifm. Our Knowledge, in effect, 

is all relative ; it refpects our felves, and our ufes, either more or lefs immediately ; and is chiefly applied in the 
Arts, and Affairs of Life, where Occafions are Caufes : And hence we take a Tincture, which we carry with us 
thro'out ; and apply, unawares, the fame Notion when we come to philofophize, where we are lefs interefted, 
and consequently our Knowledge purer and more abfolute. And thus we are betrayed fatally to confound Art 
with Nature ; Firfi Caufe with Second ; God with our Jellies : all which muft be done, ere the Philofopher can 
commence Atheift. 

THIS not diftinguifhing between Caufes and Occafions, has produced an infinite deal of falfe Refinement} 
to the great detriment of our moft obvious and palpable Knowledge. We continually over-fhoot the Mark ; and 
looking too far, mifs feeing what is clofe to us. We are willing to leave God out of the Affair as far as 
we can, and only have recourfe to him when we are at a pinch. He is rarely wanted, unleis now and then, 
for a Miracle, or fo. The Deity is not to interpofe, nifi dignus vindice Nodus, till we have occafion for him ; 
2. e. till the Cafe becomes fo obvious and glaring, that the Charm is broke, and we are forced to fee him 
in fpite of all our Prejudice. The Occafions are fo vifibly inadequate, that our Confcience cries out, and necef- 

fitates us to look to and confefs a Caufe. But, tho we be well enough contented to find him at the End of 

the Chain •, alas he muft be alfo prefent at every Link, or the Whole will fall to pieces. He is not more 
concern'd in forming the original Stamen of a Fcetus, than in nourifhing, affimilating, or bringing it at length 
to Light. We can as eafily conceive the firft Formation of a piece of unorganiz'd Matter into an Animal, 
as any other Production of Nature ; or even, as we call it, of Art. Generation is effected after the fame 
manner as other Arts ; and the fame Principles that will account for the making of a Statue, will account for 
that of a Child. If the Figure of a Man arife out of a Mais of Clay ; is it by any other Operation than that 
of Nature, which according to the Pofition of the Hand, determines the Parts of the Clay to move in this Di- 
rection, or that ; according to certain Laws of Motion, and Percuffion ? And if the fame be afterwards har- 
den'd, upon ftanding to the Fire ; is it not by the fame Nature acting by certain other Laws, the Set or Col- 
lection whereof makes the phyfical Procefs called Exhalation? The Hand, you'll fay, was the Occafion. But 
what is an Occafion ? I doubt we have no juft Idea to that Word ; and that it implies fomewhat of a Con- 
tradiction ; at leaft, if any thing of Caufalty be denoted by it. Confidering that we fay, Light is the Occafion 
of Shadow, Joy of Sorrow, and every thing of its Contrary. If a piece of Phofphorus, upon becoming conti- 
guous to Air, immediately begin to fmoke, and produce Fire and Light, with all the wonderful Phsenomena 
thereof, as Colour, Refrangibility, Reflexibility, alternate Fits of eafy Refraction and eafy Tranfmiffion, have diffe- 
rent Powers inherent in the different Sides of its Corpufcles, be refoluble by a Prifm into all the Appearances of a 
Rainbow, exhibit the Species of Objects, act on and confume Bodies, give Senfarions of Heat, Pain, &c 
and all thefe Properties permanent, and immutable for ever ; What a Syftem of Laws, what an infinity of 
Springs muft be play'd for all this ? No Circumftance whereof is in our hand, befide that of Contiguity or 
Non-contiguity with the Air : which, for our own Glory, we dignify by the Name Occafion, and fuppofe fome- 

thing in it analogous to Caufe ; and thus put our felves in fome meafure on a footing with the Almighty , 

We know, without Light the vifible Univerfe would ceafe to be ; and without Heat, all Motion and Action 
muft be at an End : So that it may even be faid to be owing to Fire, that there is a World. And yet how 
eafy is it to produce what thus contains in it all Things ! In effect, Fire is an Occafion ; and contributes juft as 
much to the Exiftence of the World, as we do to that of Fire. When we are doing, we might as well go 
on, and make our felves the Caufes or Occafions of the Univerfe ; which we are, in the very fame Senfe, 
as of any one Phenomenon in it. And thus, the fame Principle which appear'd fo deftructive to Religion, is 
found equally fo to Philofophy. So confiftent is the Nature of Things ! one Error is fubverfive of almoft all 
Truth : One Wheel amifs in the Machine of Knowledge, makes the whole a Lye. 

O F this, many of the Antients feem to have had a jufter Notion than we ; as, in effect, they may be faid 

to have had more Religion than we. Their Mythology, which is fuppofed to be their Phyfics, fpeaks of 

nothing elfe but God, under various Forms and Shapes, i. e. in various Views and Relations. The Poets,' 
from v.-riom it was taken, firft perfonified God, or the firft Caufe ; and then his Attributes. His Power they 
called Jupiter, which they conceiv'd as his reigning Attribute ; his Jujlice was Juno, the Confort of Power ; his 
Wifdom, Minerva, the Offspring of Jove's Brain*, &c. And thus it is they are to be underftood, when they 

* Yid. BoiTu, Traite 4u Poeme Epique, L. i. c. %. fa 



The P R E F A C k XY 

fay Jupier did b, and fo ; Juno perfected the Trojans; Minerva inftruded Telemachm, &c which feems to 

IN effed, the whole Phyfics of the Antients, was no other than a Theology ■ as at] ;,,fl- pi , r , 

to be I may even add, that the making a Deference between the two Science?," and er^Lng\mto P^ f 
ces independent of, and oppofite to each other, has proved moil pernicious to both ; and been the gr at Sou ce 
both of Irrehgion and Ignorance , which will never be dry'd up, till the two be reftored to each other and 
laid together again To run any length in either of 'em, without having recourfe to the other ; as the gene 
rainy of Authors aifed to do, is downright inconfiftency. Some of our Syftems of Theology, one wou Id take 
for pure Inflation thro out ; as if the Authors fuppofed they could know any thing of God, otheTw fe han 
by means of Senfe, and Phenomena : or as if Enthufiafm it felf did not pre-fuppofe Senfe or could a rife 

WW U~~ "7 ', ? n , the °- he - r h ?l d rJ° me Treadfcs 0f PhUofophy fee,/ to have refined God out of he 
World, by whom all things m * fubfift , and which, in Seneca's Philofophy, was no other than God him! 
felf • They have made us an Umverfe fo fine, that it may ftand of it felf withoutany God, i. e. without 
any Caufe, at all : Occafion is the higheft Caufation they require. This is to abftrad w4 a witnef ; odf 
inguilh the Knowledge of the Caufe from that of the Effed, and vice versa : whereas there is no knowing any 
thing of either, other than by their Relations to each other a Y 

I MA Y add, that the further either of thefe Sciences is carried, on this footing, the more idle and extrava- 
gant it will become; and that the one tends to downright Madnefs, and the other to downright Atheifm 
On the one hand, to make a Syftem without a God, is nothing lefs than to be a God one's felf: The Audio" 

pTrtfTnd M m mb ^ u* F&a? * ??', by "**"** thc Mafs > and S ! ™S Connexion to the fevera 
2£fE? 4~ ' "V b 7 eftabllfhl c n S a the Ration of Caufe and Effed, which i! Tthe very thing that denomi- 

na ion inVhe Cou^of T, 1 ™^' 11 ^ Syfem *F' T 1°' ^ mth ° M God ' affin S b 7 l,is Laws U P°" the *«*#■ 
Sh! f r S V f ° aS , t0 Pr ° duce ^h Effed: And thus what tends moft directly to exclude 

that is to ,k TUI„ fe- £ h T'^ And \ ° n thC ° ther hmd ' t0 make a God withoui * Syfcm; 

a God nof to „? 8 '.r ^T ° f ^ without . Phyfiology, or that of the World, is diredly to make 

I A M rrfSd ^ r i u an ^antecedent to its Caufe : Tis to do, I am atham'd to fay what ! 

I AM afraid I may feem to have been too long abfent from my Subjed ; but it has 'been all alon- in 
my bye, and la little Recapitulation will convince the Reader, that we have not wander'd far out of the 

way We have fhewn whence all our Knowledge originally rifes : that Senfation is its only Source ; that 

what comes this way, comes by the Agency of the Divine Being : that it is further modified in the Memory 
or Imagination, where new Affemblages are frequently made,' which is called Invention ; that it is continually 
altering, by the Admiffion of new Ideas from without; but ftill remains fubjed to the Laws impofed by the 

Creator, fo that nothing happens therein, but in confequence of fuch Laws. Thus far the Mind appears 

merely paffive : And thus >t ftands with refped to the Matter of all Knowledge and Art. It remains, now, to 

SftdSdfleDLet^Site^r 1 ^ ^ **> " ^ fubf ™ » h ^ P ^ 
F n H J,ri™ SrSf" ' 1^ S f tate ° f , the Mind, Agency, and a new Faculty thereof, Reafon, come in play : the 
Foundaion and Office whereof, will be afcertain'd, by inquiring, What there- is in the Art.ft's, e./Zner's, 
^"1,^1 TTJ r^^!"*'™ 110 " ° r , InVenn0 "' t0 * e P ™ d « ai0 » °f his Poem? This'wilf be found 



— . ------- ■■--- «-- - T . » ^,uh™, lo me jrroauction ot his Foem ? This will be found 

to refolve into firft an Inclination or Defire to produce fome Piece, in the way of a Fable, that (hall ftron" 
y reprefent the Mifchiefs of Difcord among Confederates ; and, fecondly, a Knowledge of the Means neceffarV 
B ~™ ! l,? r an Acquaintance with certain Rules and Meafures which tend to produce fuch Effed 

ill 72. * a i r t f^c™ ^ W) Wh ' ch haS alread 3 r been laid down as t he Spring or Principle of 

all human Aftion, and which is founded on the Apprehenfion of Good or Advantage to anfe from fuch Poem 



, .k„t- r:„A „ a • • T ° • — —-"——■» »~, r ...».j, ^ luiuwicugt ui ine ivreans necellary 

TurTc'r,- an Acquaintance with certain Rules and Meafures which tend to produce fuch Erf eft 

lllm n Affl B a A r i f 5 " '°" M f ve > L *¥* h" al ^ady been laid down as the Spring or Principle of 
Jl human Action, and which is founded on the Apprehenfion of Good or Advantage to arife from fuch Poem 
oours'd'of VK ' Kn0wled S e of dle Meam > ftands on tlle c °mmon Footing of the Knowledge hitherto dif 

tn T ^ E A ^ and Meafures of an Art, make a kind of preliminary Doctrine, neceffary or conducive there- 
to, called the Theory < of the Art; which, alfo, in one Senfe, may be conf.der'd as another Art, diftinct from 

t l f fZ^J f 6 f' r?, COm u atlt A S the Bufmei ' S ° f another ArL If ' for inftance ' a certain Pofition, or 

Set of Motions of the Body, be conftituted by Nature the Occafion of a poetick Infpiration; and fuch and fuch 
Images and Ideas anfing herefrom, be conftituted the Occafions of fuch and fuch Paffions in the Mind of a 
Reader, and fuch and fuch Views confident thereon, viz. an Averfion to Enmity, and Contention : To form 
an Arc productive of thefe Effects, we mult firft fee and obferve fuch or the like Effects, to arife from fuch 
or the like Caufes ; and argue or infer that 'tis probable thefe Motions, or thefe Images, are the Occafions 
thereof: and conf.der and colled the Order, Manner, and Circumftances thereof, to form the Art or m7- 
Z°l ™ ° thMwe ha ; ellCTe ' a r s before, i" Matter, viz. Phsenomena, firft furnifhed by Senfition, and preferv'd 
in die Memory; 2 Form, anfing from the Moral View, which led us to frame an Art, and in order thereto 
to conhder and dwell on the Phenomena, compare 'em together, and infer fomething from 'em -It appears' 
therefore, that we have two Arts of Poetry, very different from each other ; coming from different Caufes' 
tending to different Purpofes and rarely found, in any degree, in the fame Perfon. The firft Art Homer has in 
peiTeccion, the lecond, Arijtotlc. 

BUT for all their difference the two are really of the fame general Nature, and Kind; and only differ 
in point of Degree, and Subordination ; as they are nearer to, or further from, the Principle of all Knowledge 
and Art Senfation.— -Homer we have fhewn, was infpired : He derived his Art only from Nature actine on 
him in the ordinary Courfe of Things, and firft prefenting Objects to his Senfe, then to his Imagination ■ And 
others are infpired from him, i.e. derive the Infpiradon from Nature thro' his means: among whom is Ari- 
Jtolle. Nature, as fhe appears to the Senfes, is Homer's Subjed : as fhe mews her felf in Homtr, is Arijlotle's ; 
by which time the Inipiranon is grown a degree cooler, and lefs forcible, and the Ideas thus excited at fecond 
fiT-TTr?, t- I V C can attend more fteadily to 'em, and perceive their Relations better. In the 

nut it talis like Lightning, immediately from Heaven ; the fecond may be compared to the Reflexion of the 
lame in a Mirror, rhe reading of Homer, i. e. the exciting and calling up his Ideas and Images, does, as it were, 
impregnate Anftotle s Imagination ; and tranfplant the Poet's whole Nurfery into the Philofopher's Garden, to be 
tintner cultivated. Accordingly, Ariftotle applying his Apprehenfion and Reafon to 'em, and examining 'em 
Zl ' 1 T w ,' Pc rcelves dlvcrs Relations and Analogies between 'em, which Homer was not aware of; and 
wmch the Warmth of his Imagination, and the quick Succeffion of new Ideas, would not give him room to 
AM™' A f p ° S ' eS ht calls Ruks ' or Law ; the Affemblage or Syftem whereof, make what we call 



Totum hoc quo coiuinemar & u«um tft & Deus ; & fori, ejus fiim«s 8c membra. Epift. 9 2. 



THE 



*vi The T R E F A 6 %. 

THE like Procefs might be obferv'd in the feveral other Arts. Thofe we have hitherto chiefly kept to, 
have been of the fymbolical Kind : we (hall here give an Inftance in what we call the real Kind viz Architecture. 

-■ An Athenian Sculptor, then, obferving an Acanthus (hooting up under a Bafket ; is pleas d with the Figure it 

prefents", and taking the Hint, invents the Capital of a Column on the Model thereof : And by a number of 
like Steps, an entire Order gradually arofe ; and, in time, a whole Art.-~~Things thus advanced ; and another 
Perfon feein«- a Building framed after fuch manner ; he attentively examines the feveral Members their Forms, 
Proportions °&c and puts 'em down in writing : And thus does another poftenor Art anfe. And between the 
two, there ttiil remains the Subordination already obferved between the Means or Occafions of producing 'em ; 
i e the Rules thus formed being couched in Words, or Language, fupply the Office of the external Objects they 
were originally deriv'd from, and prove Occafions of raifing Ideas or Images in the Imagination of future 
Artifts, K> be imitated in the proper Materials _ ' _ 

THE Arts then of Poetry and Architedure, come firft in at Homer s, and Laliimachus s Senfe, in the fimple 
Quality of natural Phenomena, or Objects ; which meeting with other Ideas in the Memory, or Imagination, and 
coniincr to be compared and combined therewith, by the Agency of the Moral View_ or Principle which fuggefl- 
ed the making of a Poem, &?c> as advantageous and defirable ; new Produdions anle, e. g. a Poem, or a Build- 
in^ ■ which comin°- at length under the Cognizance and Confideration of Reafon, certain Relations or Analogies 

are 'difcovered therein, which tend to propagate, and produce the like at any time. Reafon returns Rules for 

Matter ■ which Rules, prove like the Philofopher's Stone, which tends to turn all Materials it is applied to, into 
Gold ; and the Materials thus tranfmuted, like the pretended multiplicative Virtue of the fame Gold, from every- 
thing they are applied to, produce Rules again. , . , r „ r , . , , 

REASON in effed, which is the laft Faculty the Matter of Art arrives at, is the firft from which the 
Form 'or Rules' thereof, which are to propagate it, arife. In which view, Reafon may be laid down as the Prin- 
ciple of this fecondary Art, or Theory ; as Imagination of the primary one, or of the Matter. We ftill 
fee the Effed of the firft Laws, even in the latter Art : External Objeas ftrike the Senfe and Imagination fo 
ftrongly ; that they reach to Reafon ; which, like an infinitely elaftick Subftance, refleds 'em back again ; and 
thus they again grow into Objeds of Senfe : and fo in a Circle. 

THIS fcems to make the two Arts differ very widely : And as Reafon appears our higheft Faculty, (inafmuch 
as 'tis this alone that tends to produce, and multiply) and accordingly, all our Knowledge appears proportionably 
higher and purer, as Reafon is more concern'd therein: the Rules or Theory of an Art, appears of infinitely 
nearer Confequence than the Matter thereof. The former is in fome Senfe adive, and, like the Almighty Mind, 
tends to produce new Things, new Worlds, new Syftems without end ; the latter is mere Pafiion, and ends in 
bare Brute Perception. 

YET, Ariftotle's Rules, it muft be obferv'd, do not tend to produce Poetry j I mean, not the Matter of Poe- 
try ; but only the Form. Ariftotle's Art is not the Art of Poetry in that Senfe ; as its Rules don't tend to pro- 
duce the Enthufiafm. They only give the human Part, and relate what Reafon obferves in the Productions of 
the Imagination, ;'. e. what there is in 'em that is a proper Objed of this laft Faculty, and comes under its 
Notice. In effed, Poetry is only fubjed to Ariftotle's Rules, as there is Reafon, not as there is Infpiration or In- 
vention in its . : „ , j 

THE Source of Poetry, we have obferved, lies out of Poetry, in a higher Ground ; and to turn the Stream 
upon us, is the Bufinefs of this other Art of Infpiration. The immediate Infpiration, is not fo immediate as we 
might imagine. It is not the ultimate Principle of Art, but is it felf fubordinate to another further, or purer 
Art ; fo that we muft not have only Art and Rules to produce Poetry, but alfo to produce the Principle thereof, 
Infpiration, or Invention. And the fame will hold of the Rules of this laft Art, themfelves, which will require 
others ; and fo in infinitum. At lead, the Series will be infinite, if we only take our felves, and our own Agen- 
cy into the Account. 

TO clear up this a little farther; it is to be obferved, that the Art, e.g. of Poetry, is not only 
the Refult of another higher Art, as above laid down ; but,' as it confifts of Matter and Form ; thefe are 
each of 'em the Subied of a particular Art, and each of 'em require another higher Art to produce 

'em. The Means, for inftance, neceffary to Infpiration, or the Invention of Images, make one Art ; and 

thofe for their Application to the prefent Purpofe, another. So that the Art of Poetry refolves it felf into 
two fubordinate ones ; the firft of which may be called the Art of Invention, the other the Art of Judg- 
ment, or Criticifm : each of which has all the Charaders of the general Art ; is come at like it, produces 

new Objcds like it, and refolves like it into Matter and Form. Nor does the Matter end here : For as 

each of thefe fubordinate Arts, confifts, again, of Matter and Form ; each of 'em refolves lower into two 
other Arts : and the lame may be faid of each of thefe ; and fo on. So that there is really an infinite Series 
of Arts, previous to any one, and acceffory thereto ; all diftind from each other, tho all of the fame general Na- 
ture and Kind, and only differing in Point of Order, or Subordinacy. They anfe fubordinately from the fame 
Caufe, and tend fubordinately to the fame End : Which Difference, or Subordination, as already noted, arifes 
only from their greater, or lefs diftance from the Principle of all Knowledge, Senfiition. 

UPON the whole, fenfible Nature furnifhes the Matter of them all, by means of the Imagination ; and 
moral Nature the Form, by means, or light of Reafon.- — The former Propofition has been fufficiently dif- 
cufs'd. It remains to inquire a little further into the latter : For, that Reafon furnifhes the Means, &c. muft be 
further qualified, ere it be receiv'd. Our Reafon, it is to be obferv'd, does not perceive any neceffary and im- 
mediate Connexion between the Means, and the Effed : for there really is none. Confequently Reafon cannot 
be the Author of 'em ; in regard, the Medium is Wanting whereby it could poflibly attain 'em. So that they 
muft be procured by fome other Canal , which will at length be found to end in Senfation. In effed, ere 
we know that fuch Means conduce to fuch End, we muft firft have obferved, or found it fo by Experience. 
Our Memory fuggefts to us, that fuch or the like Caufes, have been follow'd by fuch or the like Effeds ; 
which is the only Foundation we have to exped any thing from 'em on the prefent Occafion. — Thus, if Homer's 
Reafon dired him to retire into a Place free of Noife and Difturbance, at a time when his Mind is clear and 
in due Temper ; and there to apply himfelf with Attention and Earneftnefs, to think on his Subjed : In con- 
fequence of which Means, new Ideas and Images prefent themfelves •, fome more immediately relative to the 
prefent Purpofe, others lefs : Whence comes all this, but that Homer remembers, fuch or the like Ideas as are 
now wanted, to have arofe upon the ufe of fuch or the like Means? And if, among the Crowd o£ Images, 
he chufes only fuch as are moft proper, and immediately conducive to his End, and throw afide or expunge 
the reft -, whence is this, but that he remembers fuch, on former Occafions, to have contributed more fully 
to Ends like his own ; than fuch others ? So that the whole Procefs appears to be little other than Remembrance; 
s'hich, we know, refolves into Senfe. 

BUT, 



The PREFACE. xvu 

BUT, Memory, it is to be here noted, deals only in paft Things. It informs us, that on fuch an Occa- 
fion, fuch Means, under fuch Circumftances, produced fuch Effects : But its Notices are merely narrative or 
hiftorical ; and relate only to thofe numerical Means, Occafion, Circumftances, &c. which can never haopcn 
again. So that Memory fpeaks nothing to the prefent Cafe ; nor gives any Directions how the particular 
Purpofe now in view is to be attain'd. Its Language is only this, " Such Means did produce fuch and fuch 

" Effefts." To make the Application of pall Things to prefent, is the Office of Reafon ; which comes in 

where Memory ends ; and fubjoins, That " if fuch Means have done fo, fuch others will now do fo." And 
confequently 'tis Reafon that, in ftriftnefs, prefcribes the prefent Meafures. 

OUR Inquiry now draws towards an Iffue ; and it only remains to fhew, in what manner Reafon attains this 
End, I e. what farther or higher Means there are, whereby it is enabled to furniln. Meafures for the prefent 

Exigent, from the Circumftances of paft ones? .This it efreiSs by certain Perceptions of Similitude and Dijimi- 

litude, Parity and Imparity, Cengruity and Incongruity, between former and prefent Means, Occafions, &rV. By 
virtue of thefe, the Mind infers, argues, or prefumes, That " inafmuch as fuch Means were followed by fuch 
" Effect ; fuch others, by parity of Reafon, will be followed by fuch others :" And that " as there are fuch 
" and fuch Differences between former and prefent Occafions and Circumftances ; there mat be fuch and fuch 
" other correfpondent Variations in the prefent Meafures, to keep up the Congruity." All which refolves into that 

comprehenfive Word, Analogy. Thus it is found, that every Means, every Step of an Art, includes what 

has been already fhewn of the whole Art ; and confifts of Matter, futniih'd by Memory, from Senfe and Ob- 
fervation ; and Form, furnifh'd by Reafon, from Comparifon, and Analogy. 

AND thus it is Reafon that makes all our hiftorical Knowledge of any fignificancy to us. 'Tis this that 
makes former Cafes fubfervient to the prefent Occafion. We may look upon this, as the Inftrument or Faculty 
of transferring ; whereby the Effects of former Times and Places, are brought over to the prefent ones. Without 

this, Senfe would lofe its chief ufe ; and Memory, with all its Copia, be no other than ufelel's Lumber. 'Tis this 

Faculty alone that arranges our fenfible Ideas into any thing of Subordinacy. Memory only prefents 'em fuch as 
they firft appear'd ; wholly diftinft all, and independent of each other ; being connected by nothing but their Com- 
prefence, or Co-exiftence in point of Time and Place. The Eftabliftiment of all other Relations is the Work of 
Reafon ; which, from thefe few fenfible Relations, infers numerous others, e. g. from the Comprefence of two 
Things, in refpect of Time, Place, &c. it concludes that fome new Appearance perceiv'd in the one, was occa- 
fioned by the other ; and therefore, that there was fome Power in the latter, by which this was effected, EsV. 
And thus it is we come by the Relations or Perceptions of Caufe, EffeS ; Allwn, Pajion ; Property, Quality, &c. 
So that, to this Faculty of Reafon, we owe the whole Science of Pbyjicks; which is no other than the Doctrine 
of Caufes : At Ieaft, the Form thereof. The Matter, i. e. the Senfations themfclves, being furnifhed by Senfe, 
conftitute Natural Hijlory, the Bafis of all Knowledge whatever. 

WE are now got to the Top of all our Natural Faculties, Reafon ; and the moft refined of all our Science, 

Analogy. It remains to observe, that with this Natural Reafon, is connected Moral Inclination. In the Cafe, 

for instance, of Good ; to the Voice of Reafon representing a Thing as fuch, is connected a Defire or Inclination 
towards the fame ; which is the Spring or Principle of all human Action, or Operation ; and commands a num- 
ber of fubordinate ones, the application of all which conftitutes what we call the Purfuit of fuch Good. 

AND thus we are got to the bottom of all our moral Faculties, Defire or Inclination. Hence, as Reafon is 

the End of Paffion, or Perception ; Inclination is the Beginning of Action : The one terminating in the Ap- 
prehenfion of Good, where the other commences. And again, as the Perception of Analogy is the ultimate 
Effect of Science ; the Inclination arifing by means hereof, is the Beginning of Art : the two being join'd, and 
as it were, inofculated in fome middle Point. And thus external or phyfical Things, come to influence or produce 
internal, or moral ones ; thus the whole Effect of fenfible Nature is applied to moral Nature. And thus do 

Pbyfics take hold of Ethics ; God, of Man. Hence, moral Knowledge may be confider'd as a kind of Medium 

between Perception, and Inclination ; Action, and Pafiion ; Science, and Art : Accordingly, it pofTeffes a middle 
Region in the Orb of Knowledge ; as being that by whose Mediation, a Communication is made between the 
two •, and the Effects of the one imparted, or handed over to the other. 

BUT, to determine the Nature and Origin of Analogy ; and fhew how thefe Notices or Perceptions of Simi- 
litude, Parity, &c. by means whereof Reafon makes her Conclufions, are arrived at ; and whether they arife in 
the fame general manner as other Ideas, by the Agency of the divine Being, (the human Mind remaining wholly 
paflive therein) or whether we perceive or difcern 'em immediately, by fome intuitive Power inherent in the Na- 
ture of the Mind ; and fo are active therein—will need a little farther Attention. 

IT muft be allow'd, then, that thefe Perceptions, Similitude, &?<:. are no proper Objects of Senfe : They do not 
come from without, as any part of the Matter of our Senfations : they are of no Colour, Figure, Solidity, or the 
like. Nor do they feem to arife immediately, and neceffarily, upon any Objects being prefented ; but rather to 
require fome Action, or Operation of the Mind, to produce and give 'em being. The Truth is, they are not 
any immediate Objects, but refu-lt from a Comparifon between feveral ; which Comparifon feems to be the Work 
of the Mind, bringing one to the other, and considering their Agreement and Difagreement. 

BUT, tho this bids much faireft for Action of any thing yet alledg'd ; yet will the whole hereof be found to 
refolve into Senfe, and Memory.- — If, feeing a Sword run thro' a Perfon, I find he dies upon it ; and feeing after- 
wards a Spear run in like manner thro' another, I conclude he will likewife die : Whence is this, but that in the latter 
Cafe, fome of the Circumftances of the prefent Transaction, do neceffarily recal the Memory of the former ones : 
Since, fo far as they were alike, they were really the fame ? Confequently, as the Idea of Death was connected to the 
former ; it belongs equally to the latter. In effect, in two fimilar things, fo far as I fee a Similitude, fo far I 
fee the fame thing in both. Similitude is only a Repetition : and therefore what agrees to the one, muft, fo far 
as their Similitude goes, agree to the other, for the fame Reafon that it does to either. Hence, if I am paffive 
in remembering the Sword, and paffive likewife in feeing the Spear ; and the one be in fome refpects the fame 
with the other : I am not active in perceiving that Samenefs : fincc 'tis only the Perception of one thing twice 
over. And my knowing it to be the fame now, is only my remembring it to be what I had feen before ; with 
this difference, that the Power which firft reprefented it to me absolutely ; does now reprefent it with this additio- 
nal Circumftance, that I had feen it before. 

AGAIN, if I argue or conclude that what agrees to, or arifes from one thing; will do fo in another thing 
fimilar only in fome Circumstances : This is founded wholly on a Prefumption, that the Agreement reaches to 
thofe Points upon which the former Effect depended. So that all phyfical Caufation, in refpea of us, is mere 
Prefumption. Accordingly, the great Regulte pbilofophandi established by Sir /. Newton, that " Effeas of the 
" fame kind, arife from the fame Caufe :" and that " Qualities which agree to all the Bodies hitherto known, 
" agree univerfally to all ;" are at bottom only Prefumptions. Yet are they juft phyfical Laws ; and the bell 
the Subjea will allow of. 

e THUS 



xviii The PREFACE. 

THUS far, therefore, we fee but little that looks like Activity, even in the Faculty of Reafon. But Reafon has 
not been yet (hewn in its Height. Tho it have its Origin in phyfical Matters ; and (hew it felf firft in the Efta- 
blidiment of Caufes, Properties, (St. it reaches much higher, and is feen in its Perfection in Metaphyficks ; 
where, making its own Productions its Object, it proceeds to examine the Nature and Effence of fucli Caufe, Pro- 
perty, (Sc. And hence the Doctrine of Quality, Quantity, (St. in the General or Abftract. Nor does the 

Matter ftop here ; but the Mind (till proceeds to erect a new and moft magnificent Science of Quantities, Analo- 
gies, Proportions, (St. hereupon : founded on this Principle, that " fo fir as a thing unknown, agrees or is like 
" to another tiling known •, fo far is fuch former thing, its Nature, Effects, (St. known :" A Science infinitely 
extenfive, and productive of infinite Ufes ; as being that whereby Knowledge is applied, or transferr'd 
from one thing to another : And of infinite Certainty, as being founded on a felf-evident Propofition. It pro- 
ceeds by Definitions, Axioms, (St. But as the Things themfelves which are its Subject:, are only Abftradts, 
which are but a kind of Shadows of real and fenfible things -, fo are its Definitions, which cannot be laid to be 
Definitions in the fame Senfe as thofe of a Concrete, e. g. a Plant, an Inftrument, or the like ; inafmuch as 
they do not excite any Image or Idea in the Mind. And hence that Difficulty under which the Writers of the Prin- 
ciples of Mathematicks labour, to give intelligible Definitions of Unity, Multitude, Number, Part, Whole, &c. 

ITS Axioms are only Duplicates of fome Propofition, or the fame thing exprefs'd in two manners; the one 

direct, the other implicit ; properly call'd Identital Propofitions. Thus that Axiom, " The Whole is equal to its 

" Parts ;" eafily refolves into this other, " The Whole has the Nature and Characters of a Whole :" which 
amounts to this, " A Whole is a Whole." 

TO ilhiftrate the Progrefs of the Mind in this new Scene : Suppofe, for inftance, a Ball, or Sphere ; and 
let it be divided into two Parts.— — Our Senfes do not inform us that the two Segments thereof are equal to the 
whole one : On the contrary, they reprefent them as very unequal -, and 'tis Reafon alone that finds their Equa- 
lity. The Caufe hereof, is, that the Figure, (St. of the divided Sphere, which are the things the Eye takes 
cognizance of, are very different from thofe of the whole one ; and that the Quantity or Subftance, in which 
alone the Equality confifts, is no Object; of Sight, but only of Reafon ; which informs us that the two Seg- 
ments are ftill really the whole Sphere, only exiiting with fome variety in refpect of Figure, Place, (St. Hence 
we find it necefiary, i. e. included in the Nature and Notion of a Whole, that the Sphere be equal to its Parts ; 
and thus, by analogy, pronounce the fame Ratio univerfally between every Whole and its Parts, and fo make an 
Axiom which is the Foundation of a new kind of univerfal Knowledge. In effect, to fay that the whole Sphere 
is equal to its Parts, is no more than to fay, the Quantity or Subftance is not altered by any Alterations made in 
its Figure, Place, Number, (Sc, which is as much as to fay, that the Subftance is the Subftance, the Sphere, the 
Sphere. 

FROM fuch Axioms it proceeds to Theorems and Problems; every one whereof is refolvable into Thefts and 
Hypothefis ; each of which may be again refolved into Axioms or identical Propofitions, which is called Demon- 
ftrating. In fine, all Demonltration fuppofes Identical Propofitions, and turns on 'em; and its Certainty arifes 
from no other Principle, but the Identity or Samenefs of the Thing implied in fuch Propofitions, with the 
Thing exprefs'd. 

IT appears then, that the whole Procefs confifts in abftracting, or fetting afide the fenfible Idea that gave 
the firft Occafion, and confidering the Relations thereof by themfelves, as if they had diftinct, independent 
Exiftences. By thus excluding the Confideration of the phyfical Ens, Senfation and Imagination are of courfe ex- 
cluded, with all the Action and Infpiration annex'd to 'em ; and thus is Reafon left in full play, without any 

thing to fuperfede, or divert it.- Thus we may be faid to make a new World, and furnifti it with a new Set 

of Creatures ; and a new Doctrine, which is, as it were, the Shadow of the former. Metaphyficks, and Mathe- 
maticks, in effect:, are the Science of Enlia humana, or rationis, as Phyfics of Entia natures, or fen/us. 

BUT fuch Abftracts, e. g. Quantity, Meafure, Weight, (St. tho no immediate Objects of Senfe, have yet a 
Connexion with things which have, whereby they become of the utmoft import in the World. There is that 
Relation eftablifhed between the Faculties of Senfe and Reafon, that tho the Objects of the one be not cogniza- 
ble by the other, yet the Communication between 'em is by the all-wife Creator made very near and intimate : 
Such Dimenfions, Weight, (St. are combined by him with fuch Effects, Motions, Refinances, (St. and prove 
the Occafion of fuch and fuch Effects : which is the great Principle of all human Action, and all truly artificial 
production in the World. 

BY means of this Communication, the firft Impulfe is brought back again from the higheft pitch of abftracted 
Mathematicks, to the firft Objects of Senfe ; from F'luxions and Differences, the fartheft Parts of the Pais a" infini 
Reafon has ever travell'd to, to the grofieft and moft palpable Objects that ftrike every Senfe. And thus are 
Action and Paffion, Senfation and Reafon, Art and Science, found to reciprocate, and produce each other. 

HAVING thus difcufs'd the Nature, and Characters of Art and Sciente ; it remains to fettle the Notion of 

a TERM cf Art ; a Diction as little underftood as any thing in Language. Art and Science, we have ob- 

ferved, are Denominations of Knowledge under this or that Habitude ; and Words are Reprefentatives of the 
feveral Parts thereof. The whole Compafs of Words, in all their Cafes, is fuppos'd equivalent to the whole 
Syftem of pofiible Science ; tho 'tis only a fmall Part thereof that is actual, i. e. only a few of the portable 
Combinations are, or ever will be, made. 

THE Bufinefs of Knowledge, then, is canton'd out among the Body of Words: but they don't bear equal 
Shares thereof. Being Creatures of our own, we have dealt with 'em accordingly ; and made fome more, 
others lefs fignificant, at pleafure : fome (land for large Tracts, or Provinces ; others for little Spots, or petty 
Diftricts thereof. In effect, the Order wherein we attain our Knowledge, has occafion'd us to make a kind of 
Sortment and Package, if I may ufe the Word, in the Matter thereof. Tho the Mind only fees and perceives 
Individuals, which alone are the proper Objects thereof ; yet it has a Power of combining and complicating 
thefe together, for its own conveniency : And hence its progrefs from Particulars to Generals ; from Simple, 

to Complex. Hence we come to have Words of all Orders, and Degrees ; from the Simplicity of an Atom, 

to the Complexnefs of the Univerfe. 'Tis pleafant to trace the Mind bundling up its Ideas, and giving Names 
to the feveral Parcels ; to obferve, for inftance, how it proceeds from the fimple Idea, Thinking, to the more 
complex one, Knowledge, thence to the more complex, a Stiente, thence farther to Scientijical, &c. 

INDEED 'tis very few of our Words that exprefs fingle, or fimple Ideas. The Reafon is, that obferving 
certain Relations to obtain between the feveral Ideas ; as, of Caufe and Effect, Subject and Attribute, (Sc. 
we don't fo much confider them abfblutely and independently, as under fuch Circumftances and Relations to 
each other. The great Readinefs and Propenfity of the Mind to combine, and bundle up its Ideas, and thus 
pay, or receive 'em in Parcels, has left us very few fimple ones ; I mean, very few Names which denote only 
one Idea. The Words Atom, or Mathematital Point, ufually imply feveral Ideas ; in regard we are led 
to take their Attributes, and Relations, into the Confideration of the Subject : Thus we confider the Atom as 
hard, heavy, and invifible ; as the Principle of phyfical Magnitude ; as contributing to the Conftitution of 
Bodies, (St. Even the primary Qualities themfelves, as hardnefs, heaviness, &c. fimple as they are in their own 

Nature ; 



The 9 R E F A C R xix 

^•-iitsssjjs particuIar circumws > ** ** ^ »* - * the ir Names 



NOW, what we call a Term confider d as to .a Nature and Origin, is no other than « a Word which 
denotes an Affemblage or Syftem of Ideas relating to feme one Point, which the Mind artfully ccmnto 
or affooates together, or the convemency of it, own Operations." Or, " a Word which comprehend Hi 
- -nder a certain Relation to each other, wherehv rhev n™W™t f™«» ™,„r„. „; f „. , eveial 



Ideas under a certain Relation to each other whereby they reprefent fome complex piece of Knowlcc 
• the Mind for he convemency," &, Or " it is a Word, which holds feveral different Ideas comUn'd W 
« ther m a £dro fafa as they appear'd under when the Mind firlt confider'd 'em as a ftanding Ph^no 
" menon, and took Meafures to have 'em fix'd or retain'd in that Quality" rnayio- 

THE Effeft of Terms is, that by virtue thereof, we are enabled to receive, or communicate Knowledge 
with more eafe and dilpatch ■ forafmuch as haying proper Combinations thereof always ready made, we are fayed 
the Neceffityof beginning A ,», and detai ing it in Individuals : much as in Arithmetic!, to avoid the Em 
barrafs of a large Number of Units we tell by Tens, or Sixties, or Hundreds: With the like View on 
fome occafions, we make up certain Sums of Money in Rouleaus, or in Purfes , and thus pay and receive ''em 
without the Trouble of telling or enumerating the Contents ' 

IN this Senfe of Term, we fhall find little elfe but Terms in Language: Among Nouns, little befide 
proper Names, which indeed are out of the ordinary Cafe of Language, as ferving occasionally to denote an 
hundred d.fteren Subjects. Yet even thefe fometimes become Terms ; as, when any particular Ideas become 
conftantly attach d to em eg. In Mascenas, Machiavel, Auguftus, Mas, Bucephalus, Buccentaur, Royal Oak 
A * A among Verbs, very few but are Terms, except the general ones, to be, to do, and to fuffer. 
As all the others fuppofe thefe and modify or fuperadd fome farther Circumftance thereto ; they commence 
Terms of courfe : : inch for inftance is the Word to moiften; which, as it carries a farther meaning than the 
bare Aft of applying a Fluid to a dry Body , and denotes, e.g. the Modus of its Efteft, and the Alteration 
fupermduced by >t, m the foftenmg, lubricating, &c. is a good Term. So, to Jlrike, a it not only implies 
a certain Motion of the Arm, but this Motion, effefted by the fucceffive Contraction and Dilatation of certain 
Miricles, &c. has every thing that is effential to a Term. In the feme Senfe, a Staff is a Term as much as 
a Lever ; and a Fin, as an Axis in perurochio. 

THIS may look like ftretching a Point, efpecially to thofe who are ufed to confider Terms as Things I 
know not how quaint, and myftenous ; and make a Term and a hard Word the fame thing. But there is 
no Remedy : Complexnefs is the only Characteriftic that will be found to hold good of 'em all ; and if there 
be any other more fpecifick and d.ftinguifhing Properties in moll of 'em, as we (hall have occafion hereafter 
to mew there are, yet thefe, not being univerfal, cannot be made the Foundation of a juft Philofophical De- 
finition. They may perhaps be introduced, to good purpofe, into a popular one ; as they afford a more 
ufeful and adequate Knowledge of the Subjeft fo far as they do obtain 

THUS much relates to what we may call terms of Knowledge, which are one degree more fimple than 
the Terms of an Art, or Science; and were, for that Reafon, pitch'd upon to exhibit the common Nature, 
and Origin of both. Thefe latter ar.fe out of the former, by the Superaddition of fome new Charafter 
or Condition. They were before Members of the Commonwealth of Knowledge ; but are now incorporated 
into fome certain Province, or City thereof; where they become of farther Significance and Confideration 
than befoie : that is fome new Ideas and Circumftances are now taken into the Combination, which before did 
not belong to it.--A Term of Art, then, "is a Word that has a Meaning beyond its general, or fcien- 

nfical one; and this Meaning reftram'd to fome one Art." Or, it is « a Word ufed to denote a certain 

Combination of Ideas, under fome peculiar Relation ; retained arbitrarily in fome Art, and either not ufed 

in any other Art, or for a different Combination, or with other Relations and Circumftances." 

TO make the way a Wedmr to the Philofophy of a Term of Art, it is to be obferv'd, that from 
the primary or html Senfe of Words, we frequently, by Abftraftion, form a fecondary, general, or philofo- 
phical one, expreffing only the Quality moll predominant in the former, exclufive of the particular Circum- 
ftances of the Concrete. Thus the Word Spirit, literally and primarily fignifying Breath ; we thence frame a 
more fimple general meaning, and ufe the Word for any thin, fubtil Matter whatever.— Now, Terms of Art 
are not immediately formed from the literal, or grammatical, but from the general, or philofophical, Accep- 
tations of ^ ords ; which are their proper Bafis, or the Ground-work they are erected on. The general 
or abftract Senfe of fome Word already eftablilhed, being found to agree to fomething which we have occafion 
to give a Name to ; we take the Word in that Senfe, and fuperadd the other Incidents and Circumftances 
which the prefent Occafions furmfh, thereto: which being different according to the different Matter and Sub- 
ject of the Art fpecify the meaning of the Term in this, or that Art. So that the Word which, to raife 
it to a philofophical or identified Senfe, was generalized ; to form a Technical one is again particulariz'd, or 
appropriated, and mvefted with new Accidents. Wliich falls in with the Difference above laid down between 
Art and Science. 

THUS, the fame Word Spirit, which literally fignifies Breath, and philofophically any fubtil Subftance, is 
technically brought to denote diverfe other things; as, in Anatomy, a thin animal Juice fecreted in the Brain, 
and detach d thence thro' the Nerves for the Ufes of Senfation and mufcular Motion : in Chymiftry, the 
Exhalations of Bodies expos'd to the Fire : in Theology, the third Perfon of the Trinity : in Metaphyficks, 
any incorporeal Agent or Intelligence, &c. In all which, we fee the fame Subftralum, viz. a fine fubtil Sub- 
ftance ; but this modified a great diverfity of ways : each of which is fufceptible, by farther Super-additions, 
the'raeraiX'^k " S '° nS of forts of S P irks > bo:h in the hllman Bod y> tlle Chymifts Laboratories, 

THE Notion of a Term will receive fome farther Light from that of a DEFINITION; which is, 
as it were the Analyfis thereof.— -By Definition we undo, what was done in the Term ; that is, we refolve the 
complex Ideas into fimple ones, or reftore the Ideas from their new and artificial State, to their primitive and 
vague one. A Defmitimi then, may be defined, " an Enumeration of the feveral fimple Ideas couched under 

any 1 erm m the Relation wherein they ftand to one another."— -We have already fhewn, that Terms 
are Words which have peculiar and determinate Meanings, refulting from a certain Combination of Ideas; 
in which view, a Term may be find to be, " a Word that is capable of Definition ;" i.e. of having its Senfe 
explain d, and afcertamed by an Enumeration of its Properties, and Relations : by which it is diftinguifh'd 
fiom other Words merely grammatical, whofe Meanings are general and indeterminate, and may be ufed with 
equal propriety in a thoufand Cafes. We can explain a Term : A Word is inexplicable : all we can do to- 

T^urrc am0lmts not to Definition, but only to Subftitution. 

1 HUS the Idea attached, for inftance, to the Word Force, is abfolutely incommunicable by means of any 
J-anguage ; we can only try whether the Party have it not already, under another Name ; to which end we 

hv ii P 1 ™ tlS , ''' ° r £ner ®' or Vi S- mr > "f he have Ideas for "ny of thefc ' he ' U take in that of Fom > 

oy Kelauon thereto ; if he have not, we muft proceed to try him with more, and tell him 'tis Forza, or 

Vis, 



xx The 9 R E F A C E. 

Vis or Effcacia. or Polenlia, &c. or 'tis B<«, or \$s, 6fir. If none of thefe will do, it remains to try, whe- 
ther he may not have it, without any Name to it ; and fay, 'tis " That whereby one thing, coming in 
" contact with another, moves, or makes, or breaks it," fcfr. — If by any of thefe means he learns what Force 
is, he does not form any new Idea : he only learns a new Name ; and finds that what he calls by one Name, 
others call by another ; or that what he had never taken the Pains to diflinguifh by any Name, fome others 
have. To get the Idea, he muft have recourfe to Senfation, not to Language ; it being a phyfical Em, 

and only to be attain'd that way. , . -. , , ,,.-,. „ . , 

BUT the fimple Idea called Force, being given; and coming to be afterwards modified or circumitantiated 
by new Accidents added thereto, and thus form'd into Terms, in this or that Art ; 'tis here in the Power of 
Language, alone, to excite 'em ; by refolving fuch compound Idea into its ingredient ones, which being re- 
compounded or put together again in the manner aflign'd by the Definition, gives the full adequate Import 

thereof Thus the Idea of Force 'being varioufly modified, and combined with other Ideas of Centre, Attraction, 

Repulfion Will, Machine, &c. in the Words, Central Force, Centripetal Force, Centrifugal Force, NeceJJily or 
Moral Force, Mechanick Power, &c. we can, by Definition, arrive at the Meaning thereof; by having thofe 
Circumftance's fpecified, or fuperadded to the Idea of Force. — In this cafe, there is no coming at the Idea by 
Senfation ; in regard 'tis a Creature of our own, and does not exift any where without us, to make an Object 

of Senfe. '■ ' . ., 

HENCE appears all the diverfity of Definitions ; Technical ones, comporting only to Terms, as to Central 
Force ; Scientifical or Pbilofophical, to Qualities, as Forciblenefs ; and Nominal or Succedaneous, belonging to 
fimple Ideas, as Force. 

'TIS the various Affemblage of fimple Ideas denoted by common Words, that makes all the "Variety of 
Terms ; as 'tis of Simples in an Apothecary's Shop, that makes the Variety of his Medicines. — The Analogy 
goes farther ; and it may be faid that Terms, like Medicines, only differ from each other as their ingredient 
Ideas, and the Relations thereof do differ. — If thefe be not all rehearfed in the Definition, the Term or Me- 
dicine is not fpecified, or diltinguifhed from fome other, which may have all except that one or two omitted. 
Confequently, fuch one or two are the Characterifticks of that Term ; which may be explain'd in fome fort, 
by only enumerating thofe Characteriiticks, and couching all the reft under that other Term. This amounts to 
little more than the Subfiitntion abovemention'd ; and yet to this is reducible all that the Schoolmen teach of 
Genus, Species, and Difference. 

BESIDE fimple Words, which we have obferved are, in their own Nature, inexplicable ; there are divers 
others that become accidentally fo : And fuch are all the Data, or preliminary Principles of any Art, with 
refpect to thofe who confine themfelves to the Bounds of that Art. Thus, if it be demanded of an Apothe- 
cary, to define one of his Simples, e. g. Mercury ; he muft needs be at a ftand, unlefs he be likewife verfed 
in Minerology ; by reafon it is putting him to explain a Datum, which his Art does not explain, but affume ; 
the Explication thereof lying in another Province. For the Data or Principles of any Art, are only explicable 
from another, e. g. thofe of Chymijlry, Pharmacy, &c. from Phyficks ; Pbjficks, from Pbyfiology and Mechanicks ; 
Mechanicks from Geometry, &c. So that to explain Mercury, would to him be, in fome meafure, to explain 
a fimple Idea. But afk him to define Calomel, and he is prepared for you ; and will readily enumerate the 
feveral Ingredients, and the manner of preparing it : which is the proper pharmaceutical Definition of Calomel. 

HERE it may be obferved, that the Words ufed in the Definition of a Term, do many of 'em repre- 
fent complex Ideas ; and confequently ought themfelves to be defin'd, if we would have the Definition com- 
pleat. The Term has ufually divers fubaltern ones ; all which are refolvable into it, and make part and parcel 
of the Knowledge held forth by it. Thus, if Calomel be defined, " A medicinal Pouder precipitated from 
" a Solution of crude Mercury in Aqua fortis, by adding thereto a Lixivium of Sea Salt ; and then purified 
" by repeated Ablutions in a Filtre," &c. The Ideas, Pouder, Precipitated, Solution, Mercury, Aquafortis, A- 
Uution, Filtre, &c. remain to be explain'd, to furnifh the compleat Notion of Calomel. — But as this would be 
endlefs, and would defeat the Intention of a Definition ; the Practice obtains, to fuppofe all other Terms 
known, except that particular one under Definition. By this means, we avoid the Embarrafs of bringing down 
every Word to its Principles, or fimple Ideas ; and acquit our felves by bringing it to the next complex ones : 
Since the bringing an unknown Term to feveral known ones, is a kind of indirect Definition. 

SUCH is the Nature of a Technical Definition, which holds good or valid for thofe of that Art, or 
Craft ; who are to be fuppofed furnifhed with the necefiary Data, or preliminary Notices. But to make a 
fcientifical Definition, we muft go ftill lower ; and bring down the Words, if not to their fimple Ideas, yet 
to general or common ones. For it is to be obferved, there are great numbers of complex Ideas current 
among moft People, which therefore may be confider'd as Data, and ufed as fimple ones, for more conveniency 
fike. All technical Apparatus, then, is to be here thrown by ; and inftead of giving five or fix hard Words 
for one, the general Effect, and Meanings thereof are to be made ufe of. Thus, Calomel may be defined " a 
" white Pouder, which falls down from Quickfilver diffolved in Spirit of Salt-petre, upon cafting Salt therein ; 
" and is afterwards waflied, again and again, by pafiing fair Water thro' it," £sff. Where, tho feveral of the 
Words be complex ; yet moft People, in the ordinary Courfe of Life, have framed the complex Ideas be- 
longing to 'em : fo that they may be confider'd as fimple ones. — Yet the Definition can fcarce be faid to be 
complete, even here : The general or philofophical Senfe of Words, we have obferved, is form'd from the 
grammatical one ; and confequently the Definition ought in ftrictnefs to extend thither : The Solution, to be 
adequate, fhould go as far as the Knot ; the Analyfis as the Synthefis. 

T H Fj Reader already begins to feel this Preface grow tirefom ; and yet half the Bufinefs is ftill behind. 
When fo large a Work was to follow, he perhaps imagines he fhould have been excufed from a long Pre- 
face : and the like, probably, may the Author fay ; who, after fo tedious a Work, cou'd not be over-fond of any 
fupernumerary Fatigue. But, the Expediency of the Cafe, which fway'd and determin'd the one ; may fuffice 
to fatisfy the other. Several Matters were purpofely waved in the .Courfe of the Book, to be treated of in 
the Preface ; which appear'd the propereft Place for fuch Things as have a regard to the whole Work. 
What has been hitherto infifted on, as well as what remains, immediately affects every Article in the Book ; 
and tends, withal, to let a little needful Light into certain Points hitherto involved in great Obfcurity. I 
confider a Preface, as a kind of Vehicle, wherewithal to convey the Reader commodioufly from the Title into 
the Book. The Preface is a kind of Comment on the Title, the Book a Paraphrafe on it : Or, if you had 
rather, the Book is the Tide executed, the Preface the Title explain'd. 

HAVING, therefore, difpatched the leading Words Art, Science, Term, and Definition; 
we proceed to confider the Nature of a DICTIONARY. It were to be wifhed that the many Adven- 
turers in Print, who publiih their Thoughts under this or that Form and Denomination, would frame them- 
felves a precife Notion of the Character and Laws thereof. There is fomething arbitrary, and artificial in all 
Writings : They are a kind of Draughts or Pidures, where the Afpeft, Attitude, and Light, which the Ob- 
jects are taken in, tho merely arbitrary, yet fway and direct the whole Reprefentation. Books are, as it were, 

Plans 



The 9 k E F A C R xxi 

Plans or Profpeits of Ideas, artfully arranged, and exhibited, not to the Eye, but to the Mind ; and there is 
a kind of analogous Perfpecfive which obtains in 'em, wherein we have fomething not much unlike Points of 
Sicrht, and of Diftance. An Author, in effect, has fome particular View or Defign in drawing out his Ideas ; 
either, nakedly to reprefent fomething, or diftort and ridicule.it, or amplify, or extenuate, or difcover, or 
teach, or prove, fcff. whence arife divers kinds of Pieces, under the Names of Hiftories, Difcourfis, Trealifes, 
Effays, Inquiries, Examinations, Paraphrafes, Courfes, Memoirs, Surlefques, &c. In all which, tho the Matter or 
Subject, may be the fame, the Conduct, or artificial Part is very different ; as much as a Still-Life from a 
Hiftory, or a Grotefque, or a Nudity, or a Caricatour, or a Scene-work, or a Miniature, or a Profile, &V. 
Each of thefe Methods of Compofition has its particular Characters, and Laws ; and to form a Judgment of 
the Things reprefented, from the Pictures made of them, 'tis neceffary we be able to unravel, or undo what 
is artificial in 'em, refolve 'em into their former State, and extricate what has been added to 'em in the 
Representation : That is, we iliould know the manner thereof ; whether, e. g. they be mere Nature, 
thro' this or that Medium, in a fore, or fide-View, withinfide or without, to be feen from above or 

below ; or Nature rais'd and improv'd, for the better, or the worfe. The Cafe amounts to the fame as 

the viewing of Objects in a Mirror ; where, unlefs the form of the Mirror be known, viz. whether it be 
plain, concave, convex, cylindrick, or conick, &c. we can make no Judgment of the Magnitude, Figure, tgc. 
of the Objects. 

'TIS beyond my Purpofe to enter into the Nature of the feveral Methods of Compofition abovemention'd< 
I Ihall only note, by the way, that the firft Writers in each, mark'd and chalked out the Meafures for all that 
came after them. The feveral Manners of compofing amount to fo many Arts; which, we have already 
(hewn, are things in great meafure perfonal, and depend on the Genius or Humour of the Inventors. 

WERE we to inquire who firft led up the way of Ditlionaries, of late fo much frequented ; fome little Gram- 
marian, would, probably, be found at the head thereof: And from his particular Views, Defigns, &c. if 
known, one might probably deduce, not only the general Form, but even the particular Circumftances of the 
modern Productions under that Name. The Relation, however, extends both ways ; and if we can't deduce 
the Nature of a Dictionary from the Condition of the Author ; we may the Conditions of the Author from 
the Nature of the Dictionary. Thus much, at leaft, we may fay, that he was an Analyft ; that his View was 
not to improve or advance Knowledge, but to teach, or convey it ; and that he was hence led to unty the 
Complexions or Bundles of Ideas his Predeceflbrs had made, and reduce 'em to their natural parity ; which is 
all that is effential to a Dictionarift. Probably this was in the early Days of the Phcenician or Egyptian Sages, 
when Words were more complex and obfeure than now -, and myitic Symbols and Hieroglyphics obtain'd ; 
fo that an Explication of their Marks or Words, might amount to a Revelation of their whole inner Philofo- 
phy : In which Cafe, inftead of a Grammarian, we muft put perhaps a Magus, a Myites, or Brachman at the 
head of Dictionaries. Indeed this feems the more probable ; for that a grammatical Dictionary could only have 
place, where a Language was already become very copious, and many Synonyma's got into it ; or where the 
People of one Language were defirous to learn that of another : which we have no reafon to think could be 
very early, till much Commerce and Communication had made it neceffary. 

W H E N a Path is once made, Men are naturally difpofed to follow it ; even tho it be not the moft con- 
venient : Numbers will enlarge, and widen, or even make it ftraighter and eafier ; but 'tis odds they don't 
alter its Courfe. To deviate from it, is only for the Ignorant and Irregular ; Perfons who don't well know 
it, or are too licentious to keep it. And hence the Alterations and Improvements made in the feveral Arts, 
are chiefly owing to People of thofe Characters. There is fcarce a more powerful Principle in Nature than 
that of Imitation, which not only leads us to do what we fee others do, but as they do it. 'Tis true there 
are Exceptions from every Rule : there are Heteroclites, Perfons in good meafure exempted from the Influence 
of this Principle ; and 'tis happy there are ; witnefs fuch as Paracelfus, Hobbes, Leibnitz, &c. In effect, If an 
Art were firft broached by an happy Genius, it is afterwards cultivated, on his Principles, to advantage ; other- 
wife not : and it may wait long for the anomalous Hand of fome Reformer, to fet it to rights. Some of our Arts 
have met with fuch Hands, others ftill want 'em. 

WERE we, now, to give an abfolute and confident Definition of a Ditlionary ; we fhould fay, " It is a 

" Collection of Definitions of the Words of a Language." Whence, according to the different kinds of Words 

and Definitions above laid down, i. e. according to the different Matter, and the different View wherein fuch 
Matter is confidered, will arife different forts of Dictionaries : Grammatical, as the common Dictionaries of 
Languages, which for one Word fubftitute another of equal import, but more obvious fenfe : Philofophical, which 
give the general Force or Effect of the Words, or what is common to 'em in all the Occafions where they occur : 
and technical, which give the particular Senfe attach'd to 'em in fome one or more Arts. 

BUT, in truth, this is a little chimerical ; and is to forget what has been already faid. Tho we have 
Ditlionaries under all thefe Tides ; it would perhaps be hard to find any conformable to this Partition ; which 
is not fo much taken from what really is, as what might, or mould be. Dictionarifts are far from confidering 
their Subject fo clofely, or confining themfelves to fo narrow, tho direct, a Channel : They muft have more 
room ; and think themfelves privileg'd by the general Quality of Lexicographers, to ufe all kinds of Defini- 
tions promifcuoufly. 'Tis no wonder they fhould not keep to Views which they had not, and which could 
only arife from Refearches they never made. While the Notions of Term and Art, remain'd yet in the 
Rubbifh they were left by the Schoolmen ; thofe of Definition and Ditlionary muft needs be vague and arbi- 
trary enough ; and the Dictionarifts and Expofitors, profited by an Embarrafs it was their Bufinefs to have 
removM. They have not only built on it, but improv'd it, by a continual varying and confounding of Views, 
imperfect Enumerations, &c. 

'TIS not to be imagin'd, the Mifchiefs, and Inconveniences that have arofe from this fingle Head; the 
great Uncertainty it has introdue'd into Language; and the Obftade it has been to the Improvement thereof. 
'Tis certain it has, in great meafure, defeated the Intention of Speech ; and turn'd Knowledge which that 
was to be the Medium of, into Jargon and Controverfy. All the Confufion of Babel is brought upon us 
hereby ; and People of the fame Country, nay the fame Profeffion, no longer underftand one another.— -The 
Effect is, that our Knowledge is grown into little other, than that of Peoples Mifunderftandings or Mifappre- 
henfions of one another ; which is the only kind of Knowledge that grows ; and which will for ever grow ; 
there being the Seeds already laid of fuch Difputes, as, according to the ordinary fpreading of fuch things, 
muft overfhadow, and ftarve every thing elfe. If all Men meant precifely the fame thing by the fame Name ; 
there would be no room for their differing, upon any Point, either in Philofbphy or any thing elfe: There 
is no more poffibility of feeing the Relations of Things to each other, differently ; than of altering their Na- 
ture, and overturning the Syftem. Relations of Ideas are as immutable as the Creator's Will.--— Error, in ef- 
feft, is no natural Produaion ; nor is there any direa way of coming at it : We muff go about for it ; and 
find fome Law of Nature, to put it in our Power. So that Error is in one fenfe Truth ere it takes place ; 
only 'tis not the Truth it is taken for. 

f THE 



xxii The PREFACE. 

THE Weaknefs of our Reafon, which we complain fo much of, is in great meafure idle ; the Fault is 
foreign, and lies wholly in the Confufion of Language ; which would not only puzzle us, but the very Angels 
in Heaven, to make any thing of : Witnefs abundance of our Explications of Trinity, Hypoftafis, Subftance, 
Accident, Faculty, Liberty, Caufe, Nature, Attratlion, &c. which Divines and Philofophers fatigue them- 
felves fo much about. I am confident, that were the Almighty to infpire us with a new Language, agreeable 
to Thino-s themfelves ; it would amount to a Revelation ; and all our Duties, and Relations would be vifible 
therein.---The Difeafe, in effect, has fpread fo far, that there is little hopes of feeing it remov'd, or even al- 
leviated, without a new Language, formed ex poft fatlo, from what we now perceive. But fomething of this 

will come under Confideration hereafter ; in the mean time we venture to pronounce, that " The Reforma- 
" tion of Science, amounts to little more than the Reformation of Language." 

THERE are two Manners of writing : In the one, which we may call Scientifical, we proceed from Ideas 

and Thino-s, to Words ; that is, firft lay down the Thing, then the Name it is called by. This is the way 

of Difcovery, or Invention ; for that the Thing ought to be firft found before it be named. In this way, 
we come from Ignorance to Knowledge ; from Ample and common Ideas, to complex ones. 

T HE other, DidaSic, juft the Converfe of the former ; in which we go from Words, and Sounds, to 
Ideas, and Things ; that is, begin with the Term, end with the Explanation. — This is the hiftorical Way, 
or the way of Teaching and Narration ; of refolving the extraordinary Knowledge of one Perfon, into the 
ordinary of another ; of diftributing artificial Complications, into their fimple Ideas : and thus razing and 
levelling again what Art had erected. 

THE Dictionary comes under the latter Kind. It fuppofes the Advances and Difcoveries made, and comes 
to explain or relate 'em. The Dictionarift, like an Hiftorian, comes after the Affair ; and gives a Defcrip- 
tion of what pafs'd. The feveral Terms, are fo many Subjects, fuppofed to be known to him ; and which 

he imparts to others, by a Detail of the Particulars thereof. Indeed, the Analogy between a Dictionary and 

a Hiftory, is clofer than People at firft fight may imagine : The Dictionarift relates what has pafs'd with re- 
gard to each of our Ideas, in the Coalitions, or Combinations that have been made thereof: His Bufinefs is 
to deliver the Progreffes made in the feveral Parts of Knowledge under his Confideration, by an orderly Re- 
trofpect and Dedudion of the Terms, from their prefent complex, to their original fimple State. The Dic- 
tionary of an Art, is the proper Hiftory of fuch Art : The Dictionary of a Language, the Hiftory of that 
Language. The one relates that fuch an Art, or fuch and fuch Parts thereof, Hand fo and fo ; are managed 
fo and fo ; and the refult fo and fo : The other, that fuch and fuch a Word is ufed as fynonymous to fuch and 
fuch others. The Dictionarift is not fuppofed to have any hand in the Things he relates ; he is no more 
concerned to make the Improvements, or eftablilh the Significations, than the Hiftorian to atchieve the Trans- 
actions he relates. 

THE difference between what we commonly call the Hiftory of an Art, and a DiBionary thereof, is only 
circumftantial ; arifing from the different Views of the two Authors : The one chiefly regards the Time and 
Order when each Step, each Advance, was firft made, i. e. how it ftood with refpect to fuch and fuch ^Eras, 
or Periods of Time ; and might more properly be called the Chronology of the Art : the other regarding chief- 
ly the Object or Intention of the Art, relates its prefent Conftitution, and bow it proceeds to attain the End 
propofed. You may add, that the former primarily confiders what is paft, or already advanced; the other 
alfo what is prefent, or remains to be done : The one tells, e. g. how Mercury finding a dead Tortoife on the 
Shore, took its Shell, added Strings to it, and made it into a Lyre : The other, how a Lyre is, or may be 
made. And if you will likewife add this, that the Hiftory intermixes divers foreign, and accidental Circum- 
ftances with the Difcovery ; which the Dictionary abftracts and fets afide, and fo reduces it nearer to Science : 
you will have the full and adequate Difference between 'em. Thus the making of the firft Lyre is related 
widi fome Circumftances which have no place in the proper Structure of the Inftrument, and are therefore to 
be omitted in the Dictionary, which only takes in what belongs to the Art, or Artifts in general ; not what 
belongs to fome one of 'em. 

THE whole, in effect, amounts to this, that the firft time of doing a thing, is related by the Hiftorian 
with the feveral Particulars which in any wife, tho occafionally only and remotely, affected it : Whereas the 
Dictionarift, coming afterward, keeps more clofely and feverely to the Point, and relates nothing but what is 
effential ; that is, the firft time, the thing is confider'd as now arifing ; a new Production or Phenomenon, 
from fome analogous Principle ; and therefore we attend to the foreign Caufes that brought it forth : whereas 
afterwards, we confider it as arifing from the pre-exifting Theory, or Prefcriptions of Artifts, and thus refolve 
the Caufe into the Art it felf. 

ANY other difference which there may feem to be between the two ; is only as to more or lefs parti- 
cular ; which, indeed, is a thing that embarraffes and amufes us on many other occasions : Thus in mere civil 
Hiftories, if one relates the Series of a Campaign, another the Bombardment of a Town, and a third the 
Wounding and Death of a general Officer ; tho the two latter Subjects be only Parts of the former, yet the 
firft will be faid to have compofed a Piece of Hiftory, the fecond a Piece of Fortification, and the third a Piece of Cbi- 
rurgery. And yet there is no other difference between them, than between the Geography of a Country, and 
the Topography of a Village, or a Hillock ; the Hiftory of a Nation, and the Biography of a fingle Perfon. 

T O fay no more, the Dictionary of an Art ftands in much the fame Relation to the Hiftory thereof ; that 
the Hiftory of a People, does to the Lives of all the confiderable and active Perfons therein. Their difference 
is only as to the Point of Sight ; the Eye being fuppofed fo near in the one Cafe, as to fee the Parts dif- 
tinctly, and in the other fo far off, as to take in the Whole completely : whence the one gives you all the 
Incidents ; the other only the greater. In effect, the one is all concerted to one point of view, moft favourable 
to the Whole, and the great Parts ; the other to many ; the Eye being fhifted for each Part, to furnifh an 
adequate Reprefentation thereof. In the one Cafe, it is fuppofed within the Work ; fo as only to fee thofe 
Parts next it, which neceffarily hide the reft ; in the other, 'tis without, and can only take cognifance of thofe 
which lie outwards : So that the one chiefly difcovers how things ftand within ; the other how they ftand with 
regard to the adjacent ones. 

1AM afraid to keep the Reader any longer in this painful way of Difquifition, wherein we are obliged to 
dig for every ftep we take. It would doubtlefs feem a more agreeable, as well as more reputable Employment, 
to be raifing things on high ; than thus engaged in finking, and working under ground : A Cattle in the Air 
is an Object of Pleafure to every body, while it lafts ; and withal is eafily rais'd, and at fmall Expences. Your 
Mines and fubterranean Matters are mere drudgery, and Pioneers work ; difficult to carry on, dubious of Suc- 
cefs, and overlook'd when done. Being therefore arrived near the Surface, we take this Opportunity to quit the 
Courfe, and emerge to open Air. 

AFTER fo fevere an Inquiry into the Reafon, Nature, and Perfections of a DiBionary; it may prove dan- 
gerous and impolitick to fpeak any thing about the prefent one. From the Defign of a Dictionary in general, 
to the actual Performance of any particular one, the Language mutt be much altered. A Man would make fine 

work 



PREFACE, xx iii 

work, that fhould examine the feveral Dictionaries extant, by the Standard here laid down : None of them 

could abide fuch a Trial ; even that here ottered muft go to wrack, like the reft.- It may be remembcr'd 

that the Thing executed is allowed to come (hort of the Idea conceived : The former is only a Copy of the 
latter, and liable to all the Imperfections incident to other Copies. A thoufand things interfere : Lexicogra- 
phy, being of the Nature of an Art, deviates of cOurfe from what pure Reafon would prefcribe ; and its Pro- 
ductions come to degenerate ftill farther, by the Accidents that attend their bringing forth. The Tools, the 
Materials, and forty things come into the Account : the former prove out of order ; the latter obftinate, and 
untraceable, or perhaps not eafy to be had. In effeCt, the Author's Situation, his want of Leifure or Perfeve- 
rance, his Frailties and Foibles, nay his very Perfections and all, confpire againft it. 

INDEED, a too fervile Attachment to the Rules and Methods of an Art, in many Cafes proves incommo- 
dious and impertinent. We know that the Rules of an Art are pofterior to the Art it felf ; and were taken 
from it or adjufted to it, after the thing it felf was done. An Author, therefore, is ftill in fome meafure left 
to his own Conduct, and may confider himfelf as inverted with a fort of difcretionary Power, whereby he 
can difpenfe with fome of 'em, and go by others of his own fuggefting, where he apprehends it for the ge- 
neral advantage of the Work. The Heights of Art are never to be reach'd by the Rules, but by Genius ; by 
reafon the Rules were accommodated to a certain Concourfe of Circumftances, which rarely happens twice ; fo 
that Laws ftiould be made de novo for every new Cafe, or Condition of things. While a Perfon confiders 
himfelf as following at fecond hand, the Meafures pointed out or prefcribed by others ; he will not go on with 
that Spirit and Alacrity, as when he follows his own Bent. He fhould therefore confider himfelf in the 
Place of the firft Inventor, or as his Reprefentative, or Succeffor ; and therefore qualified to enact with the 
fame Authority for the prefent occafion, as he did for another. 

WHEN a Law is not founded on mere Reafon, as we have ihewn is the Cafe in Art -, the Obfervation of 
fuch Law cannot be enjoined on others. It may well obtain with refpeCt to the Perfon that firft eftablifh'd it, 
as being agreeable to his perfonal Reafon, ;', e. accommodated to his particular Combination of Genius, Situa- 
tion, and other Circumftances ; but can't extend to thofe in whom this Combination is different. Accordingly, 
Few Laws of Art are univerfal. Small matter by what Laws and Prefcripts a People is guided, provided they 
be led on to Happinefs -, or by what Courfe a VefTel fleers, if fhe do but make a prolperous Voyage. 

WITH this View, in the prefent Work, we have taken all the Advantages the nature of the Thing would 
afford us ; and have frequently made our felves Delinquents againft ftriCt Rule, for our Reader's good. — A Dic- 
tionary, by our own ConfefTion, is to be a Hiftory ; and yet we have not kept fo clofe to that Form, as to 
abandon the Benefit of all others. In the bufinefs of Mathematicks, for inftance, the regular way is to re- 
late, of enumerate the feveral Matters belonging thereto, without inveftigating or demonftrating their truth : 
Demonftrations, ftriCtly (peaking, have nothing to do in a Dictionary, no more than anth ntick Inftruments, 
Declarations, ISc. in a Hiftory. To pretend to demonftrate the feveral Properties and Relations, e. g. of Lines, 
Angles, Numbers, &c. in a Dictionary, were an Indifcretion as great, as for an Hiftorian to produce Certificates, 
and Copies of Parifh Regifters, of the Births, Burials, Marriages, &c. of the feveral Perfons whofe Actions he 
relates.— -And yet, on fome extraordinary Occafions, we have not forbore to give Demonftrations •, where, for 
inftance, there was any thing very interefting, or important in 'em : A Practice which Hiftorians themfelves 
frequently give into -^ tho it be a conferred Irregularity, as it breaks in upon the Unity of the Narration, and 
accordingly gives their Work the Denomination of Mix'd Hiftory. 

BUT we are far from the Views of fome DiCtionarifts, who think it incumbent on 'em to demonftrate 
every thing that is capable thereof. This is direCtly to forget their Quality ; to corrupt the Integrity of the 
Work mal a propos ; 'tis being licentious, and impertinent at the fame time, and difpenfing with the Rules to 
their own coft. How dear, e. g, muft a competent Demonftration of moft of Euclid's Propofitions be here 
purchafed ? Either the Reader muft be at the Pains of picking it piecemeal from out of twenty feveral parts of 
the Book, where the Alphabet has happen'd to caft it ; or the Author muft relinquifh the Advantages of a 
Dictionary, and deliver things together, that properly belong to fo many feveral places ; or there muft be a 
Repetition of the fame thing a dozen times over. And for what ? why, to make the DiSionary do the Bu- 
finefs of an Euclid's Elements ; which it is the unfitteft in the World for. You might with equal propriety make 
an ozier Bafket fupply the Office of a Pleafure-Boat ; or a Sword-pummel that of a Portmanteau, as Paracelfus 
is faid to have done. 

WHEN a thing has been once regularly demoriftrated, it may be afiumed, or taken for granted : every- 
body perhaps may be concerned in the Truth of it; but not to fee the Truth of it. To make it a Principle 
to take nothing upon truft, would be as troublefome in the Sciences, as in Life ; and we muft remain for 
ever, both wretched, and ignorant. Not only Suppofirions, but even Errors, frequently lead us to Knowledge 
btherwife inacceflible. Mathematicians themfelves, who of all others keep moft to Demonftration, yet find 
themfelves under a frequent Neceffity of admitting and making ufe of things as true, which they do not fee 
to be fo ; and thus are fway'd, like other People, by Authority. A Perfon who makes ufe of the Equality 
of the Square of the Hypothenufe, to the Squares of the two Sides ; upon the Credit of Pythagoras, or Eu- 
clid's having demonftrated it ; does little more than what they themfelves do on many Occafions, who afiume 
and -make ufe of Propofitions they have no other evidence of, but the knowledge or remembrance of their 
having been demonftrated. 

THE Cafe is much the fame with experimenting ; which ftands On the like footing as demonftrating. They 
are both neceffary in their kind ; the latter, as it leads on our Knowledge, the former as it follows, and fe- 
cures the Rear : But their ufe is to be reftrained to thefe Purpofes ; and may be difpens'd withal in Cafes 
where neither of thefe are concerned. A Perfon who would difcover any Point in Phyficks, or broach and efta- 
blifh any Point in Mathematicks, muft ufe 'em : But the Occafion is in great meafure private, and perfonal ; 
and does not extend to the Publick in the fame degree as the Knowledge of the DoCtrines themfelves. That 
is, the particular means by which a thing was firft come at, or is fhewn to be true, do not intereft us fo 
immediately as the Knowledge of the thing it felf, which might have arofe from various other means, and in 
other manners : A Man may know a thing in the way of Prefumption, of Opinion, of Surmife, of Authority, 
and forty other ways ; which, tho all much inferior and lefs excellent than the way of Demonftration, and 
Certainty ; yet we are glad of 'em on many occafions, and ufe 'em to good purpofe. Every degree of 
Knowledge is valuable. It would be an unreafonable, as well as an incommodious Sullennefs in us, to refufe all 
Light, except that of Noon-day. We find our Eafe and Happinefs frequently depend on the doing of things 
by Twilight, or even Moon-light, or the ftill more dubious Light of, perhaps, a Rufh or a Glow-worm. 

PTTHAGORAS, in all probability, was not ignorant of the Equality of the Square of the Hypothe- 
nufe, &c. before he demonftrated it ; elfe, what fhould have led him to look for the Demonftration ? And the 
like may be laid of many of Mr. Boyle's Experiments. Plato even obferves, that " the very putting a Quef- 
" oon, implies fome Knowledge of the thing demanded ; fince without this we mould not know that what is 
" returned is an Anfwer." 

LESS 



xxiv The 9 & E F A C R 

LESS might have fufficed, to fhew why in the Courfe of this Work we have ufually omitted the Appa- 
ratus of Demonftrations, and Experiments ; and given the Doctrines pure and uncumbred by any thing not ef- 
fential to 'em. The Experiments, for inftance, which led to the Theory of Light, and Colours, what would 
they be, but like the Scaffolding before a fine Building, which break and interrupt the Si°-ht, and hide moft of the 
Beauties of the Work? Such Scaffolding, 'tis true, would be of ufe to the Connoiffeurs ; who might have a mind to 
examine the Work, to meafure the Proportions of the feveral Parts, and inquire whether every Stone were juftly 

laid. But to the generality it would rather be an Incumbrance, much to the difadvanta<*e of the Work. . 

Yet, in the Cafe of Experiments, as of Demonftrations, we have receded a little from ftrict Method, in favour 
of fuch as have any thing very remarkable or beautiful in 'em. For the reft, the Reader, if his Curiofity ferve 
him, is told where to have 'em at firft hand. 

I N the Cafe of Definitions, too, we do not keep inviolably to what has been above laid down ; but referve to 

our felves the difcretionary Right above fpecified. We make ufe occasionally of all forts of Definitions, as 

they beft fuit our Defign, the conveying of Knowledge. _ In effect, we have ufually a Regard to the decree of 
notoriety, importance, Wc. of the Term, tho a Point arbitrary, and indefinite enough ; and endeavour^to ac- 
commodate the Explication thereto. 'Tis a Rule with us, to fay, Communia proprie, propria communiter ; to exprefs 
common Things fo as that even the Learned may be the better for 'em ; and the more abftract and diffi- 
cult, fo as even the Ignorant may enter into 'em. Accordingly, in popular Terms we endeavour to o-ive 
a technical Definition, i. e. to wave the general and obvious Meaning, which is fuppofed to be known ; 
and enter farther into the nature of the Thing, not known : As in defining of Milk, &c. But in the more 
remote Terms, the popular and nominal Definition is alfo given, as being fuppofed to be here wanted. 

THE literal and technical Definitions of a Term, are lame and imperfect without each other; the firft o-ives 
its Ufe and Effect, as part of general or abftracted Science ; the fecond, as applied to fome particular Subject. 

■J The literal Notion, e.g. of Relation, is that of " conformity, dependence, or comparifon of one thing to 

" another :" Thus much is common to Relation, both in Grammar, Logick, Geometry, &c. i. e. it expreffes 

this, both when applied to (fords, to Propfitions, to Quantities, &c. The technical Notion of Relation in 

Grammar, is " the dependence of Words in Conftruction :" This makes the grammatical Notion of Relation, 
i. e. it limits or ties down the general abftract Idea of Relation, to the particular Subjed of Grammar, Words'. 
Again, the technical Notion of Relation, with regard to Arithmetick, Geometry, &c. is " the conformity, or 
" dependence between^ two or more Lines or Numbers ;" i. e. the Mathematicians adopting the Word into 
their Art, reftrain its literal or general Meaning, to fome particular Purpofes of their own, ;'. e. to Quantities. 

FROM the whole, it follows, that the two Kinds of Definitions differ as an Art and a Science ; as general 
and particular Reafon ; and again, as abftract, and concrete. And hence, from the feveral technical or particular 
Meanings, one might of themfelves run back to the general, or literal Meaning, by abftracting ; but not con- 
trariwife, from the general or abftraft to the particular ones ; in regard thofe other are arbitrary, and depend on 
the good pleafure of the Artift who firft introduc'd them. 

_ ACCORDING to ftrictnefs, every Term fliould be firft given in its literal, or grammatical Meaning ; efpe- 
cially when the fame is a Term in feveral Arts ; as this helps to fill up the Series, and fhew the orderly Deriva- 
tion of the Word, a prhnis naturalibus, from the firft fimple Ideas that gave rife to it, to its laft, and utmoft 
Compofition. This is like giving the Root of the Family ; which is certainly necefiary to its Genealogy — Yec 
we have not always kept to this Method. In fome Words, there is a deal of the literal import of the Word 
preferv'd in the Term or the technical one ; as in the word Free, or Freedom : A Man who has a Notion of 
Freedom in its common or literal Senfe, will eafily pafs on to all the particular ones, as Free City, Free Port 
Freedom of Speech, of Behaviour, &c. So that in this Cafe, a literal Definition might almoft alone fuffice ■ the 

Word having fuffer'd very little at the hands of Artifts. In other Words, the literal or primary import of the 

Word, is almoft loft in the Term : for inftance, in the Term Power,. in Arithmetick ; which will fcarce bear 
any tolerable Definition at all. Literally, the Word implies a Relation of Superiority or Afcendency over fome- 
thing, which in refpect hereof is conceiv'd as weak, tsV. According to the analogy of Language therefore 
the Arithmetical Power fhonld have fomewhat of this relation of fuperiority over the Root : ^But the Root it 
felf is alfo a Power: So that the Definition of Power muft take in two oppofite Relations, viz Power and 
Subjection. 

PERHAPS, to go in the moft regular manner, and take up things from their Source •, one mould becrin 
with fettling their Etymologies : but the great alterations Words undergo, and the great length they are run 
from their original Meanings, in being borrowed from one Language or Age to another, would frequently make 
this not only a tedious, but an ufelefs Labour : fo that here, too, we have ufed a difcretionary Power, and only 
meddled with Etymologies where they appear'd of any fignificance. 

TO explain a Term as a Term, we ufually exprefs the Circumftances wherewith it is attended in the Art 
to which it belongs, in their artful Names. This is agreeable to the manner of Artifts, who writing of their 
refpeaive Arts, ufe Terms as common Words, and fuppofe 'em to be known : and 'tis this that conftitutes a 
technical Explanation ; not the giving the general Effect or Force, in fuch Words as may equally agree to all 

other Arts. And yet in fome Cafes we recede from this Rule, particularly in divers of the lower Clafs of 

Manual Arts, and the Structure of fome Machines : Thus, e. g. in Turnery, we make no difficulty for inftance 
mftead of Chuck, to fay a round piece of Wood, &V. The reafon is, that where the feveral fubordinate Terms 
or a Definition are themfelves explain'd in their places, we may fuppofe 'em underftood ; but where the Term 
defined is it felf fo low, that we do not go lower to define the Parts couched under it ; there we chufe as more 
fcientifical, to fubftitute fome more obvious Name, or the general Meaning of the Word for the Term it felf • 
and thus prefer the general or popular, to the technical Definition. 

• F L°?c- t V? be obferved > that the Dictionary has its Limits ; it only carries Matters fo low; to a certain 
pitch or Simplicity where we fuppofe People may take 'em up, and carry 'em farther as they pleafe We brina 
em into their Sphere and fo leave 'em. So much Knowledge, i. e. fuch a number of complex Ideas as we 
may prefume em ufually to have got m the common Occurrences of Life, we are willing to fuppofe, as a Foot- 
ing : where thefe end, our Diftionary is to begin, which is to take in the reft 

II? at any time we explain a complex Idea, which it may be fuppofed moft People have form'd ; 'tis becaufe 
we think they don t take in all the fimple Ideas that go to conftitute it: as in the Cafe of Milk, Blood or 
the like; where People are contented with two or three of the more obvious Properties and Phenome- 
na, and fiur over the reft.— -Thus in M.Ik Whitenefs and Fluidity are almoft alone confidered; and thdT 
in the common Opinion, conftitute Milk ; fo that whatever has thefe two Attributes, comes in for th* de- 
nomination Mdky The Texture and component Parts of this Milk, the manner of that Fluid's bein* 
fecreted collected, He, with the peculiar Properties, and Virtues refulting from all thefe are left behind" 
So m Blood, 'tis enough it be -a redd.fi, pretty compacl, animal Juice, when warm fluid and homogeneous &c 
This is going a great way, and even the Di&onaries feldom go farther: But, for the component" Parts' t£ 
CrW-and Serum; with the component Principles of thefe, viz. the CHI, Phlegm, &cc their Form Properties' £rV 



The PREFACE. xxv 

whence arife die Cnifis, Colour, Heat, Specific Gravity, &c. of Blood ; Writers don't ordinarily trouble them- 
felves. 

IF, by the Artifice abovementioned, we get free of a vaft load of plebeian Words, which mutt have 
greatly incumber'd us ; the Grammar and Analogy of Language difengages us from a ftill greater number 
of all kinds. The various States of the fame Word, confider'd as it comes under different Parts of Speech, 
and accordingly affumes different Terminations, increafes the Lift of Terms immenfely : as, in Dark, Dark- 
nefs, Dark/ring ; Projecl, Projection, Projetlile, Projective, &c. which may either be confider'd as one and the 
fame Word under different Habitudes ; in regard there is a common Subftratum of them all : or, as fo 
many different Terms ; in regard every one takes in fomething not contained in the other. This Lati- 
tude we make life of occafionally ; and either confider the Words this way or that, as feems moft advanta- 
geous to our purpofe. In fome Cafes, where the Alteration is merely grammatical, we content our felves to 
explain 'em in one ftate, e. g. Shearing ; and fuppofe the Reader able, by Grammar to form the reft, as 
Shorn, &c. In others, where feveral particular Ideas are arbitrarily fuperadded to the Word in one Part of 
Speech, which do not belong to it in another, we there explain it in all : as, Precipitate, Precipitant, Precipi- 
tation, &c. 

T HI S gives an occafion to mention a ftrange kind of Licenfe frequently practis'd in our Language. Tho 
there be ordinarily a great deal of difference between the feveral States or Modifications of the fame Word, e. g. 
Reflecting, Reflexion, Reflexible, &c. the fame as between the Action and Quality, the Power and the Exercife of 
it in this or that Cafe, the Caufe and the Effect ; yet Authors make no difficulty of ufing 'em promifcuoufiy : 
which would make downright Nonfenfe, were the Readers to keep to the ftrict import of the Words. But 
the Truth is, we are not fo critical about the Matter ; if the Meaning come within our reach we jump at it, and 
are glad to take it ; without waiting to fee whether it would reach us in its prefent Direction, or whether it 
might not rather fall ftiort, or fly by us. What Confufion fhould we make, even in our beft and cleared Wri- 
ters, were we refolved not to underftand 'em but according to the ftrict Rules of Grammar, and not indulge 
'em the petty liberty of ufing quid pro quo, one part of Speech for another ? In a thoufand Cafes, the fame 
Idea is denoted by oppofite Terms : Thus, we fay, fuch a Medicine is good for, or againft the Worms, 
Plague, &c. 

IT may be urged, that as Cuftom has authoriz'd this latitudinarian Practice, it is become of grammatical 
Authority ; and that as the Licenfe is known, it can't deceive us ; fince the Readers are led on fuch occafions 
to relax the Bands of Grammar, and annul the difference between the Parts of Speech, in order to admit one 

a fubftitute for another. But I am afraid this expedient fcarce indemnifies us from the Abufe. Befides the 

extraordinary embarrafs of reading what is thus promifcuoufiy wrote, 'tis not always we know when and how to 
fuperfede the ftrict import of an Author's Words, and make him fpeak Senfe in his own defpite. This I 
take to be none of the leaft occafions of Controverfy and Difpute owing to Language, and which we. may 
almoft defpair of feeing rectified, unlefs in a new one. 

I SHALL not here enter upon the Merits and Defects of the Englijh Tongue, confidered as a Language : 
A great deal has been faid on that Head by others, for which the Reader may turn to the proper Article in 
the Dictionary it felf. This Place we referve, not for other Peoples Notions, but our own ; and what we 
have to add, will be chiefly as it ftands with regard to Art, and more particularly to a Dictionary of Arts. 

I BELIEVE none will queftion but we met with Difficulties enough in the Courfe of this Work. The 
very Bulk and Dimenfions of it confefs as much, and the Variety and Uncertainty of its Matter ftill more. 
But thefe were in fome fort natural Difficulties, and ought to be confider'd as neceffarily appendent to the very 
Effence of the Defign ; and therefore did not afflict us fo much as thofe that rofe from it at fecond hand, or were 
fuperadded to it, as it were, by Accident. And fuch was the prefent wild State of our Language, which alone 
were fufficient to have baffled the beft Scheme, and broke thro' the beft Meafures that could be form'd. 

W E have already reprefented Language as fomething very important •, and as having a near and neceffary 
intereft in Knowledge. Names, we here add, are folemn things, as they are Reprefentatives of Ideas themfelves, 
and ufed on moft occafions in their ftead : and Terms, or Combinations of Ideas, are ftill more fo ; as much 
as complex Engines, are of farther and nicer Confideration thanjhe fimple mechanic Powers. But who would 
imagine this, to confider the wanton ufe we make of 'em ; and with how little Fear, or Difcretion, Words are 
treated among us ? Every body think themfelves privileg'd to alter, or fet afide the old, and introduce new 
ones at pleafure. England is open to all Nations, at leaft in this refpecr. ; and our Traders in this Commodity, 
import their Wares from every Country in all fecurity. The mercantile Humour feems to have poffeffed every 
Part of us, fo that we are not only unwilling to be without the natural Produce of our Neighbours Countries, 
but we even envy 'em their Falhions, their Follies, and their Words. Scarce a petty Author that appears, 
but makes his Innovations : But when a Dictionary comes out, 'tis like an Eaft India Fleet, and you are fure 
of a huge Cargo. The Effect is, that our Language is, and will continue in a perpetual flux ; and no body 
knows whether he is mafter of it or no. The utmoft he can fay, is, that he had it for fuch a Day, exclufive 
of what has happen'd fince. 

A M A N never knows when he is at the end of the Terms, e. g. in Architecture. When he has got two 
or three Names, for fome one Member, and thinks himfelf overftock'd, 'tis odds he has not half. 'Tis not 
enough he knows what it is named in the Englijh ; but he mutt likewife learn what the French, Italians, Latins, 
and Greeks, likewife call it, or frequently find himfelf at a ftand. Thus it is in the Cafe of Fillets, Lifts, Lif- 
tels, Reglets, Platbands, Bandelelts, Tarnias, and Baguettes ; of Chaplets, Aftragals, Baloons, and Tores ; of Gulas, 
Gueules, Doucines, Cimas, Cymatiums, Ogees, and Talons; Ovums, Ovolos, Echinus' s, Quarter-rounds, Boultins, &c. 
between which, there is no known, allowed differences ; but they are either ufed indifcriminately, or diftinguifii'd 
arbitrarily •, one Perfon making this diftinction, and the next another, or perhaps none at all. So that if we come 
ftrictly to Dictionaries, we fhould have a different one for every Author. 

BUT the Mifchicf does not end here: for as the antient Arts are in many refpects different from the mo- 
dern ; the ufe of their Terms neceffarily involves us in a new Confufion, and makes the fame Word ftand in 
an ancient Author for one thing, and in a modern for another. Thus it is in Paraftata, Orthoftata, Anta, &c. In 
effect, there is that Alteration continually making in the Language of Architecture, that there ought, in Pro- 
priety, to be a different Dictionary of it for every different Age. 

THE Truth is, a fourth part of the Words in fome of our popular Dictionaries, ftand on no better Autho- 
rity, than the fingle Practice of fome one fanciful Author ; who having an intemperate Defire to Ihew either his 
Learning or Breeding, has met with Dictionary-Writers fond enough to take his Fripperies off his hands, and 
cxpofe 'em to the Publick for legitimate Goods. By fuch means, thefe Exotics have obtain'd a kind of Curren- 
cy ; fo that a Diftionary would be thought defeflive without 'em. To omit even our Fopperies would be 
thought a Failing ; and might even be efteemed by many as the moft unpardonable of all. On thefe ac- 
counts we have been oblig'd to temporife a little, how much foever againft our Will ; and thus perhaps have 

„ contributed 



XX vi The 9 R E F A C E 

contributed to the ftill further Eftablithment of a number of Words, which we had much rather have ten pro- 

'''uPON'hfwhok? hettag could be more defimble than an If* WW***. « clear the Language 
of our fuperfluous Words, and^quivocals-, all the modern , French and //««« Terms in the everal Arts, where 
we Li," and G^« ones -, 'and even all the Latin and G^ ones, where we have Engl.Jh or Saxon ones, 



all the modern French and ito&M Terms in the feveral Arts, where 
II the Latin and Greek ones, where we have Englijh or Saxon ones, 
• learned Languages ought to have the preference to the modern, be- 
> rend but not to have travelled ; and our Country Words I would 
came every rer.on may uc '^Y^---^ fe "^ >M ; and thcy ufuaUv rctain more of the Origin 
.order to anv others, became there lb rne iiiuil uuuh. j ^ _> j j tv-o: 

ffibJL than thofe tranfplantedfrom other Languages.— Such a Reform would reduce our DiChona- 
' iblc Dimenfions ; and difincumber the Arts from halt the difficulty now to be lurmounted 

nother Spifiha; of Words no lefs prolifick than that hitherto fpoke of, and which has pro- 
fpurious, mithapen Words, which no Nation but our own would ever have own'd : I mean 
or making Emlifh Words, by a fort of analogy; from the Latin and Greek ones. This 



m attaining em. 

dJLd T'Swarm of^urious/ miihapen Words, which no Nation but our own : ever nave own 

th Itch of coining or making B&k Words, by a fort of analogy, from the -.Lam and Greek ones This 
Faul he Tribe of Lexicographer! have carried to a ftrange excels. How mult a Man ftare, to fee what de- 
teftable Stuff fome late Writers of that Clafs have complimented us with: Words o their own manuftdhire, 
fcarce fit to do any thing with, except cure Agues! Witnds fuch as Sapbfity, Swuhus, Scanty, S,c- 

amis ; and many thouland more, 
'ithout. One would almoit 




lc „royed that fuch Grotefques were cait in, tor tear or new nnincffions. We are already over- 
run with this Author's Scarecrows : but what fhall we be when, having thus angheis d all the Greek and Latin Words, 
he proceeds to do the fame with the Dutch, Injh, Weljh &c. Indeed, X am Die lefs angry with him for 
that he has carried the Abufe fo far, as muft not only lave People from being feduccl but bring the Prac- 
tice into Contempt. Such Monfters can't poffibly live long : if they have efcap d the Midwife who ought to 
have ftranglcd 'era ere they came to light, yet if ever they for abroad they muft infallibly be knock'd 

° HO W 'oddly will our Practice in this refpeS look, when confronted with that of our Neighbours ? One 
of die molt learned Men and greateft Critics of the laft Age, M. Menage, mcurr dan infinite deal of Cenure, 
for only endeavouring to introduce the fingle word Profateur : and could not lucceed in it, notw.thl anding that a 
Word of that import was confeffedly wanting in the French ; and both the Sound and Analogy of the new Word 
were unexceptionable. • - , • "•'■ c , c , , 

TO return. The different ftate of different Arts is very remarkable Some of em are refined to a degree 
of fubtilty that deftroys 'em ■, as Metaphyfics, and Logics : others have had no refinement or polifhing at all, 
but lie wafte and over-run for want of it ; as Agriculture, Heraldry, &fc The groflnefs of fome a their faults 
it being fuch as difgufts, and forbids a delicate Mind from purfuing them : in others their fubtilty and nicety 
is their bane, as leaving nothing for a hearty Appetite to feed on. W hat meagre fare for inftance, are the 
School Rules, and Doctrines of Medians, Extremes? &c. They do indeed furnilh us with Relations, and true 
Relations too ; but thefe fo remote from all Purpofes of Life, that they are in great meafure mfignificant. 

'TIS certain all our Knowledge and Arts ultimately refer to the great End of Prefervation. The Faculties 
of the Mind, like thofe of the Body, were not given us for the mere Exerci e, or Gratification of 'em ; but 
in fubferviency to farther purpofes. Our Knowledge is all of the Nature of Revelation ; and the divine Being 
reveals nothing to us for the mere vague fake of our knowing it, but that it may mimfter to his Ends, the 
beina and well-being of his Creatures. Our Perceptions and Notices are all Initruments in his hands, which 
he has appointed to do his work, and bring about the wonderful and adorable Ends of the Creation. They 
are fecond Caufes, or at leaft Occafions of what we do ; and no doubt are under the Diredion of him for 
whom we do ; whofe Glory is ferved thereby. Tho they extend to abundance of things, yet they all centre 
and terminate at laft in our Prefervation ; and accordingly, as they are farther from, or nearer to this Point, 
they are found fainter or ftronger : very near they are palpable and cogent ; as they recede, they continually 
abate of their clearnefs, and evidence ; and when arrived at a certain diftance, dwindle to nothing, and are loft. 
At a great height from this Centre, the Nexus or Chain whereby things are held together, and in virtue whereof 
we proceed from things knowrfj to things unknown, becomes infenfible ; fo that we lofe our hold, and wander on 
we don't know where. Our Faculties here fruiter ; the Objects they meet with are inadequate to 'em ; the Air 
grows too thin for Refpiration. But, where we leave off, there poffibly fome fupenor Order of Beings may take 

It tip.. We have, indeed, a kind of Comets in the Affair of Learning, which feem to be got far out of the 

Orb ; fo that one would wonder how they came there, or what fuftains 'em ; as alfo what they do there. Such 
are, mere Antiquaries, Etymologifts, Microfcomfts, Alchymifts, Phyfiognomifts, and other Searchers of Futu- 
rity : But thefe, for all their feeming diftance and irregularity, do all refpeit the lame central Point, and 
move by the fame Law with others -, and even anfwer very good Purpofes to the whole. 

I N eft'ed, the feveral Arts have been cultivated to more or lefs purpofe, as our Prefervation is more or lefs 
immediately interested in 'em ; and by this Key one might almoit venture to judge which Arts are capable of 

bein<* carried ft.ll farther, and which not. Our Knowledge of very great and of very little things, is very imper- 

fe&*e. g. of very great and little Objefts, Diitances, Sounds, &c. And the reafon, no doubt, is, that there is 
but little Relation between us and them ; fo.that we are but little interefted in the Knowledge of them. Thofe 
things we have neceffarily and immediately to do withal, are made to our reach : for the reft, no matter, to the 
Creator's chief Purpofe, what they are. 

AND yet our Leifure and Curiofity have found means of making even thefe more cognizable than other- 
wife they are : we can, in fome meafure, alter the eftablilhed Relation between our Faculties and their Objects ; 

and make ufe of one Law of Nature, to undo or fuperfede another. Thus we can magnify a little Sound 

or little Body, or a little Diftance, &cz or we can diminifh large ones ; and thus make things in fome meafure 
adequate Objects, that naturally are not fo. 

BUT there is no great advantage in this : We only, by thefe means, come at a better apprehenfi'on of 
things which Nature feem'd to put out of our way for no other reafon but becaufe they did not concern us ; 
left we mould be engaged to miftake, and run after things that had no relation to us, to the neglect of 

thole which have. Thus, Anatomy is really found of much lefs ufe than at tirft fight one would imagine ; 

as being employ'd in taking things afunder and confidering their Parts, which Nature chiefly intended to 
be confideVed and dealt with together. There is I know not what fecret Law, whereby the Effect of a thing 
is, as it were, attach'd to its integral State ; fo that in proportion as you either diminifh it, by taking from 
it, or enlarge it by adding to it, its Effect is alter'd, in a manner beyond what we can \?ell account for from the 
bare Confidnation of Magnitude. 

ABUN- 



The PREFACE: javii 

ABUNDANCE of the lei's ufeful Notices, we find, Were kept back, and left to be accidentally turned 
up in courfe of time : fuch as the Knowledge ol" Glafies, and their Eftects. 'Twas no very important matter whe- 
ther they were known or not ; their ufes were not immediate. If they had, the things themfelves would have 
been palpable, and neceffarily difcovered long ago. Men lived tolerably well without knowing how many Feet a 
Loufe had, or how many Years a Cannon Ball would be in travelling to the Sun. The Rtfrangibilily of the 
Rays of Light in palling different Mediums, which is the great Foundation of all our optic Glafies ; feems 
only a fecondary Property or Effect ariling from another Power, or property of AttraBion between the Light 
and the Medium ; which it felf probably arifes from fome other. And there feems nothing abfurd in ima- 
gining that Nature did not immediately intend fuch Refrangibility ; but that it follow'd accidentally, from fome 
Principle which fhe did intend : So that the great modern Invention of Glafies, might be an accidental Deriva- 
vation, from fome of Nature's Redundancies. In effect, the only things left to Study and Art, may be thcfe 
very Redundancies ; the other Matters, which primarily concern us, being learnt in a more immediate manner, 
N O body will take this for a Reflection on Art : 'Tis only a Panegyrick on Nature : an Illuitration of her 
Goodnefs in contriving that things moil neceifary and ufeful, mould be molt obvious, fo as to be almoft difcovcr- 
able by a fort of Inftinct ; and the other lefs immediately ufeful ones, left to be accidentally turned up in the 
Courfe of Experiment and Difquifition. We may admire her Wifdom ftill farther in this, that fhe fhou'd as 
it were go out of her way, and annex a fort of Pleafure, beyond her main Purpofe, to the Knowledge even 
of things not immediately ufeful ; in order to engage us to Induftry and Activity. This fhews that lhe has 
Ends to ferve by that very Activity ; and perhaps is the belt Demonftration in the World of the Neceffity we 
are under to purfue Knowledge ; and may raife a Sufpicion, that this very Purfuit may poffibly contribute to 
our Prefervation in fome farther manner not ytt attended to. 

'TIS no wonder the School Philofophy mould be carried fuch a length; confidering the narrownefs of its 
Subject, and the great number of hands to cultivate it for fo long a time. Its chief Employment is 
in afligning, and enumerating the Characters and Differences of our Perceptions, or internal Objects, taken as 
they are excited in us in the natural Courfe of things ; by which it is diftinguifhed from the Modern, which 
is chiefly imployed in means to vary and modify thefe Perceptions ■, and thus find out farther Relations and 

Differences than would otherwife have appear'd.- The Philofophers of the former kind are contented to take 

Nature as fhe comes home to 'em ; and apply their Reafonings thereto without more ado : Thofe of the latter, 
go out in queft of her, to have more Matter to reafon upon. The former are more contemplative, the lat- 
ter more active ; the former, in fine, reafon, abftract, and difcourfe more ; the latter obferve, try, and relate 
more. 

HENCE we difcover why the Old is much more perfeft in its kind than the New. The former has little 
to do but compare, order, methodize, (Sc. what is ready at hand ; the latter has lilcewife to find -, after which 
all the labour of the other itill remains. The former takes Nature in all her Simplicity ; the latter adds Art 
to her, and thus brings Nature into confideration in all her diverfity : the former chiefly confiders natural Bo- 
dies in their integral State ; the latter divides, and analyfes 'em : So that the former finds moft of the princi- 
pal Relations, the latter many more curious, and amufing ones. Hence, the former haltes to its Perfection, 
and can't long hold out ; for that its Matter is limited : the latter can fcarce ever arrive at it, fince Experi- 
ments are endlefs. To fay no more, to have Philofophy in its perfection, wc (hould have the Order, Precifion, 
and Diftinctnefs of the Old ; and the Matter, the Copia of the New. 

THE modern is yet wild and unafcertain'd. 'Tis not arrived at the Maturity of Method ; the Mine is 
but juft open'd, and the Adventurers are yet only follicitous about the Matter to fee what it affords. Circum- 
ftances do not yet come in courfe ; and 'twill be long ere it arrive at a juft extent to give room and leifure for 
reducing it to regularity. True, the Rules and Methods of the antient, are in fome meafure applicable to 
the new, and will go a good way towards the ordering and afcertaining of it ; but the prefent Philofophers 
feem yet too warm and fanguine for fuch a Bufinefs ; which muft be left to the fucceeding Age to think 
about. Add, that the farther they go on to dig Materials, itill the more difficult will the ranging of 'em be ; 
inafmuch as there is but one true and juft Order to lay them in ; and the more of 'em, the more intricate 
that Order, and the harder to find. This a Man may be pofitive of, he never will fee half the Experiments 
and Obfervations already made, laid up or ufed in a Syftem of Phyfics. 

BUT when that is done, a deal will ftill remain, ere we have the chief ufes of ir. For phyfical Know- 
ledge, ftrictly confider'd, is only a Step, a Means of arriving at a higher and farther kind. Hiftories, Ob- 
fervations, and Experiments of the Kinds, Order, Strata, &c. for inftance of Foliils, are very ufeful and laudable 
things, as they tend to lay in a Stock of fenfible Phenomena, for the Mind to work upon, digeft, and draw 
new Notices from, for the Improvement of our own Faculties, and the better Conduct ot Life : But 'tis a 
Shortfightednefs to forget this farther View, and look only to the Things themfelves. The bare Acquifition 
of new Ideas is no real advantage, unlefs they be fuch as have fome relation to our felves, and are in fome 
fenfe adequate, and adapted to the Circumftances of our Wants, and Occafions, or capable of being made fo. 
Knowledge, in the firft State, is like Food in the Stomach, which may pleafe and fatisfy us, but is of no ufe to the 
Body till farther prepared. It muft be brought nearer us, and made more our own, more homogeneous to our 
felves, ere it feeds us. The modern Philofophy is not fo properly a Philofophy, as the Adit or Open- 
ing of one. Its Matter has yet only undergone the firft Concoction : we are yet only converfant about 
new phyfical Relations, learnt by Senfation ; whereas to bring it to the Perfection requir'd, it muft have un- 
dergone the farther Operations of Imagination, and Reafon. Mere Phyfics, as fuch, do not make a Philofo- 
phy ; thofe Phyfics muft firft be carried up to Metaphyfics and Ethics, ere we can fafely flop. So fir as it is 
Phyfics, it is foreign to the Mind, and its Occafions ; before it affect and influence our Reafon and Judgment, 
it muft be fubtiliz'd vaftly, and made more fimilar to the Metaphyfical Nature of the Mind. While Phyfics, 
it remains under the Direction of the Author of Nature ; and proceeds wholly by his Laws, and to exe- 
cute his Purpofes : ere it come under our Direction, and become fubfervient to our Will, it muft have laid 
afide what was active, and neceffary in it, and become paffive to our Reafon, i. e. it muft have been tranf- 
fer'd from the Dominion of the Almighty's Will, or Reafon, and brought under ours ; if that do not im- 
ply a Contradiction. 

TO return. Senfible Phenomena, we have already fhewn, are the Foundation of Philofophy : but your 
Edifice will neither make any Figure, nor afford any Convenience, till you have carried it one or two Stories 
higher. 'Tis but, as it were, the Cellaring, or Ground-work ; which one would think were no very comfor- 
table place to live and fpend all one's time in. 'Tis one extreme, to take our Lodging as fome of the modern 
Virtuofos are contented to do, under ground ; and another to refide altogether in Garrets, as the Schoolmen 
may be faid to have done, 

THE School Philofophy, however, is of fome farther ufe, as Matter of Fliftory : We learn by it how 
People have thought, what Views have obtain'd, and in what various Manners the fame thing has been con- 
ceiv'd i which, tho it be Knowledge as it were once removed, yet is not intirely ufelefs. The Hiftory of 

human 



the 9 R E F A C E. 



xxvin 

human Thoughts is no doubt the moft valuable of all others ; it being this alone that can make the Bafis of 
a juft Logic, as Phyfiology of a juft Phyfics. We mult know wherein People have fail'd, or fallen ihorr, or 
been decervM, to learn the Reafons thereof, or be able to form Rules for avoiding the like. The feveral 
Opinions that have obtain'd, may be confider'd as fo many Pheenomena of the human Mind, which muft be 

conflder'd and inquir'd into to find its Nature. This alone were enough to have engaged us not to omit that 

part of Learning, in the prefent Work : tho there were not wanting other circumltantial Reafons which had 
alfo their (hare ; as, the neceffity hereof to the underftanding not only of the antient Writers, but even of 
the modern ones, who frequently combat, remark, csV. upon the antient Notions. To which it may be ad- 
ded, that abundance of our Terms and Dictions are derived from them, and therefore could not be fo com- 
pleatly underftood without 'em. The Language of the antient and modern Philofophy is not very different : 
the chief Diverfity is in the different Ideas affixed^ to the fame Words, and the different Applications of 'em. 
And happy had it been for the Moderns, had they form'd a new Set of Terms adapted to their new Notions : By 
adopting the old ones, they have not only introduced a world of Ambiguity and Confufion ; but have even 
loft the Credit of many of their own Dilcoveries, which now lie blended and buried among thofe of the 
Antients. One is at a lofs to think what could induce the great Philofopher of our Age, to ufe the word. 
Attraclion, in the Senfe he has done. No doubt it was originally as pertinent as any other ; but the Stamp 
and Impreflion it had already taken from the Antients, made it lefs fit to receive a new one. It could at belt 
but take it imperfectly ; and the refult was, a promifcuous Image, wherein we neither fee the one nor the 
other, diftinctly. 'Tis fcarce in the Power of Imagination, totally to divert a Sound of its received Mean- 
ing, and confider it as indifferent to all things ; any more than to annihilate the Characters on a piece of Pa- 
per, and confider it as a mere Blank. Accordingly, tho the great Author abovementioned explain'd over and 
over, in the cleareit Terms, the Senfe he fixed to his Attraclion ; yet Experience verifies how much he was 
overfeen ; the chief Objections againft his whole Syftem being drawn from a Mifapprehenfion of this very Word, 
which keeps half the Philofophers in Europe ftill at a diftance, afraid to admit a moft excellent Doctrine, mere- 
ly out of diftruft of the Vehicle that conveys it. But this en paffant : The Reader who defires to fee far- 
ther, may turn to the Articles Attraction, Newtonian Philosophy, Gravitation, (3c. 

WHAT has been fpoke of the School Philofophy, reminds us of Aftrology, the Terms whereof have not 

been omitted in this Work. Were it only that it has once obtain'd, is ftill extant in Books, and has given 

occafion to abundance of Terms and Phrafes, adopted into other Arts ; it would have a Title to be remem- 
ber'd. " The Hiftory of Mens Follies, fays the inimitable Fontenelle, makes no fmall part of Learning 5 and 
"unhappily for us, much of our Knowledge terminates there *." But this is not all ; and they who abfolutely 
reject: all Aftrology as frivolous, don't know it. Every Art and Science has its Vanities, and Foibles ; even 
Philofophy, and Theology : and every one its good Senfe, even Aftrology. The heavenly Bodies have their 
Influences : The Foundation, therefore, of Aftrology is good : but thofe Influences are not directed by the 
Rules commonly laid down, nor produce the Effects attributed to 'em : fo that the Superftructure is falfe. A- 
ftrolqgy, therefore, ought not to be exploded, but reformed. Indeed a Reformation would reduce it into a 
little compafs ; but this little is too much to be loft, as it now is, among that heap of Trumpery mixed with 

it. We have even been careful to preferve what is juft and rational, in Phyfiognomy, Witchcraft, and 

many other fanciful Arts. The time was, when Phyfics was not much more worthy the Study of a Man of 
Senfe, than Aftrology now is ; fo that one might propofe an Introduclio ad fanam Aftrologiam, as a Defideratum. 

THE Preface is now degenerated into a Differtation in good earned : at leaft, it has got the Length and 

Formality thereof, and wants only the Accuracy and Precifion. Enough has been difcourfed of the general 

Nature, and Subject of the Work : You muft now allow me to defcend a little more to particular, and per- 
fonal Matters ; and thus end my Preface, where I might have had Precedents enough for beginning it. 

I WILL at leaft deal honeftly with my Reader, and not be caught faulty in point of Morality, whatever I 

may be in any thing elfe. What has been faid hitherto, has been on the advantageous fide of my Work ; and 

I ihould not have acquitted my felf, (hould I not likewife mention what may be alledg'd on the contrary Part.——. 
The curious Reader, then, may expect, he will here meet with Omiflions, and there with Redundancies : here the 
Mediod and Oiconomy are not kept to ; there an Article is imperfedly treated : here, a Paffage from fome 
other Language is not furficiently naturalized ; there a Sentiment of fome other Author is not fufHciently di- 
gefted : There, in fine, the Author was afleep, and here the Printer. 

ONE might palliate thefe Objections, by alledging, that " they are things not peculiar to this Work, but 
" extend to all of the Kind ; that moft of 'em are things not foreign and acccidental to it, but arife of necef- 
" fity, from the very Nature and form of a Dictionary ; and that many of 'em, are not peculiar even to a 
" Diaionary, but agree to all extenfive Undertakings, and are appendant to the very belt Part of the Defi>n, 
" its Univerfality :" but inftead of extenuating, I had rather be guilty of inflaming, and aggravating 'em. ° 

FOR Errors, they cannot be very few, confidering the Hands thro' which moft Parts of our Knowledge 
have paffed, and from whom we are obliged to take our Accounts. What one Author, upon the moft par- 
ticular Subject, will you produce, that has not his (hare of 'em ? and what Argus could poflibly fee, and cor- 
rect the Errors in all the Authors he had to do with ? Scaliger, in his Exercitations againft Cardan, has ftiewn 
fome twenty thoufand, in one fmall Work ; and no body imagines he has pick'd it perfectly clean. Yet 
Cardan was no ill Author. Bayle's Diftionary has been called the Errata of Morreri ; yet is not Bayk him- 

felf without his Errors. -The moft we can fay, is, that we hope there will be few found in the prefent 

Work, in comparifon of others of the like kind. Many thoufands we have corrected, both in the Dictionaries 
and other Writings we have colkaed from, by means of- the Light which other Parts of Knowledge afforded : 
But after fo large a Harveft, no doubt there remains a tolerable Gleaning. We flatter our felves, however that 
what we have overlook'd, the Reader will frequently be enabled to correct, by the Means here afforded ; and that 
there will be few Errors found in the Book, which the Book it felf will not help to rectify. 

AS to Omiffions, there is fcarce any avoiding 'em -, and the more intelligent the Reader' is, the more of 
this kind he will neceffarily meet withal : they being only fuch in relation to his fulnefs. Indeed, I muft own 
my felf greatly a Debtor on this fcore ; and tho at prefent infolvent, yet if the Reader will give me Cre- 
dit, it mall be my endeavour to fee all I owe difcharged ; if not in a Lump, yet by a Courfe of Payments 

FOR Redundancies, you know there cannot well be richnefs without 'em. After you have picked what 
you think fit of this kind, and laid it by •, 'tis ten to one but the next Perfon that comes will reftore half 
of 'em to their places ; and tax your Temerity, and want of Tafte : and the next after him will go near to 
replace the other half. & 

AS to Irregularities, and breaches of Method, I will not claim Impunity on the Score of being the firfl: 
that introduced any certain Rules, or Method into this way of writing at all : But there will be at leaft this 
Satisfadion attending my Cafe, that I cannot be indicted for the Breach of any Laws but my own. Nor 

J Hilt, de 1' Acad, R. An. 1708. p. 135. 

muft 



The PREFACE, xxi* 

mull it be forgot, that I pretend to have carried the Diliionary-Way to a pitch hitherto little thought of- So 
that if I have fallen fhort of the Mark on one fide ; it may be fome Atonement that I have gone beyond it in 
another. I am fenfible, however, there is no Point I have been more delinquent in than this one of Method ' 
and that I am at every turn forgetting my own View. The References, and r.eceffary Connexions between 
the Parts, which mould fhew their Relation, and help the Imagination to put 'em together, are but too 
frequently dropt, and the Reader left without his Clue. 

AS to Jejunenefs, and Crudity; no doubt there muft be a deal of that kind, confidering the Time fo great 
a Load of Fruit had to hang and ripen. Much of it was gathered ere it could poffibly be matured" fa 
that 'tis no wonder it now and then taftes of the Wood. But fetting afide this ; if a Man may not be allow'd 
to fay a good number of indifferent things, in the Compafs of five hundred Sheets, I know not who would be 
an Author. 

LASTLY, as to there being little in it new, and of my own growth ; I mull: here change my Style* 
and from Confeffion, turn to Vindication.- — The Work is, what it ought to be, a Colkffion ; no? the Produce 
of a fingle Brain, for- that would go but a little way ; but of a whole Commonwealth. If any Perfon will un- 
dertake to write a Dictionary, even of fome one particular Art, from his own Fund, alone ; a Man may fafely 
undertake to prove it good for nothing. I do not pretend to entertain my Gucfts at this rate, with juft what 
my own fcanty Barns afford : The whole Country is ranfack'd to make 'em the fuller Banquet. Call me what 
you will ; a Daw, and fay I am (tuck over with other Peoples Feathers : with all my Heart ; but it would be 
altogether as juft to compare me to the Bee, the Symbol of Induftry, as that of Pride. For tho I pick up my 
Matters in a thouland Places ; 'tis not to look gay my felf, but to furnifli you with Honey. I have rifled 
a thoufind Flowers ,- prickly ones many of 'em, to load your Hive. No body that fell in my way, has been 
fpared ; Antient nor Modern, Foreign nor Domeftick, Chriftian, nor Jew, nor Heathen : Philofophers, Di- 
vines, Mathematicians, Critics, Cafuilts, Grammarians, Phyficians, Antiquaries, Mechanics, all are ferved alike. 
The Book is not mine, 'tis every body's ; the mix'd IiTue of a thoufand Loins. The Prince of modern Au- 
thors, is pillaged to fome purpofe ; and what Quarter then can any body elfe expeft ? If ever you wrote 
any thing your felf ; 'tis poffible there is fomething in it of yours : fo that you will at leaft allow fomething 
in it good. 

NONE of our Predeceffors can blame us for the ufe we have made of them •, fince it is their own Prac- 
tice. It is a kind of Privilege attached to the Office of Lexicographer, if not by any formal Grant, yet by 
Connivance at leaft. We have already affumed the Bee for our Device ; and who ever brought an Action of Tro- 
ver or Trefpafs againft that avowed Free-booter ? If any body blames us, 'twill ten to one be fome of thofe 
very Drones, who are fuflained by our means. 

'TIS idle to pretend any thing of Property in things of this Nature. To offer a thing to the Publick, 
and yet pretend a Right referved therein to one's felf, if it be not abfurd, yet it is fordid. The Words we 
fpeak ; nay, the Breath we emit? are not more vague and common than our Thoughts, when divulged in 
print. You may as well prohibit People to ufe the Light that mines in their Eyes, becaufe it comes from 
your Candle : E'en clap it m a dark Lanthorn, and let us not be amufed, and dazzled by it ; if we may not 
be the better for good things, let's not be the worfe for the ill and indifferent ones mix'd with 'cm. 

WE fee the fame Thought, which was firft ftarted in one Author under a world of Crudity, borrow'd by 
another become farther improv'd and ripen'd ; and at length tranfmitted to a third, yield Fruit in abundance. 
All Plants will not thrive in all Soils that will produce 'em ; fome languilh in their Mother-Beds : whence the 
Gardner is under a frequent neceffity of Replanting, Engrafting, t?c. 

TO do juftice to a Colleffion, I mean a genera) and promifcuous one ; it has its Advantages. Where num- 
bers of things are thrown precarioufly together, we fometimes difcover Relations among 'em, we mould never 
have thought of looking for : As, the Painter's and Sculptor's Fancy, is frequently led on to the boldeft and molt 
mafterly Defigns, by fomething they fpy in the fortuitous Sketches of Chance, or Nature : infomuch that a cele- 
brated Author * makes no fcruple to lay this down as the firft Origin and Occafion of all thefe Arts. 'Tis cer- 
tain molt, of our Knowledge is empirical, the Refult of Accident, Occafion, and cafual Experiment : 'Tis but 
very little we owe to Dogmatizing and Method ; which, as already obferv'd, are pofterior Matters, and only 
come in play after the Game is ftarted. 'Twas, in all probability, the hand of Chance that firft threw Sul- 
phur, Charcoal, and Salt-petre together ; and what furprizing Effefls have not arofe from it ; what Handle 
has it given to Art and Contrivance, to direft and apply this fortuitous Produaion ? 

'TIS indeed furprizing to confider, what flender Experiments and Obfervations many of the capital Doflrines 
have arofe from : The Blows of a Smith's Hammer on his Anvil, (truck out the Principles of Mufic ; which 
Gutdo, a poor Friar, perfefted by what he obferved in conning over his Beads. The Inventions of Priming, of 
Clafs, of the Dipping Needle, of Pbofphorus, of Tele/copes, of Taffata, of Antimony, &c. are fuppofed to have 
arofe in the like manner ; as the Reader may find under their proper Articles : And how many more we know 
not, by reafon the great Obfcurity of their firft Rife, ere they attain'd a degree of Ufefuinefs and Perfeffion fuffi- 
cient to be taken notice of, has buried the particular Circumftances thereof. If we will hear the antient Phceni- 
cians, and Egyptians, amongft whom moft of the Arts are fuppofed to arofe ; they all came from cafual Obferva- 
tions : Geometry from the Inundations of the Nile ; the Flight of the Crane, gave occafion to the Invention of 
the Rudder ; the Ibis taught to adminifter a Clyfter, fcfr. In effect, a new Obfervation in fome Peoples Minds 
prepared for it, is like a Spark in a heap of Gun-pouder, which may blow a whole Mine. 

WHAT Advantages may not Philofophy derive from fuch a Collection, or Farrago of Arts ; when 'tis con- 
fidered, that every Circumftance, every Article of an Art, ought to be look'd upon as a Datum, a Phenomenon, 
or Experiment in Philofophy ; and that the leaft of 'em may poffibly be the Foundation of a new Syftem?— 
To confider only the Tanning, or Currying of Leather : what is the whole Procefs, but a Series of phyfical 
Effects, arifing from new applications of Body to Body ? And how many Leftures will the Philofopher have 
from Painting, Gardening, Agriculture, &c. touching Planting, Engrafting, Pruning, Expofure, ExtreJJion, Walls, &c. 
which might never have come in his way, but by fuch a chance ? When a thing is once ftarted/ it may be applied 
infinite ways, and no body knows where it will flop. 

THRO' OUT the Whole, we have had a particular regard, both in the Choice of the feveral 
Heads, and in dwelling or amplifying upon 'em ; to the extending our Views, dilating our Knowledge, open- 
ing new Tracks, new Scents, new Viftas. We have endeavour'd not only to furnilh the Mind ; but to inlarge 
it, and make it in fome meafure co-extend with the Dimenfions of all Minds, in all Ages and Places, and un- 
der all Situations and Circumftances : as Language, in fome meafure, makes our Senfes do. With which view, 
we have given the Sentiments, Notions, Manners, Cuftoms, tiff, of moft People, that have any thing new, 
unufual, or hardy in 'em. 

SUCH a Variety of Views, Principles, and Manners of thinking, is a fure Remedy againft being too vio- 
lently attached to any one ; and is the belt way of preventing the making of Pedants, Bigots, (s/r. of any 

* Leon Battifla Albert!, dclla Staiua. 

h kind 



The "PREFACE. 



XXX 

kind. It may be faid, that every Art tends to give the Mind a particular Turn ; and that the only way of 
maintaining it in its natural Reaitude, is by 'calling in other oppofite ones, by way of Counter-ballance. Thus 
we find nothing more perverfe and unfufferable than a mere Mathematician, mere Critic, Grammarian, Chy- 
mift, Poet, Herald, or the like 5 and the proper Difpofition is only to be had from a juft Temperament or 
Mixture of 'em all. . . 

I OWN this is not the way to make a very great progrefs in any Art; but at the fame time it is the 
only way to hinder our being fpoil'd by any ; and becoming Creatures rather of Homer or Jrijlotle's making, 
than God's : and receiving our Taftes, Views, Relifhes, at fecond hand, rather than from Nature her felt 
This, however, is only to be underftood with regard to perfonal Benefit. For no doubt the Publick is better 
provided for, by the mere Purfuers of particular Arts, than the general Appliers to all: fince each is hereby brought 
to greater Perfeftion ; and the Mixture and Temperament, wanting in the Individuals, is found in the Whole. 

T O conclude, the ultimate View of a Work of this, or any other kind, fhould be, the forming a found 
Mind, i. e. a Syftem of Perceptions, and Notions agreeing to the Syftem of Things, or in the Relation thereto, 
intended by its Author. The End of Learning and Study, is not the filling our Heads with other Mens 
Ideas ; that is an Inrichmerit which may prove for the worfe, if it carry any ill Quality with it : Richnefs is not 
the chief thing aim'd at ; 'tis only a Circumftance, or Matter of a fecondary Confideration : Soundnefs is the 
firft. There °are many Manures which the Hulbandman dares not ufe, by reafon they would corrupt the 
Land, at the fame time they enriched it ; and lay the Foundation of a Difeafe, which would in the End 
impoverifh, and make it fpend it felf in unprofitable Weeds. A little pure Logic, or Theology, or Chy- 

mi'ftry, in fome Peoples Heads, what Mifchief have they not produced ? But it muft be owned, 

Mens Heads are not fo foon fill'd : the Memory is not fo tenacious as we imagine ; Ideas are tranfient 
things, and feldom ftay long enough with us to do us either much good, or harm : Ten to one but 
what we read to-day, is forgot again to-morrow. And what chiefly makes new Ideas of any fignificancy, is 

their extending and enlarging the Mind, and making it more capacious and fufceptible. But neither is this 

Enlargement the laft Aim ; but is chiefly of ufe, as it contributes to the increafing our Senfibility, to the ma- 
king our Faculties more fubtil, and adequate, and giving us a more exquifite Perception of things that occur ; 
and thus enabling us to judge clearly, pronounce boldly, conclude readily, diftinguifh accurately, and to ap- 
prehend the manner and Reafons of our Decifions. In which view, feveral things may be ufeful, that are not 
fo much direft Matters of Knowledge, as fubfervient to the fame End ; for inftance, much of the School Phi- 
lofophy, which by exercifmg and exciting the Mind, has a kind of collateral tendency to fharpen its Faculties -, 

and needs only be read, not retain'd, to produce its Efieft. But neither does the Matter end here : Even this 

does not amount to the full and adequate End of Knowledge : This is only improving the Organ j and there 
muft be fome farther End in fuch Improvement. No Man fharpens his Weapon on the fole Confideration of 
having it fharp, but to be the fitter for ufe. Briefly, then, our Faculties being only fo many Inlets, whereby, 
and according to the Meafure whereof, we receive the Intimations of the Creator's Will, or rather, the EffecTs of 
his Power and Action ; all the Improvements made in 'em, have a tendency to fubjeft us more entirely to 
his Influence and Direction ; and thus make us confpire, and move more in concert with the reft of his Works, to 
accomplilh the great End of all things. In which our Happinefs and Perfection confifts ; the Perfection of a 
fingle Nature, arifing in proportion as it contributes to that of the To" n A~ N. 



ERRATA. 



IN the Article Angle, Page 97. Column 1. Line ult. for Centre L, 
read Centre I. 
Article Mean Anomaly, 1. 10. infert Fig. 64. 
Article Afymptote of a Logarithmic Curve, infert Fig. 3 3. 

Centre of Ofcillztion, 1. II. forDEHB, r. DFHB. 

Centripetal Force, 1. 2. for Fig. 24. r. Fig, 25. 

Centrobaryc, Corol. VI. for divided into two M D, r. be bifeCied 

in D, and for m O, r. in O. 
Chord, p. 211. col. a. 1.26". for Fig. 7. r. Fig. 6. 
Circle, p. 221. col. i.I. 27, for DE r. DF, andl. 36. infert Fig. 7. 
Circumscribing, for Fig. 32. r. Fig.zy. 

Commutation, I.3. after Earth infert atS, and for .Fi^^, t.Fig.zS. 
Compares, for GemanCompajfes r. German Compajfes. 
Composition of Motion, 1. 17. for as far as ee t r. as far as c e . 
Conchilis, 1. 7. for EE r. EF. 
Cone, p. 300. col. 1. 1. 13. fox Diameter of its Bafe, r. Diameters 

of its Bafes. 
Contacl, 1. 15. for cats r. touches. 
Crepufculum, p. 344. 1. penult, for Sum of, r. Sun's, and p. 34^. 

1. 2. and 3. for, P Z the Elevation of the Pole P R, r. P Z the 

Complement of the Elevation, 5cc, 
Curve, p. 361. col. 2. 1.26", and 59. for Tab.Analyfis r. Tab.Geom. 
Cycloid, 1. 4. for Tab. Analyfis r. Tab. Geometry. 
Declinator, I. a 5. fox Centre E, r. Centre F. 
Defigning t 1. 10. for Fig. 9. r. Fig, 15, 
Diagonal, 1. 77. for B S, r. B E. 
Horizontal Dial, 1. 9. for Meridian Line B, r. Meridian Line A B j 

and I.16. for DC, r. DE, and I.12. for a EQd H, r. ab cdU. 
Eaft Dial, 1- II. for AC, r, D C. 
Primary Dial, 1. 20. for EE, r, E F. 
Line of" Diflance, for Fig. 10, and 11. r. Tig. 12, 
Divifion'm Lines, infert Tab. Geometry, Fig. 17. 
Eccentric, for Fig, 11. r. Fig. 1. 

Equation, p.53^ . col. 1.I.1 5. for given Pofition, r. given in P 'option. 
Flying, 1. io. for Temporal Mufclss r. Pecloral Mufcles. 
Geocentric Latitude, 1. 11. for, eT§ r. et $. 
Latus Tranpverfum, for Fig.*,, x. Fig.i. and for GLRO r. DLRO. 
Logijlic Spiral, for Fig. 11. r. Fig. 22. 



Article Concave Mirror, Law II. after F infert Fig. 34 *; 

Paracentric Motion of Impetus, for Fig. 25. r. Fig. 24. and dele 
T. Paracentric Solicitation of Gravity, dele Fig. 16. 

Paralla x of Longitude, for Fig. 28. r. Fig.zy. Parallax of 

Afcenfion, for 29. r. 18. 
Parallelogram, Ll7.for Fig.$9<** Fig.41. andl. 19. forCHr.CD.' 

Particula Exfors, for Augment r. Argument. 

Perfyeffive of a Triangle, 1, 14. for fince a, b, and are the Appear- 
ances, r, fince a, b, and c are the Appearances. 

Inclined Plane, Law IX. after A C infert Fig.<,^. and in the Corol. 
of the fame Law infert F'tg.6o. and inLaw XIII. for BAK r. FG. 

ProjeclUe, Law III. after defcribe a Parabola dele in a Medium 
uniformly reftfihzg. 

Pump, Artie. Structure of a Forcing Pump, I. 1. for in a Cylinder 
r. a Cylinder, 

Pyramid, 1. 70. for D F r. D E. 

Sinical Quadrant, 1. 2. infert Fig. 18. 

Quadrature of the Ellipfis, 1. 2. for Circle, r. Curve. 

Reclangle, 1. 22. for Fig. 41. r. Fig, 61. 

Rectification of a Parabola, for Conjugate Axes r. 'Conjugate Se- 
miax.es ; and after Hyperbolic Space, add CQ^M A. 

Rectification of the Cycloid, 1. I. infert Fig. 27. 

Reduction of a Figure, 1. II. for Fig. 64. r. Fig. 6<$. 

Refrailion, 1. 9. for B, r. F. 

Retrogradation of the Sun, 1. 2. for A N, r. A M. 

Rhomb, Article I. infert Fig. 19. 

Screw, Art. IV. for to be applied inK, r. to be applied in D. 

Sculpture in Marble, after another Plummet like that of the Model 3 
infert Tab, Mifcellany, Fig. 2. 

Secant, 1. 4. for Circle B, r. Circlein B. 

Sector, p. 45. col. 1. I.41. for Lines r. Sines. 

Sine, p. 8 1. col. 1. 1. 6 3, for the Arch E F C, c. the Arch's C. 

S/Be-Complement, 1. 2. for A E, r. A H. 

Solid Angle, I. 3. for Fig. 30. r. Fig. 31. 

Star, p. 122. col. 2. 1. 20. for Fig. 3 I. r. Fig. 7. and 1. 24. for the 
Star C defcribing an equal Arch CDH, r. the Star D defcribing 
an Arch equal to C D H. 

Triangle, p. 142. col. a. I.41. for AC, r. B C. 






N. B. The figures relating to each Art are placed fronting the Name of the refpecfive Art, m 
the Body of the Book ; and are refer'd to under that Title : as, Tab. Architecture, Tab. Geo-,, 
metry 3 &c. — To each Figure is alfb annexed t he Word for whofe Exemplification it firves : So 
that the Reader may either go from the Word to the Figure, which exemplifies it \ or back-\^ 
wards t from the Figure^ to the Word which explains it. 



A LIST of the SUBSCRIBERS. 



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IS Grace the Duke of 
Athol. 
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Lord Abergavenny. 
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of Trerice. 
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the Navy- 
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Dr. Allen. Mr. Afgill. 

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feven Books. 
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biihop of Cafhels- 
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Carmarthen. 
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The Right Hon. the Lord Crighton. 
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Herefordshire, Baronet. 
Sir Alexander Cuming, Baronet. 
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Sir Duncan-Camplell of Lochnell, Bar. 
i Sir 7,;?h« Campbell oi Aberruchill, Bar. 
Sii jfnwM Campbell of AfArairoo^.Bar. 
The Hon. Col. Thomas Cornwallis. 
The Hon. Col. CAnr/fJ Cathcart, 

Groom of the Piedchamber to his 

Majefty. 
The Hon. Co\.John Campbell jun. of 

Mltmove. 
William Csrmright Efq; 



Charles Crifpe of Dornford in O'xferd- 

Jhire, Efq; 
Anthony Collins Efq; 
jfote Campbell of Stackpole Court in 

Pembroke/hire, Efq; 

■ Collins Efq; 

f^efe Oxue jun. of Crew jffiitf in 

C&j&re, Efq; 
■ffiro}' Ludlow Coker Efq; 
^oAk Clarke Efq; 
Co&z Campbell Efq; 
iS»7 Cunningham Efq; 
Daniel Campbell of Shawfield, Efq; 
James Cockburn Efq; 
.fiofcrt Cunyngham of S(. Chriflophers, 

Efq; 
The Rev. .Rufo-f Cametf L.L.D. Rec- 
tor of Bradwell in Suffolk. 
The Reverend Dr. C/si-te. 
The Rev. Mr. 7»/"e/./j CAsrfa, Redor 

of Swaffham in Norfolk. 
The Rev. Mr. Jo/^A Ote. 
The Rev. Mr. >fe £V>», F. R. S. 

feven Books. 
J^fiVMB Cocifaj-B M.D. F.R.S. 
Cadwallader Colden of Afou 3V£, M.D. 
Mr. S.Cranmeroi London, Goldfmith. 
Mr. John Currier. Mr. Crotty. 

Mr. JF. Co/i&y of £r//K Bookfeller. 
Mr. R.Clements aiOxford, Bookfeller. 
Mr. J. Carlos, Bookfeller in Norwich. 
Mr. John Chriflian. 
Mr. John Cook of Sherborn. 
Mr. JohnCarpenter. 
Mr. Jofeph Crew. 
Mrs. Martha Clayton, Bookfeller in 

Manchejler. 

D. 

HIS Grace the Duke of Devonfhire. 
The Right Hon. 5f«j Earl 

of Derby. 
TheRightHon.theEarlofXtartWM. 
The Right Hon. the Lord Edward 

Drummond. 
The Hon. Lieut. Gen. Robert Dalx,eel. 
The Hon. Col. Charles Dubourgay. 
George Drummond Efq; 
Montague Gerrard Drake Efq; 
George Dickins of Leverpool-, M.D. 
James Douglas, M-D. F.R.S. 
Thomas Dutton Gent.. 
The Reverend William Derham M.A. 

Canon of Windfor, and F.R.S. 
The Rev .Mr. William Dormer. 
Mr. James Deacon of the Cuflomhoufe. 
Mr. William Doughty, Attorney at 
Grantham. 

E. 

THE Rt. Hon. Sir Robert Eyre, 
Lord Chief Juftice of the 
Common Pleas. 
Sir Gilbert Elliot, Baronet. 
Sir Jofeph Eyles Kt. 
John EBon Efq; 

Mrs. Everard in Newport in the Ifle of 
Wight. 

F. 

THE Rt. Hon. the Lord Foley. 
The Hon. Mr.Juftice Fortefcue. 
William Freke Efq; 
Coulfon Felhwis Efq; 
Mr. Benjamin Fuller. 
Mr. Abraham Fowler of London, Gold- 
fmith. 
Mr. Daniel De Foe, jun. 
G. 

THE Right Hon. the Earl of 
Galloway. 
The Right Hon. the Lord Vifcount 

Gallway. 
The Right Hon. the Lord Glemrchy. 
Sir William Gordon, Bar. 
Sir Archibald Grant, Bar. 



The Uon.James Grant of Grant, Efq; 

Thomas Graham Efq; Apothecary to 
his Majefty. 

Nicholas Graham oiGartmore, Efq; 

Alexander Gordon of Pitlurg, Efq; 

John Godfrey, of Norton Court in Kent, 
Efq; 

William Gibbons, of the Middle Tem- 
ple, Efq; 

5foA« GVeerc Efq; 

Jofeph Gafcoigne Efq; 

A. Graham Efq; 

■Roger Gfl/e Efq; 

Edmund Glenifler Efq; 

The Reverend Mr. Gerard de Gols, 
Rector of Sandwich. 

The Rev. John Geale M.A. Vicar 
of Bifbops-Lydeard in Some rfetjl) ire. 

Randolph Greenway jun. of Thavies 
Inn, Gent. 

Capt. Alexander Geddes. 

Mr. Thomas Gell. 

Mr. Francis Gibfon. 

Mr. Francis Gore. 

H. 

HIS Grace the Duke of Hamilton. 
The Right Hon. the Earl of 

Heynford. 
The Rt. Hon. the Earl of Haddington. 
The Right Hon. the Countefs of 

Hartford. 
Sir Charles Hotham, Bar. 
Sir Harry Houghton, Bar. 
Sir James Hallai Dunglafs, Bar. 
Sir Thomas Bruce Hope, Bar. 
His Excellency Major Gen. Hunter, 

Governor of Jamaica. 
His Excellency Col. John Hope, Go- 
vernor of Bermudas. 
The Hon. Col. Samuel Horfey. 
Thtn>m.Phil.Howard or TVw/ift.Efq; 
John Hedworth Efq; 
Maurice Hunt Efq; 
Edward Harley jun. Efq; 
Charles Hyett Efq; 
William Hacks Efq; 
Hewer Edgley Hewer Efq; 
Tempefl Holmes Efq; Commiffioner of 

the Navy. 
Zfe«ry Harington, of Kelflon in Somer- 

fetjhire, Efq; 
The Rev. Dame/ «« D.D. 
The Rev. Stephen Hates, B.D. F.R.S.' 
The Rev. Mr. fcWam #yie, Vicar 

of Sutton in Lincolnfhire. 
The Rev. Mr. j?o/>x Husband, Vicar 

of Tottenham- High-Crofs. 
The Rev. Mr. Edward Henwood. i 
The Rev. Mr. John Henley. 
The Rev.^ta #/&«« M.A. 
William Hilary of Rippon, M.D. 
Mr. William Hird of Woodhoufe. 
Mr. Benjamin Holloway of Winchefter* 
Mr. ./&k>7 iSHj of Covent-Garden. 
Mr. 5foA» #*/&. 
Mr. JoA/j Howard, Surgeon. 

SIR i/eBi-j' /«Kf r of i»KM, Baronet, 
Sir Thomas Jones, Kt. Regifler 

for the County of Middlefex. 
The Hon. James John/Ion Efq; 
Johnlnglifi Efq; Affiftant Matter of 

the Ceremonies. 
/%'/>> 3W Efq; r«4 Herald at Arms. 
Charles Jennens Efq; 
Charles Jennens jun. Efq; 
William Jones Efq; 
Thomas Jones Efq; 
WMam >/:«/"»« Efq; 
Pelham Johnfion M.D. 
The Rev. Mr. ^ws* jfoHM, Rector 

of Cound. 

The 



The Rev. William Johnflon, Rector of 
St. Andrew* in Jamaica. 

Martin Innys of Briftol, Gent. 

Mt. Edward Jones of Briftol, Merch. 

Mr. Jeremy Innys of Briftol, Merch. 

Mr. Stephen Theodore Janjfen of Lon- 
don^ Merchant. 

Mr. Michael John/on of Litchfield- 

THE Right Hon. Gerard deCour- 
cy, Lord Kingfale. 
The Hon. Mr. Kreienberg- 
Thomas Knight Efq; 
Thomas Kennedy Efq; Collector of the 

Cuftoms at Exeter. 
Abel Kettelhey of the Middle Temple, 

Efq; 
Mr. J. Kmwlttm of Leighton Beau- 

dejart- 
Mr. /U»/m Kendall- 
Mrs. Kennon. 

L. 

T'HE Right Hon. the Earl of 
Lauderdale. 
Sir Sort/sv £»<?, Baronet. 
Richard Lely Efq; 
Richard Lyddell Efq; 
i£wy Lavmn of Lincolns-Inn, Efq; 
CorivB LjgOK of Madders field in /^6r- 

cefterjhire, Efq; 
The Reverend Mr. Lufkin. 
Mr. £«»<& of Briftol. 
Mr. William Laurie of Bridgwater. 
Mr. Richard Lifett, Attorney at Law. 
Mr. James Logan of Penfylvania. 
Mr. Jawm Leafe, Bookfdler in J5af/j- 
Mr. J. Leech, Bookfellcr in Knutsjord- 
Mr. S. £oM, Bookfeller in Chelmsford. 
Mrs. Lomax. 

M. 

HIS Grace the Duke of Montague. 
HisGrace the Duke of Montrofe. 

His Excellency Alexander Earl of 
Marchmont, his Majefty's Ambaf- 
fador Extraordinary and Plenipo- 
tentiary to theCongrefs itCambray. 

The Right Hon. the Earl of Mac- 
clesfield. 

The Right Hon. the Lord Middleton. 

The Right Hon. the Lord Minto. 

His Excellency John Montgomery Efq; 
Governor of New Tork. 

Dr. jfo/jjz Burchard Menckenius, Coun- 
fellorto the King of Poland, and 
Profeffor at Leiffuk, F.R.S. 

Sir George Markham, Baronet. 

Sir John Michel of Weftjhore, Bar. 

Sir Richard Manningham M.D. F.R.S. 

The Hon. Samuel Molyneux Efq; 

The Hon. Thomas Maynard Efq; 

The Hon. Col. iioW Monro. 

Morgan M.rgan of Ll.imumny in Afcu- 
motlthjhire, Efq; 

3Wjb Ma/Ke Efq; of theCuftom-houfe. 

Alexander Murray of Broughton, Efq; 

William Macdowall Efq; 

William Morgan Efq; 

5<»Ab Mulcafter of Whitehall, Efq; 

JahnManley Efq; of cheCuftomhoufe. 

William Morrice Efq; 

Thomas Mafter of Cirencefter', Efq; 

Gooi^e Mitchell Efq,'. 

The Rev. Dr .Middleton, of Cambridge 

The Reverend Dr. £o£<?i-t Maxwell. 

The Reverend Mr. Jo/jk Maxwell. 

Colin Mac Laurin, M.A. Profeffor of 
Mathematiclis at fiifoJwgi.F R.S. 

Mr. JoAb MzcA/b, Profeffor of Aftro- 
nomy at Grejham College. 

Robert Michel, M. A. 

Mr- JoiB Ai/M;^ Afejw, Merchant. 

Mr. /JiVto/ Moore of #/«?, 7 Books. 

Mr. Philip Miller, of the Phyfick- 
Garden, Chelfey. 



Mr. ^ofc Markham, Apothecary, 
Mr. Collet Mawwood. 
Mr. John Mitt on- 
Mr. J/ofoj Chriftopher Martini. 
N. 

THE Rt. Hon. the Lord Napier. 
The Hon. Governor Nicholfiu. 
Gawen Harris Nap Efq; 
Ralph NotUn Efq; 

THE Right Honourable the 
Earl of Oxford. 
The Right Hon. the Earl of Orrery. 
John Orlebar of the Middle Temple, 

Efq; 
The Reverend Mr. George Osbtrne. 
Mr. Thomas Ollyff. 
Mr. John Owen of Hemfteai. 
P. 

THE Rr.Hon.theEarl of Portmore. 
The Rt.Hon. the Lord Primnfe. 
Sir j?ote Prj«, Baronet. 
Sir Thomas Parkins of £to»iy in Not- 

tinghamjhire, Baronet. 
Sir Robert Pollock of Pollock, Baronet. 
Sir Robert Pye, Baronet. 
The Honourable Mr. Juftice Powys- 
John Pringle of Hawing, Efq; 
John Porter Efq; 
Richardfon Pack of Bury St. Edmonds, 

Efq; 
Edward PauletECq; 
David Papillon Efq; 
John Powel, M. D. 
The Reverend Dr. George Pye. 
The Reverend Mr. John Pitcairne of 

Great Yarmouth. 
Mr. William Pepys. 
Mr.Chriftopher Pinchbeck, Clockmaker. 
Mr. Samuel Pratt. 
Mr. James Pratt. 

XT. IS Grace xhet^keolQueensberry. 
R. 

HIS Grace the Duke of Roxburgh. 
Sir Thomas Renton, Baronet. 
Philip Ronayne Efq; 
Thomas Robinfon of Rookby Park in 

Torkftiire, Efq; F.R.S- 
Richard Reynolds of the /««er Temple, 

Efq. 
3?oAb i?0£OT Efq; 
The Rev. Mr. Archdeacon Rujfel. 
The Reverend Dr. Ka»<fc 
Dr. Robinfon. 
Mr. jfcfoz Martin de Rhon. 
Mr. %wei i?ocio of London, Gold- 

fmith. 
Mr. John Rtibarts. 
Mr. Thomas Reddal of Everfiolt in 

Bedfordftiire. 

THE Rt. Hon. the Earl of Stairs. 
The Right Hon. the Earl of 

Strafford. 
The Right Hon. the Earl of Stafford. 
The Right Hon. the Lord Somerville. 
The Right Hon. the Lord St. John. 
The Right Hon. the Lord St. John 

de Bletfoe. 
The Right Hon. the Lord Southwell. 
Sir Philip Sydenham, Baronet. 
Sir Robert Smyth, Baronet. 
Sir George Sanders, Kt. Commiffioner 

of the Victualling Office. 
Sir Walter Senferf. 
Sir John Smith. 

Sir Conrad Sprengell, M.D. F.R.S. 
Alexander Steuart, M.D- F.R.S. 
James Steuart of Torrence, Efq; 
Thomas Skeffington of Skeffington in 

Leicefterjhire Efq; 
Tliomas Salt Efq; 



William Singleton Efq. 

Jfofoj Stephens Efq; 

Samuel Strode of Punslorne in i£;?- 

fordjhire, Efq; 
William Scourfield jan. of Moat in £ ««- 

broke/hire, Efq; 
Thomas South Efq; 
James Smith Efq; 

Dr- //iW A Sequera Samuda, F. R. S. 
Dr. ^o/jb George Steigertahl, F.R.S. 
Peter Short of Lindfield in Suftex,Gent. 
John Skinner of the Poultrey, Gent. 
JWe 5;7i Gent. 
William Symmonds Gent. 
Mr. Jota ■W/e, Proctor in Doctors 

Commons. 
Mr. GVorjo SwatA, Clerk of the City 

Works. 
Mr. jfofc &oho, Apothecary. 
Mr. Jofeph Stevens of iXg/> Wickham. 
Mr. Thomas Sharret. 
Mr. ijoim Salter. 
Mr. 7o»rtr Sedgley. 
T. 

TH E Right Honourable the 
Lord 7rrzw, LordPrivy Seal. 
The Right Hon. the Marquis of 

Tweedale. 
The Right Honourable the Earl of 

Tankerville. 
The Right Hon. the Lord Vifcount 

Torrington. 
The Right Hon. the Lord Tarbat. 
The Right Hon. Richard Tighe, Efq; 

one of the Privy Council in Ireland. 
The Honourable Thomas Trevor, Efq; 
The Honourable John Trevor, Efq; 
Cholmley Turner of Kirkleatham, Efq; 
Edmund Turner Efq; 
John Topp of the Aaor Temple, Efq; 
?«/&» Thomhill Efq; 
^o/jb Threjlier of the Middle Temple, 

Efq; 
William Triggs of the fnnerTemp!e,Efq; 
Richard Taylor Efq; 
J5roo£ ■Tfly/or L.L.D. F.R.S. 
Mr. Thomas Bacon Townfend. 
V. 

G£orge VenaUes Vernon Efq; 
Mr. Richard Vicke, Watchma- 
ker to his Majefty. 
W. 

THE Rt.Hon.theEarl of Wemys- 
Sir Anthony Wefcamle, Bar. 
The Hon. Sir Thomas Wentworth, of 

Wentworth Houfe Torkjhire, Kt. of 

the 2teA. 
Sir George Walter, Kt. 
The Hon. Thomas Willoughby Efq; 
Xbox Ward Efq; Clarencieux King 

of Arms. 
John Warburton Efq; Somerfet Herald 

at Arms, and F.R.S. 
George Wynne of Leefwood, Efq; 
Thomas Weftcrn Efq; 
Edward Webb of Grays-Inn, Efq; 
jWjb Williams Efq; 
FrflKrif Wollafton Efq; 
Granville Whelcr Efq; 
William Walter Efq; 
J'ote Wigan M.D. 
W?Z/>7bb Woodford M.D. 
Mr. Wefton, of the Academy at 

GrooBtuz'c/j. 
Mr. Thomas Watts, of the Academy 

in Tower-ftreet. 
Mr. Samuel Warner, Mathematician. 
Mr. William Weft of Covent-Garden. . 
Mr. Elijah Waring of Whitney. 
Mr. Jfote Waghorn, Bookfeller in 

Durham. 
Mr. Richard Warner. 
Mr. Thomas Warren, Bookfellcr in 

Birmingham. 



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( t ) 



ctclopjb:dia 



O R A N 



UNIVERSAL DICTIONARY 



O F 



ARTS and SCIENCES. 




A 

A Vowel, and the firft Letter of the 
Englijh Alphabet. See Letter, 
Vowel, and Alphabet 5 where 
what relates to A, conjider'd in each 
of tbofe Capacities, is delivered. 
The Grammarians will needs have 
J A the firft Letter in all Languages ; 
and fome of 'em aftign a natural 
Reafon for it, viz. that it is the mofl fimple, and the eafieft 
pronounc'd of all articulate Sounds. To confirm this, Jul. 
Scaligcr obferves, that A is the firft Sound Nature puts forth 
at the crying or fmiling of Infants 5 and that it needs no 
other Motion to form it, but a bare opening of the Lips. 
See Voice. 

Covarruvias, refining on this Sentiment of Scaligcr, ob- 
ferves, very gravely, that the firft Sound put forth by Boys 
is A ; but that Girls firft put forth E $ each pronouncing the 
initial Letter of the Name of the firft Parent of its refpec- 
tive Sex, Dr. Littleton, fetting Adam afide, makes the one 
fpeak the final, and the other the initial Letter of the 
Name of the Mother of Mankind, EvA. 

But 'tis in vain that Authors compare the A of the En~ 
gliJJy, Latin, French, Sec. with the Aleph of the Hebrews, 
or the Eliph of the Arabs. Thofe two Letters have no 
Conformity with our A, except in this, that they are the 
firft of their feveral Alphabets. What fets 'em far afunder, 
is, that thefe Oriental As are not Vowels. See Vowel. 

Some Criticks take the Hebrew Aleph to be neither 
Vowel, nor Confonant, but what the Grammarians call an 
Afpirate, or pneumatic Letter ; like the H in the Latin and 
our Language : adding, that S. Jerom appears to have had 
the fame Thought, who probably learnt it from the Jews 
of the School of L'iberias. But the Jefuits de T'revozix give 
the thing another Turn : Thofe Fathers have prov'd that 
the Hebrew Aleph, Arabic Eliph, and Syriac Oleph, are real 
Confonants; and that the fame holds of all the other Afpirates. 
Tins is a Paradox in Grammar j but 'tis not the lefs true for 
being a Paradox. See Aspirate, and Consonant. 

Of all the Letters, A is obferv'd to be that which dumb 
Perlbns are fooneft taught to pronounce. The Reafon is, 
that it docs not depend on the Mufcles, and other Organs of 
the Mouth, and Tongue, which are generally wanting in 
■ Mutes ^ but on thpfe of the Throat and Nofe, which they 
commonly have. See Dumbness. 

This firft, fimpleft Sound, yet ferves us to exprefs moft of 
the Movement ot the Soul. 'Tis fo much the Language of 
Nature, that upon all ludden and extraordinary Occafions, 
we are ncceffarily led to it, as the Inftrument readieft at 
hand. With this we fpeak our Admiration, Joy, Anguifh, 



Averfion, Apprehenfion of Danger, &c. Where the Paffion 
is very ftrong, we frequently heighten the A, by adding an 
Afpirate, Ah. See Interjection. 

'Tis obferv'd of the EngliJJ? Pronunciation, that we fpeak 
the a with a flenderer, and more puny Sound than any of 
our Neighbours : Ordinarily, 'tis fcarce broad enough for a 
French e Neuter; and comes far ihort of the grofs^ of the 
Germans, which wou'd make our mi, or aw, or 0. In fome 
Words, however, as talk, wall, flail, &c. the a is broad, 
and deep enough. But this, 'tis obferv'd, may not be the 
mere Sound of « ; but the Eftecl of the antient Orthography, 
which, as low as (T Elizabeth, added an u to the a, and 
wrote taulk, &c. 

The Romans laid a mighty Strefs on their a; and diftin- 
gui/h'd exactly, both in writing and fpeaking, when it was 
Jong, and when /hort. To denote it long, they firft wrote 
it double, Aala, for Ala ; which not being enough, they 
inferted an h between 'em, Ahala : At length they fell to 
the common long Accent Ua, or Ala. See Accent. 

A was one of the Numeral Letters among the Antients, 
and fignify'd 500. With a DafTi atop, a, it flood for 5000. 
See Character. 

Saronius gives us a Set of antient Technical Verfes, 
wherein the Numeral Value of each Letter of the Alphabet is 
exprefs'd; whereof this is the firft. 

Woffidet A numeros quingentos, ordine reHo. 

But we /hall here obferve, once for all, that it was not 
ftri&ly among the Antients that this Ufe of Numeral Let- 
ters had place, as is commonly fuppos'd. JJidore H/fpa* 
lenjis, an Author of the Vllth Century, affirms it exprcfly : 
Latini autem Ninneros ad Litteras non computant. The 
Ufage was really introdue'd in the Days of Barbarifm. M. 
du Cange, explaining what that Ufage was, at the beginning 
of each Letter of his Glojfary, the generality of Dictionary- 
Writers, who take it from him, miftake him. The account, 
they all fay, is found in Valerius Trobus : whereas du Cange 
fays no fuch thing ; but only that it is found in a Collection 
of Grammarians, among whom are Valerius c Probus, and 
'Petnts %)iaco?2us. Habetur vefo illttd cum Valeric Trobo, 
Waldo 2)iacono, (it fhould rather have been Tetro) & aliis 
qui de numeris fcripferunt, editum inter Grammaticos anti- 
quos. See Numeral. 

A is alfo us'd in the Julian Calendar, as the firft of the 
feven Dominical Letters. See Dominical. 

It had been in ufe among the Romans long before the 
Eftablifhment of Chriftianity, as the firft of the eight Nundi- 
nales Litters ; in imitation whereof it was, that the Domi- 
nical Letters were firft introdue'd. See Nundinal. 

B A 



ABA 



( * ) 



ABA 



A is alfo an Abbreviature, us'd in divers Arts, and with 
divers Intentions. See Abbreviature. Thus, 

Among Logicians, A is us'd to denote an univerfal Affir- 
mative Proportion 5 according to the Verfe, 

Afferit Ai negat E, verhn generaliter Amb<s. 

Thus, in the firft Mood, a Syllogifm confifting of three 
univerfal Affirmative Propositions, is faid to be \n Z?ar-ba-ra $ 
the A thrice repeated, denoting fo many of" thc^ Proportions 
to be univerfal, t£c. See Moon, Barbara, $$c. 

Among the Romans, A was us'd in the giving ot Votes, 
or Suffrages. When a new Law was propos d, each Voter 
had two wooden Ballets put in his Hand ; the one mark d 
with a Capital A, fisnifying Antiquo, q. d. Anhquam volo- 
and the other with V.R. for Uti rogas. Such aswereagainrt 
the Law paffing, caft the firit into the Urn, as who fhould 
fay, J refufe it, I antiquate it ; or I like the anticnt Law, 
and defire no Innovation. See Suffrage, Century, &c. 

In the Trials of Criminal Caules, the lame Letter A de- 
noted Absolution : whence Cicero, pro Milone, calls A, Lit- 
tera falutaris, a Saving Letter. Three Ballots were diftri- 
buted to each Judge, mark'd with the Letters, A for Ab- 
folvo, Cfor Condemno, and N. L. for Non Liquet, It is not 
clear. From the Number of each caft into the Urn, the 
Pranor pronoune'd the Prifoner's Fate. If they were in equal 
number, he was abfolv'd. See Absolution, Condemna- 
tion, &c. 

In the antient lufcriptions of Marbles, &c. A occasionally 
fhnds for AvgnftttS, Ager, A'mnt, &c. When double, it de- 
notes Atigufii : and when triple Auro, Argcnto, jfcre. 
Ifidorc adds, that when it occurs after the Word Mites, it 
denotes him young. See Inscription. 

On the Reverfe of antient Medals, A denotes 'em ftruck 
by the City Argot. And among the later Coins, the fame 
Letter is the Mark of 'Paris. Sec Medal, Coin, Money, &c. 

Among Engiijh Writers, A is ordinarily us'd for Anno, as 
A. 2). Anno 'Domini ; for Artiuw, as J. M A. 3. &c. See 
Ghar acter. 

Among Phyficians, a or aa, is us'd in Prefcription for .Am 5 
to denore an equal Portion of divers Ingredients, whether 
in refpeel of Meafure or Weight. See Ana. 

Thus, 5? Sal. Volat.Oleof.Ttnli. Croc, aa 3=fs. expreffes 
Sal Volatile Oleofum, and Tincture of Saffron, of each half 
an Ounce. 

The fame a or aa is alfo us'd in the like Senfe, without 
expreffing any limited Quantity or Weight : Thus, a or aa 
'P.JE. denotes fimply, equal Tarts of the Ingredients there 
mention'd. 

La%, among Chymifts, AAA fignify an Amalgama, or 
the Operation of Amalgamating. See Amalgamation. 

ABACTOR, a barbarous Latin Word, retain'd in our 
Dictionaries as a Law-Term, tho never yet naturaliz'd, nor 
its Idea agreed on. 

Literally, it imports the fame with Abigeus, or as others 
write it, Abigcvus, or Abigens 5 form'd of Abigo, I drive 
away, q. d. a Driver of Cattle. 

Technically, it is us'd to denote a Thief; but with fome- 
thing particular in the manner of his Crime, to diftinguifh it 
from Furtum,ov common Theft. 'Tis generally fuppos'd to 
be one who fteals, or drives off Cattel by Herds, or great 
Numbers : Thus BraEto'n, L. hi. c. 6. Si quis fium fitrri- 
puit, fur erit ; $5 fi quis gregem, Abigcvus. See Theft. 

Others will have Abactors to be ftriclly thofe who drive 
off Cattel openly, and by main Force. In the former Senfe,. 
the Aft of Abatlion amounts to the Abigeat, and in the 
latter to the Rapina of the Civilians. 

But the Diflinclion between Fur and Abactor has now no 
place among us. 

So, among the antient Phyficians, AbdBus was us'd for a 
Mifcarriage procur'd by Art, or force of Medicines 5 in con- 
tradiftinction to Ahor fits, which is Natural. But the Mo- 
derns know no fuch diftinction. See Abortion. 

ABACUS, among the Antients, was a kind of Cupboard, 
or Buffet. Sec Buffet. 

In this Senfe Livy, defcribing the Luxury into which the 
Romans degenerated after the Conoueft of Aft a, fays, They 
had their Abaci, Beds, £?£. plated over with Gold. Dec. 
IV. Lib. \x. 

The Word is Latin, but form'd from the Greek, £$d% ; 
which among that People fignify'd the fame thing. Gui- 
cbart goes higher : He derives a^af, from the Hebrew 
*13N> extolli, to be elevated, rais'd ; and fuppofes its pri- 
mary Signification to be a high Shelf, or other Convenience 
for things to be laid upon out of the way. 

Abacus was particularly us'd among the Mathematicians, 
for a little Table ftrew'd o'er with Duff, on which they 
drew their Schemes and Figures. And hence the 

Abacus Pythagoricus, a Table of Numbers, contriv'dfor 
the ready learning of the Principles of Arithmetic 5 deno- 
minated from its^ Inventor 'Pythagoras. 

Hence alfo, from an Agreement in point of Ufe, the 
Karnes Abacus and Abaco, are us'd among the Engiijh and 
Italians for an Alphabet, or A B C, %$c. 



The Abacus Pythagoricus was, in all probability, n6 
other than what we call Multiplication-Table. See Table. ■ 

Ludolfus and Wvlfius give us Methods of performing Mul- 
tiplication without the help of the Abacus; but they arc too 
operofein ordinary Cafes for Practice. See Multiplication. 

Abacus, in Architecture, is the uppermost Member of the 
Capital of a Column 5 ferving as a kind of Crowning, both 
to the Capital and the whole Column. See Column. 

Dr. Harris, and the reft of die Dictionary- Writers, make 
the Abacus to be the Capital it felf ; which is altogether as 
juft, as to make the Crown of the Head the whole Head. 
See Capital, and Crowning. 

Vitruvius, and others after him, who give the Hiftory of 
the Orders, tell us, the Abacus was origifially intended torepre- 
fent a fquare Tile laid over an Urn, or rather over a Bafket. 
An Athenian old Woman happening to place a Bafket thus 
cover'd over the Root of an Acanthus j that Plant fhooting 
up the following Spring, encompafs'd the Bafket all around, 
till meeting with the Tile, it curl'd back in a kind of Scrolls. 
An ingenious Sculptor paffing by, took the Hint, and imme- 
diately executed a Capital on this Plan 5 reprefenti^g the 
Brick by the Abacus, the Leaves by the Volutes, and the 
Balket by the Vafe, or Body of the Capital. Such was the 
Rife of the firft regular Order. See Order, Acanthus, 
Volute, Corinthian, &c. 

There is Tome difference in the Form of the Abacus in 
different Orders. In the Tufcan, "Doric, and anticnt Ionic, 
it is a flat, fquare Member, well enough repreienting its 
original Tile ; whence the French call it Tailloir, Tren- 
cher. See Tuscan, Doric, and Ionic. 

In the richer Orders it has loll its native Form ; its four 
Sides, or Faces, being arch'd, or cut inwards ; with fome Or- 
nament, as a Rofe, or other Flower, or Fifties Tail in the 
middle of each Arch. See Corinthian, and Composite $ 
fee alfo Flower, &c. 

But fame Architects take other Liberties in the Abacus, 
both in refpect of its Name, Place, and Office. Thus, in 
the Tufcan Order, where it is the largeft and mod maffive, 
as taking up one third of the height of the whole Capital, 

it is fometimescaird thcDie of the Capital.- In the Doric 

'tis not always the uppermoft Member of the Capital ; a Cy- 
matium being frequently placed over it. — In the Ionic, fome 
make it a perfect Ogee, and crown it with a Fillet. See 
Die, Cymatium, Ogee, gjfa 

Add, that the Abacus is not conftantly reftrain'd to the 
Capital of the Column ; Scamozzi ufing the Name for a 
concave Moulding in the Capital of the Tufcan Pedeftal. 
See Pedestal. 

ABAFT, in the Sea Language, denotes the Stem, or 
Hind-part of a Vcffel 5 call'd alio Sft. See Aft. 

The Stern, ftrictly fpeaking, is only the Outfidc ; Abaft 
includes both infide and out. See Stern. 

AB ALIEN ATIO, in the Roman Law, is a Term fcarce 
us'd in any En^lifb Writer 5 tho our Dictionaries would pafs 
it for Englifb. Indeed, it is not very common among the 
Latins. The ufual Term among them was Alienatio ; and 
in our Language Alienation. See Alienation, 

ABAPTISTON, or ANABAPTISTON, a Name anti- 
ently given to an Instrument in Chirurgery, by the modern 
Writers call'd Trepan, Modiolus, Terebra, Terebellum, and 
Trafine. See Trepan, Modiolus, &c. 

The Word is a mere Stranger in our Language. It feems 
to be one of thofe Exoticks imported by the Dictionaries 3 
and never taken notice of but by themfelves. 

ABARTICULATION, in Anatomy, is reprcfentcd by 
Slanchard, and other Lexicographers after him, as fynony- 
mous with Diarthrofis : but the Definition they give of ir, 
does not quadrate with that Notion. 

' Abarticttlation, or Dearticulation, fay they, is a good 
4 Constitution of the Bones, whereby they become difpos'd 
* to move ffrongly and readily.' But what this fhould mean, 
it were hard precifely to fay. Sec Di arthrosis. 

ABASING, literally denotes the taking a thing down^ or 
bringing it lower. 

In this Senfe the Word is us'd at Sea ; where, to abafe a 
Flag, is to lower, or take it in, as a Token of Submiffion 
and Inferiority. See Flag. 

By an Ordonnance of Philip II. King of Spain, the Cap- 
tains are peremptorily enjoin'd, rather to perifli than abafe 
the Royal Flag. 

ABASED, Abaiffe, in Heraldry, is applied to the Vol, or 
Wings of Eagles, &G. when the Tip, or Angle looks down- 
ward toward the Point of the Shield ; or when the Wings 
are fhut: The natural way of bearing 'em beingfpread, with 
the Tip pointing to the Chief, or the Angles. Sec Vol. 

A Chevron, a Pale, Bend, ££c. are alfo faid to be abafcd r 
when their Points terminate in, or below the Centre of tho 
Shield. See Chevron, Pale, ££?c. 

Again, an Ordinary is faid to be aba fed, when below its 
due Situation. Thus, the Commanders of rhe Order of 
Malta, who have Chiefs in their own Arms, arc oblig'd to 
abafe 'era under thofe of the Religion. 

ABATEMENT, 



ABB 



C 3 ) 



ABB 



ABATEMENT, in Heraldry, fomething added to a Coat- Quality, without any Concern in the Monafiic Life, took the 

A.rmour to dimraifh. its proper Value and Dignity, and note fame Quality ; even fome of their Kings are mention'd in 

fome dishonourable Action, or Stain in the Character of the Hiftory under the Title of Abbots. 'Philip I. Louis VI. and 

Perfon who bears it. See Arms. afterwards the Dukes of Orleans, are call'd Abbots of the 

'Tis a little controverted among Authors, whether Heral- Monastery of S. Agnan. The Dukes of Aquitain were 

dry allows of any fuch thing as regular Abatements. Leigh call'd Abbots of the Monaftery of S. Hilary, at PoiBiers 5 

and Gltillim without any Scruple as to their Reality, give and the Earls of An]oit of S. Aubin, &C. 
us feveral Kinds. One third of the belt Benefices in England were antiently, 

abatements, according to the laft of thofe Writers, are by the Pope's Grant, appropriated to Abbies, and other Re- 



cither made byReverfion or Diminution. 

ReverJlOH is either turning the whole Efcutcheon upfide- 
down • or the adding another Efcutcheon, inverted, in the 
former. 

^Diminution, is the blerniflnng any part by adding a Stain, 
or Mark of Diminution : Such are a iDelf, a Point Dexter, 
a 'Point Champaign, a 'Plain Point, a Goar Sinifter, and a 
Guffet. See each under its proper Article, Delf, Point 
Dexter, Goar, Gusset, &c. 



ligious Houfes j which, upon their Diffolution under King 
Henry VIII. became Lay- Fees : 190 fuch were diflblv'd of 
between 200/. and 35000 /. yearly Revenue, which at a 
Medium amounted to 2853000 /. per Annum. 

ABBOT, or ABBAT, the Chief, or Superior of an Ab- 
bey, of the Male Kind. See Abbey, and Abbess. 

The Name Abbot is originally Hebrew, where it fignifies 
Father. The Jews call Father in their Language Ab 5 
whence the Chaldces and Syrians form'd Abba ; and thence 



It may be added, that thefe Marks mult always be either the Greeks «#£=«, which the Latins retain'd, Abbas ; and 



Tawny, or Murrey; otherwifc, inftcad of Diminutions, 
they become Additions of Honour. See Tawny, MUR- 
REY* &C 

The laft Editor of Gltillim difcards the whole Notion of 
Abatements, as a Chimera. He alledges, that no one In- 
stance is to be met withal of fuch Bearing ; and that it im- 
plies a Contradiction to fuppofe it. Arms, being Infigma 
Nobilitatis ti? Honoris, cannot admit of any Mark of In- 
famy, without ceafing to be Arms, and becoming Badges of 
Difgrace ; which all would covet to lay afide. Add, that as 
no hereditary Honour can be actually diminifti'd ; fo neither 
can the Marks thereof. Both, indeed, may be forfeited ; as 
in the Cafe of Treafon, where the Efcutcheon is totally rc- 
vers'd, to intimate a total Suppreffion of the Honour. 



hence our Abbot, the French Abbe, eVc. 

St. Mark and St. Paul ufe the Syriac Abba in their Greek ; 
by reafon it was then commonly known in the Synagogues, 
and the primitive Aflemblies of the Chriftians ; adding to 
It, by way of Interpretation, the Word Father, 'A/5/sa m-th, 
Abba, Father, q. d. Abba, that is to fay, Father. 

The Name Ab and Abba, which at firft was a Term of 
Tenderncfs and Affection, in the Hebrew and Cbaldee, be- 
came at length a Title of Dignity and Honour. The Jewifll 
Doctors affected it ; and one of their mod antient Books, 
containing the Sayings, or Apothegms of divers of 'em, is 
entitled, Pirke Abbot, or Avoth, i. e. Chapter of the 
Fathers. 

'Twas in allufion to this Affectation, that Jefus Chrift fbr- 



Some Inftances, however, are produe'd to the contrary by bad his Dlfciples to call any Man their Father on Earth 



Colombicrc, and others. But thefe, tho they may (hew 
fome extraordinary Refentments of Princes for Offences 
committed in their Prefence, do not amount to a Proof of 
fuch Cuttom or Practice ; much lefs authorize the Being of 
particular Badges in the Hands of inferior Officers, as Kings 
at Arm 



which Words S. Jerom turns againtt the Superiors of the 
Monafteries of his Time, for afluming the Title of Abbots, 
or Fathers. .• . 

The Name Abbot, then, appears as old as the IniUtution 
of Monks it felf. See Monk. 

The Governors of the primitive Monafteries affum'd in- 



Abatement, in Law, is us'd for the defeating or over- differently the Names Abbots and Archimandrites. See Ar 
throwing of a thing, as a Writ, Appeal, or the like. chimandrites. 

Thus" rhe Abatement of a Writ, is the fruftrating, orfet- They were really diftinguifli'd from the Clergy, tho fre- 
tins it atide, by fome Exception alledg'd and made good ^quently confounded with 'em, becaufe a Degree above Lay 
again!! it. Such Exception may be taken 



:ither to thi 
Matter, as infufficient ;_*or to the Allegations, as_ uncertain 



e g. where one of the' Parties or a Place are mifnam'd ; -. 
to fome Variation between the Writ and Record ; or to the 
Uncertainty of the Writ, Count, or Declaration ; or to divers 



men. S. Jerom, writing to Heliodorus, fays expreily, Alia, 
Monachorum ejl Catlfa, alia Clericontm. See Clergy, 
Priest, (Sc 

In thofe early Days, the Abbots were fubject to the Bi- 

fliops, and the ordinary Paftors. Their Monafteries being 

other Particulars. Upon any of which, the Defendant may remote from Cities, built in the fartheft Solitudes, they had 

prav that the Writ, or Plaint, may abate ; i.e. that the no fhare in Ecclefiaftical Affairs. They went on Sundays to 

Plaintiff's Suit may ceafe for that time. See Writ. the Parilh-Church with the reft of the People : or, if they 

So we read in Staundford, ' The Appeal abates by Covin : were too remote, a Prielt was fen't 'em to adminifter the Sa- 

that is the Accufation is defeated bv Deceit. In the old craments ; till at length they were allow'd to have Prietts of 

Nat irev. To abate a Caftle, or Fortlet, is interpreted, to their own Body. 

beat it down. The Abbot, or Archimandrite himfelf was ufually the 

Abatement is alfo an irregular Entry upon Lands, or Prieft : but his Function extended no farther than to the Spi- 
Tenements, left vacant by their former Pofleffor, and not ritual Affiftances of his Monaftery ; and he remain'd Hill in 
vet laid hold of by the next Heir. obedience to the Bifhop. 

As he that puts out the Pofleffor is faid to dijfeize ; fo he There being among the Abbots feveral Perfons of Learning, 
that interpofes, or fteps in between the former Pofleffor and they made a vigorous Oppofition to the rifing Hcrefics of thofe 
his Heir, is faid to abate. See Disseisin. Times; which firit occifion'd the Biftiops to call 'em out of 

Coke on Littleton diftinguifhes between Abatement and their Defarts, and fix 'em about the Suburbs of Cities ; and 

at length in the Cities themfelves : from which Mta. their 
Degeneracy is to be dated. 

The Abbots, now, foon wore off their former Plainnefs 
and Simplicity, and began to be look'd on as a fort of little 
^Thc Abbefs has the fame Rights, and Authority over her Prelates. In time they would be Independent of the Biftiop ; 
Nuns that the Abbots regular have over their Monks. See and became fo infupportable, that fome fevere Laws wera 
£ m0 't. made againft'em at the Council of Chalcedm: This notwith- 

The Sex indeed does not allow her to perform the Spiri- Handing, in time, many of 'em carry 'd the Point of Inde- 
tual Functions annex'd to the Priefthood, wherewith the Ab- pendency; and got the Appellation of Lord, with other 
bot is ufually invefted; but there are Inftances of fome Ab- Badges of the Epifcopate, particularly the Mitre. 
Jje/Jis who have a Right, or rarher a Privilege, to commif- Hence arofe new Species and Distinctions of Abbots, Mi- 
(iori a' Prieft to aft for 'em. They have even a kind of Epif- tred, and not Mitred ; Crozier'd, and not Crozier'd, Oecu- 



Jntriifion ; but the new Book of Entries renders Abatement 
by Intrufio. See Intrusion. 

ABBESS, the Superior of an Abbey, or Convent of Nuns, 
See Abbey, and Convent. 



„opal Jurifdiction, as well as fome Abbots, who are exempt 
cd from the Vifitation of their Diocefans. See Exemption. 

F. Martene, in his Trcatife of the Rites of the Church, 
obferves, that fome Abbejfes have formerly confefs'd their 

Nuns. He adds, that their execflive Curiofity carry'd 'em fovireig?!, and Abbots general 
fuch iengths, that there arofe a neceflity of checking it. 

S. Bafil, in his Rule, allows the Abbefs to be prelent with 
the Prieft at the Confeffions of her Nuns. Sec Confession. 

ABBEY, or ABBY, a Monaftery, or Religious Houfe, 
novern'd by an Abbot, or Abbefs. Sec Abbot, £?c. 

Abbies differ from Priories, in that the one are under the 
Direction of an Abbot, and the other of a Prior : but Abbot 
and Prior (we mean a Prior Conventual) are the fame thing ; 
and only differ in Name. See Prior. 



menical, Cardinal, &c. 

Mitred Abbots, were thofe ptivileg'd to wear the Mitre; 
and having, withal, a full Epifcopal Authority within their 
feveral Precincts. Among us, thefe were alfo call'd Abbots 



and were Lords of Parlia- 
ment. Of thefe Sir Edward Coke, de fur. Ecclef. reckons 
27 in England, befidc two Mitred Priors. See Prior. 
The reft, who were not mitred, were fubject to the Dio- 

cefafi. • \ 3 /tr 

'Perl Hay, a Benedictine Monk, in his Book entitled Af- 
trum InextinRum, maintains, that the Abbots of his Order 
have not only an Epifcopal, but even a Papal Junldiction ; 
'Poteflarem auajl Epifcopalem, imo quafi Papalcm ; and as 
fuch 'can confer the lower Orders of Deacon and Subdeacon. 



Fauchet obferves, that in the early Days of tho French Sec Order. 
Monarchv Dukes and Counts were call'd Abbots, and Du- When the Abbots firft affum'd the Mitre, the B.ihops 
chies and 'Counties Abbies. Many Perfons of the prime ma de heavy Complaints of their Privileges being invaded ^by 



ABB 



( 4 ) 



A B D 



the Monks j and were particularly offended, that in Synods 
and Councils there was no Pittinftion between 'cm. On this 
Occafion, Pope Clement IV. order'd, that the Abbots fhould 
only wear their Mitres embroider'd with Gold, and leave 
Jewels to the Bifhops. See Mitre. 

Crozier'd Abbots, are thofe who bear the Crozier* or 
Paftoral Staff. See Crozier. 

There are fome Crozier'd and not Mitred ; as the Abbot 
of the BenediBine Abbey at Bourges : and others, both the 
one and the other. 

Among the Greeks, fome even took the Quality of Oecu- 
menical Abbots, or Univerfal Abbots, in Imitation of the 
Patriarch of Cmjhatttinople. See Oecumenical. 

Nor have the Latins been much behind 'em in that re- 
fpeft : The Abbot of Cluny, in a Council held at Rome, 
affum'd the Title of Abbas Abbatum. Abbot of Abbots j and 
Pope Calixtus, gave the fame Abbot the Title of Cardinal 
Abbot. See Cluny. 

To fay nothing of other Cardinal Abbots, thus denomi- 
nated from their being the principal Abbots of Monafteries, 
which came to be feparated. 

Abbots, again, are now chiefly diftinguifh'd into Regular, 
and Commendatory. 

Abbots Regular, are real Monks, or Religious, who 
have taken the Vows, and wear the Habit of the Order. 
Sec Regular, Religious, Vow, &c. 

Such are all Abbots prefum'd to be - ? it being exprefly pro- 
vided by the Canons, that none but a Monk have the Com- 
mand over Monks. 

Abbots in Commendam, arc Seculars ; tho they have un- 
dergone the Tonfure, and arc oblig'd by their Bulls to take 
Orders when they come of Age. See Secular, Ton- 
sure, %$c. 

Tho the Term Commendam insinuates, that they have 
only the Administration of their Abbies for a Time ; yet do 
they hold, and reap the Fruits of 'em for ever ; as well as 
the Regular Abbots. 

Their Bulls give 'em a full Power tarn in Spiritualibus, 
quara in Temporal} bus. And yet, 'tis true, that ^Commen- 
datory Abbots do not perform any Spiritual Offices 5 nor 
have they any Spiritual Jurifdiction over their Monks. So 
that the Phrafe in Spirit ttalibm, is rather ibmething of the 
Roman Stile, than a Reality. 

Some of their beft Canonifts rank the Commendam in the 
Number of Benefices, inter titulos Bcneficiortpn. 'Tis no 
more than a Canonical Title, or Provifion to enjoy the Fruits 
of a Benefice: But as fuch Provifions are contrary to the an- 
tient Canons, none but the Pope, by difpenfing with the old 
Law, can grant 'em. See Commendam, Benefice, ££?c. 

Our own Hiftory fpeaks very little of thefe Commendatory 
Abbots 5 and 'tis probable the Practice never prevail'd much 
among us. Hence, many of our Writers have been led into 
the Millake, of fuppofing that all Abbots are Monks. Of 
this we have a remarkable Inftance, at which many of our 
Countrymen have {tumbled, in that Difpute about the Inventor 
of the Lines for transforming of Geometrical Figures, call'd 
by the French the Robervallian Lines. Dr. Gregory, in the 
Pbilofophical Tranfaciions, Anno 169$. rallies the Abbot 
Galloys, who held the Abbey of S. Martin de Cores, in 
Commendam, with being a Monk : ' The good Father, fays 

* he, imagines we are return'd into that fabulous Age where- 

* in a Monk might be allow'd to fay what he pleas'd.' 
Which PafTage the Abbot takes hold of, and returns the 
Raillery, with Inrereft, on the Doctor, in the Memoirs de 
VAcadem. Anno 1705. 

The Ceremony whereby Abbots arc created, is properly 
call'd Benediction ; or fome times, tho abufively, Confccra- 
tion. See Benediction, and Consecration. 

It antientiy confined in cloathing him with the Habit call'd 
Cuculla, Cowl ; putting the Paftoral Staff in his Hand, and 
the Shoes call'd 'Pedales, or < Pedules, on his Feet. Thefe 
Particularities we learn from the Ordo Romanus ^.Theodore 
Archbifhop of Canterbury. 

The Title Abbot has alfo been given to certain Bi/hops, 
by reafon their Sees had originally been Abbeys - 7 and that 
they were even elected by the Monks : Such are thofe of 
Cutanea and Montreal, in Sicily. See Bishop. 

The fame Appellation is extended to the Superiors or Ge- 
nerals of fome Congregations of Regular Canons j as that of 
S. Genevieve at 'Paris. See Canon, Genevieve, &c. 

Abbot is alfo a Title bore by feveral Magiftrates, and 
other Lay-Perfons. Among the Genoefc, one of their princi- 
pal Magiftrates was call'd the Abbot of the 'People. 

In France, particularly about the Time of Charlemaign* 
there were feveral Lords and Courtiers, who having the In- 
fpection of certain Abbeys committed to them, were fly I'd 
Abba-Comites, or Abbey-Counts. Sec Abbey, Count, &c. 

ABBREVIATURE, or ABBREVIATION, a Contrac- 
tion of a Word, or Paffage ; made by dropping fome of the 
Letters, and fubftituting certain Marks, or Characters in their 
Place. See Symbol. 

Lawyers, Phyficians, $£<;. ufe abundance of Abbreviatures ; 
3 



partly for the fake of Expedition,and partly for thatofMyfterv. 
A Liji of the principal Abbreviatures in the feveral Arts 
and Faculties, fee under the Article Character. 

Of all People, the Rabbins are the greatcft Dealers in 
this way j theirjWritings are unintelligible, without an Expli- 
cation of the Hebrew Abbreviatures. The Jc-ixujh Authors 
and Copifts don't content themfelves to abbreviate Words, 
like the Greeks and Latins, by retrenching iome of the 
Letters, or Syllables thereof; but they frequently take away 
all but the initial Letter. Thus, "1 ftands for Rabbi, and 
X ftands for 7X, OlIN or "ION' according to the Place 
it is found in. 

But what is more, they frequently take the initial Letters 
of feveral fucceeding Words, join 'em together, and adding 
Vowels to 'em, make a barbarous fort of Word, rcprefenra- 
tive of all the Words thus abridg'd. Thus, Rabbi Sche- 
lemoh jfarrhi, in the Jargon of the Hebrew Abbreviature* 
is call'd Raj? ; and Rabbi Mofcs ben Maiemon, Rambam. 
And thus again, NT3D is put for Pjx n2D> "IflM [HO 
'Donum in abdito evertit Tram. 

Mercer us, 2) avid de ( Pc?nis > Schindler, Buxtorf, &c. have 
given Explications of this fort of Ciphers. The mo ft copi- 
ous Collection of Roman Abbreviations, is that of Sertonus 
, Urfatus, at the End of the Marmora Arundclia ; Scrtorii 
Urfati Equitis de Notis Romanorum Commentarim. 

The Word is deriv'd from the Latin brevis, of the Greek 
@fd.yy<, Short. 

ABBREU VOIR, orABREVOIR, inMafonry, the Joint, 
or Joncture of two Stones ; or the Intcrftice, or Space left 
between 'em to be fill'd up with Mortar. See Stone, Mor- 
tar, Masonry", ££?c\ 

The Word is French, and literally denotes a Watering-place, 

ABBROACHMENT, an obfolete Term in fome" of our 

antient Law-Books, for the Act of ingrafting, or buying up 

a Commodity by Wholefale, in order to fell it off by Retail. 

See Forestalling. 

ABBUTALS, among Law- Writers, denote the Buttings 
or Boundings of a piece of Land 5 exprcfting on what other 
Lands, Highways, or the like, the feveral Extremes thereof 
do abut, or terminate. Thus, in Croke, the Plaintiff is faid 
to fail in his Abbutals* i. e. in fetting forth how the Land 
is bounded. 

In ftrictnefs, 'tis only the extreme Corners are faid to 
abut ; the Sides are faid to be adjacent. Latcra autem 
nunquam ahmt Abuttare $ fed terrain grox'mam adjacere. 
Camden. 

The Word is apparently form'd of the French abouter, to 
terminate upon. Tho Camden advances another Etymology. 

■ ' They who have wrote of Limits, fay, that certain 

' Hillocks of Earth, term'd Botentines, were placed there- 
' in, by way of Marks : whence, perhaps, our Buttings, and 
4 Boundings. 

ABDICATION, the Aa whereby a Magiftrate, or Per- 
fon in Office renounces and gives up the fame, for himfeit" 
and his Heirs. See Renunciation. 

Abdication is frequently confounded with Reftgnation ; 
but, ftrictly fpeaking, there is a difference : Abdication 
being done purely and fimply 5 whereas Refignation is done 
in favour of fome third Perfon. See Resignation. 

In this Senfe, *£}iocletia?z, and Charles V. are faid to have 
abdicated the Crown; 'Philip IV. of Spain refign'd it. The 
Parliament voted King jfaines's Violation of the Laws, and 
his quitting the Kingdom, without providing for the due 
Adminiftration of Affairs in his abfence, to import an Abdi- 
cation of the Crown. 

Among the Romans, Abdication was alfo us'd in opposi- 
tion to Adoption : Thus, a Father was faid to abdicate his 
difobedient Son. See Adoption. 

It differ 'd from Exheredation, Disinheriting, in this Cir- 
cumftance, that the abdicated Son was banifti'd his Father's 
Family, and cut off from the Succeffion by a folemn Act, 
during the Father's Life: whereas Exheredation only took 
place in virtue of his Teftament. See Exheredation. 

ABDOMEN, in Anatomy, the lower Belly, or that Part 
of the Body between the Hips and the Diaphragm. See 
Body. 

Anaromifts divide the Body into three Regions, or Ven- 
ters ; the Head ; the Thorax, or Breaft ; and the Abdo?neu, 
or Belly, absolutely fo cail'd ; being the loweft Part of the 
Trunk. 'Tis feparated from the Thorax by the Diaphragm, 
and reaches to the Offa pubis. See Venter. 

It is called Abdomen, from the Latin abdo* I hide ; by 
reafon that in its Cavity are wrapp'd up and conceal'd many 
of the principal Fifcera, viz. the Stomach, Omentum, In- 
terims, Liver, Spleen, Bladder, &c. See Stomach, Omen- 
tum, Intestines, &c. 

The Abdomen is lined internally with a thin, foft Mem- 
brane ; which inverting all the Vifcera abovemention'd, con- 
tains and keeps 'em in their Place, call'd the 'Peritoneum : 
upon a Rupture or Dilatation whereof, they are apt to fal),. 
and form thofe Tumors call'd Hernias. See PeRitonjeum, 
and Hernia. 



ABE 



(5) 



ABE 



It is cover'd and defended with five Pair of Mufcles _ 
which not only defend the Vifcera, but by their alternate 
Relaxations, and Contractions in Refpiration, promote the 
Action of Digestion, and the Extrusion of the -Faces and 
Urine. By their Contraction, the Cavity of the Abdomen 
is ftraighten'd, and promotes the defcent of the Contents of 
the Vifcera thro' the Intestines. They are the proper An- 
tagonists to the Sphincters or the Anus and Bladder, and 
forcibly expel the Excrements of thole Parts, as alfo the 
Feet us in Parturition, See Respiration, Digestion, Ex- 
cretion, Delivery, £S?C 

Thefe Mufcles are the Obliqui Dcfcendentes, and Afcen- 
dentes, Lined, alba, RetH, and Pyramidales ; fee each under 
its proper Article, Obliquus, Rectus, Pyramidadis,^. 
The Abdomen is fubdivided into three leffer Regions, or 
Cavities : the upper molt, call'd the Epigaftric, commences 
from the Diaphragm and Cartilago Enjiformis, and termi- 
nates two Fingers breadth above the Navel : The fecond, 
call'd the Umbilical, begins where the former ends, and 
terminates two Fingers breadth below the Navel : The 
third, call'd the Hypogaftric, defends as low as the Os 'Pubis. 
See Epigastric, Umbilical, and Hypogastric. 

Each of thefe Subdivisions, the more accurate Writers 
divide further into three Parts ; a middle, and two lateral 
ones, the Hypochondriums. The middle part of the Um- 
bilical, is call'd the Umbilicus, or Navel; and its lateral 
Parts the Limibi, Loins : The Middle of the Hypogastric, 
is call'd the Hypogaftrium j and its Sides the Ilia, or Flanks. 
See each under its proper Place, Epigastrium, Hvpochon- 
drium, Umbilicus, Lumbi, &c. 

ABDUCTION, in Logick, a kind of Argumentation, by 
the Greeks call'd Apogoge $ wherein, the greater Extreme is 
evidently contain'd in the Medium, but the Medium not fo 
evidently in the leffer Extreme as not to require fome fur- 
ther Medium, or Proof to make it appear. 

Thus, in the Syllogifm, All whom God abfohes are free 
of Sin ; bus God abfolves all who are in Chrift : Therefore, 
all who are in Chrift are free of Sin. The Major is evi- 
dent 5 but the Minor, or Aflumption is not fo, without fome 
other Proposition to prove it j as, God took Satisfaction for 
Sin in the Suffering of Jefus Chrift. 

It is call'd Abduction ; becaufe, from the Conclusion, it 
draws us on to prove the Proposition affumed. 

ABDUCTOR, or ABDUCENT, in Anatomy, a Name 
common to feveral Mufcles, whofe Action is the withdraw- 
ing, opening, or pulling back the Parts they are fix'd to. 
See Muscle. 

The Name is Latin, compounded of ab, from, and duco, 
1 draw : Their Antagonifts are call'd Adduttores. See Ad- 
ductor. 

Abductor Auricularis, ox of the little Finger, arifes 
from the Annular Ligament, and the third and fourth Bones 
of the Carpus in theTecond Rank ; and is inferted externally 
into the firft Bone of the little Finger : it ferves to draw 
that Finger from the reft. See Finger. 

In fome Subjects it appears divided into two or three Muf- 
cles, consisting of fo many different Series of Fibres. 

Abductor Indicts, or of the fore Finger, arifes from the 
infi.de of the Bone of the Thumb, and is inferted into the 
firft Bone of the fore Finger, which it draws from the reft 
towards the Thumb. 

' Abductor minimi digit i manus. See Abductor Auri- 
cularis. 

Abductor minimi digit/ pedis, or of the little Toe, arifes 
from the outfide of the Os Calcis, near the exterior Bone of 
the Metatarfus, and is inferted laterally into the outfide of 
the fecond Bone of that Toe, which it pulls from the reft. 

Abductor Pollicis, call'd alfo Thenar, fprings from the 
Annular Ligament, and flrft Bone of the Carpus ; from 
whence paffing to the Thumb, it makes that fle/hy Body 
called Mons Luna : It draws the Thumb from the Fingers. 
Adductor 'JPollicis pedis, or of the great Toe, fprings 
from the infide of the Os Calcis, and the greater Os Cunei- 
fornic^ and is inferted into the outfide of the exterior Os 
Sefamoidcinn pollicis : It ferves to draw the great Toe from. 
the reft. See Toe. 

Abductor Oculi, or of the Eye, is one of the four Recti, 
or ftrait Mufcles, arising from the bottom of the Orbit, and 
fprcad over the firft proper Tunic 5 ferving to draw the Eye 
towards the outer Canthus. See Eye, and Recti. 

ABECEDARY, ABCEDARY, or ABECEDARIAN, 
fome thing Alphabetical, or belonging to the Alphabet. See 
Alphabet. 

Among the Antients, the Term Abecedarius was pecu- 
liarly applied to thofe Compositions wherein the initial Letters 
of each Strophe, or fome times even of each Verfe, follow'd 
the Order of the Alphabet. 

Such, in Holy Scripture, are the CXVIIIth Pfalm, and 
the Lamentations of Jeremy : from which it fhould feem, 
as if the Hebrews had been the Inventors of this Kind of 
Poetry ; contrived, no doubt, to affift the Memory. 



.ABELIANS, ABELONIANS, ABELOITES, a Se& 
of Hereticks in Africa, not far from Hippo, eotemporafy 
with S. Auguftin. See Heretics 

What diftinguifh'd 'em, was, that they made it a Duty 
to marry, and yet liv'd with their Wives in a profefs'd Con- 
tinence, without having any commerce together. 

Thefe Hereticks, inconsiderable in themfelves, (for they 
were eonfm'd to a little compafs, and lasted not long 5) arc 
become considerable, by the great Pains the Learned have 
taken to afcertain the Principle they went upon, and the 
Rcafon of the Denomination. 

Some will have 'em. to have built on that Text of St* 
'Paul, 1 Cor; vii. 29. Let they that have Wives be as though 
they had none. A late Writer concludes, that they regu- 
lated their Marriage on the Foot of the terrestrial Paradife 5 
alledging, that there was no other Union between Adam 
aadJSW, but that of Hearts. He adds, they had likewife 
an Eye to the Practice of Abel, whom they held to have 
been married, but never to have known his Wife : and from, 
him they deriv'd their Name. 

Another Author obferves, that it was a Tradition current 
throughout the Eaft, That Adam concciv'd fo much Sorrow 
for the Death of Abel, that he was 130 Years without hav- 
ing to do with Eve, This, he /hews, was the Sentiment 
of the Jewijb Doclors ; from whom the Fable was tranf- 
mitted to the Arabs : And hence it was, according to Gigeus, 
that 72NH Thabala, in Arabic, came to signify, to abftain 
from one's Wife. He concludes, that he is the moft mifta- 
ken Perfon in the World, or the Story had reach'd Africa* 
and given occasion both to the Sect, and the Name. 

'Tis true, the Rabbins do hold, that Adam, after the 
Death of Abel, remain'd a long time without any ufe of 
Marriage 5 and till the Time when he begot Seth : but to 
fay that this was 130 Years is a manifeft Error, and contrary 
to their own Chronologies, which place Seth\ Birth in the 
130th Year of the World, or of Adam's Life ; as may be 
feen in their two Seder Olams. 

Abarbanel fays, it was 130 Years after Adam's Full* as 
believing, with the other Rabbins, that Cain and Abel were 
concciv'd immediately after Adam's Tranfgreffion. But, fay 
others, be this as it will, whether a Continence on occasion 
of the Fall, or of Abel's Death 5 'twas the Continence of 
Adam, not of Abel, that thefe Hereticks imitated; who, on 
this footing, fhould have been call'd Adamites, rather than 
Abelians. 

In effecT:, 'tis more than probable, they took their Name 
from Abel, for no other Reafon, but becaufe they had no 
Iffue more than Abel: Not that he lived in Continence 
after Marriage ; but becaufe he was kill'd before he had 
married. 

ABETTER, or ABETTOR, in Law, one who incites, 
jncourages, or fets another on to perform fomething criminal 5 
or fome way feconds and affifts him in the Performance ic 
felf. 

Thus, they who procure others to fue out falfe Appeals of 
Felony, or Murder against Men, to render 'em infamous, are 
particularly denominated Abettors. 

So, Abettors in Murder, are fuch as advife or procure a 
Murder to be committed, or are acceflbry thereto. Sec 
Murder.. 

There are Abettors in Felony, but not in Treason : the 
Law looking on all thofe cohcern'd in Treafon as Principals* 
See Treason. 

ABEYANCE, or ABBAYANCE, an obfolete Law- 
Term, whofe precife Signification is not easily gather'd 5 
having been out of date as long ago as Littletons Days. 

That Author gives it, as his Senfe of the Word, that to 
be in Abeyance is to be in the Entendement, Remembrance* 
g£ Confideration de la Loy ; In which Senfe, fays he, the 
Right of Fee-fimple is faid to be in Abeyance* 

He adds, Tiel Chofe & Tiel 2)roit qui eft dit en divers 
Livres etre en Abeyance eft a tant a dire en latine, Talis res 
vel tale rectum qttee vel quod non eft in homine ad tunc fu- 
perftite, Jed tantummodo eft, & con/t ft it in Confideratione & 
Intelligentia Legis ; H$ quod alii dixerunt, talem rem, aut 
tale rectum fore in Nubibus. 

Sir Edward Coke obferves, that among the antient Law- 
yers, things that are in poffe only, and not in effe, are faid 
to be in Abeyance ; q. d. yet undetermin'd, and only in Ex- 
pectation. — §>u£ nondum fnnt defi?zitee, aut fententia com- 
probatee fed funt adhuc in expettatione. 

This he confirms from the Etymology of the Word, from 
the French or Flemiflj 'Bayer, or Seer, to gape or wait for 
any thing with a longing Defire. 

Dr. Harris, improving fomewhat on his Authorities, fays, 
Abeyance fignifies a Thing's being only in poffe, and not in 
attu. Thus, adds he, when the Parfon of a Church dies, 
and the Church becomes void, the Fee is in Abeyance 3 be- 
caufe it is not determin'd who fhall fucceed him t ^ 



fa 



A B L 



CO 



ABO 



In this Senfe, our Abeyance may be compar'd to the Hs- 
reditas Jacens of the Civilians; 'Tis a Principle in Law, 
That of' every Land there is a Fec-fimple, or it is in Abey- 
ance. See Viz-Simple. 

AB-INTESTATE, in Law, the Heir of a Perion who 
died inteftate, and yet had the Power of making a Tefta- 
ment. See Intestate, and Heir. 

ABISHERSING, an antient Law-Term, denoting a be- 
ing free, or exempt, from ail Amerciaments for Tranfgrel- 
iions of any kind. See Amerciament. 

This Word, in a Charter or Grant, gives the Proprietor 
not only the Forfeitures, and Amerciaments of all others for 
Tranfgreffions committed within his Fee ; but alfo exempts 
him from all fuch controul by any wirhin that Compals. 

According to SMmati, it originally fignifies a Forfeiture, 
or Amerciament ; and mould rather be wrote Mijherjing, 
Mijbcring, or Miskcrring. 

ABJURATION, a folemn Renunciation, or Recanta- 
tion of an Error, Herefy, or falfe Doarine. See Recan- 
tation. , • i . 

The Word is form'd of the Latin Abyjrare ; which in 
Cicero, and other Reman Writers, fignifies the denying a 
thing upon Oath. Thus, Abjurare creditum, was to for- 
fwear a Debt, or to deny the owing it upon Oath, Ei?t7. 

So, in our own Laws, To abjure a 'Perfon, is to renounce 
all Authority or Dominion of fuch a Perfon. Thus, by the 
Oath of Abjuration, a Perfon binds himfelf not to own any 
Regal Authority in the Perfon call'd the Pretender, nor ever 
to pay him the Obedience of a Subject. See Oath, Alle- 
giance, &c. 

Abjuration is alfo us'd in our antient Cuftoms, for a 
fworn Banifhment for Life ; or an Oath taken, to forfake the 
Realm for ever. See Banishment. 

This, in fome Cafes, was admitted from Criminals in lieu 
of Death. The Devotion for the Church was fo warm, 
from the Time of Ed-ward the Confeflbr to the Reforma- 
tion, that if a Man having committed Felony, could recover 
a Church or Church-yard before he were apprehended, ir 
was an Afylum from which he could, not be brought to take 
his Trial at Law ; but conferring his Crime to the Juftices, 
or Coroner, and abjuring the Kingdom, he was at liberty. 
See Asylum. ■ * 

After Abjuration, a Crofs was given him, which he was 
to carry in his Hand rhro'the Highways, till he was got out 
of the King's Dominion ; which was call'd the Banner of 
Mother-Church. Viae. Hit. 26. Edvi. III. 

In time, Abjuration dwindled into a perpetual Confine- 
ment of the Prifoner to the Sanctuary ; wherein, after ab- 
juring his Liberty and free Habitation, he was allow'd to 
fpendhis Life. By Stat. 21 Jac. I. all ufe of Sanauaries, 
and confequently of Abjuration is taken away. See Sanc- 

*T*U ARY 

ABLACTATION, in Gardening, a Method of Engraft- 
ing, more ufually call'd Inarching, or Grafting by approach. 
Sec Grafting. ,„''.', 

AblaEtation is only praBicable where the Stock to be 
grafted on, and the Tree from which the Graft is to be ta- 
ken, fland fo near, that the Branch or Cyon may be applied, 
without cutting off". Hence, 'tis chiefly ufed on Plants that 
grow in Cafes ; as Orange, Lemon, Pomgranate, Vines, 
Jeffamins, &c. The Seafon is April. To perform it, the 
ufual Method is to take the Branch intended for rhe Grafr,_ 
and pare it away, both the Rind and Wood, the length of 
three Inches ; then, paring likewife the Stock, fo that they 
may join clofely to each oiher, they bind 'em together, and 
cover 'em over with Clay, or Grafting- Wax. As foon as 
they are found well incorporated together, the Head of the 
Stock is to be cut off four Inches above the Binding 5 and 
the Spring following, the Graft : leaving the Stock to fubfift 
by it fclf. 

Or, the Operation may be done, by cutting off the Head of 
the S'tock at firft, and leaving the Top a little floped, and 
applying the Graft thereto, as in Shoulder-Grafting. But 
this Method is not found equally fuccefsful. 

The Word originally fignifies the -weaning a Child from the 
Brcaft ; being form'd of "ab, from, and lac, Milk. 

ABLAQUEATION, a Name ufed by the antient Wri- 
ters of Agriculture, for an Operation in Gardening, whereby 
Earth is dug from about a Vine, or other Fruit-Tree, and 
its Roots laid bare, to expofe 'em more to the Sun, Rain, 
and Air, in order to promote its Fecundity. See FRuiT-TJ-cf. 

ABLATIVE, in Grammar, the fixth Cafe of Nouns. 
See Case. 

The Ablative is oppofite to the Dative ; the firft expref- 
fing the Aaion of taking away, and the latter that of giving. 
See Dative. 

The Word is Latin, form'd ab auferendo, taking away. 
•Prifcian alfo calls it the Comparative Cafe ; as ferving, a- 
mong the Jmtins, for comparing, as well as taking away. 

The Ablative fcarce anfwers to the jurt Idea of a Cafe ; at 
lead, it is the moft vague of all others. 'Twill be fhewn in 
its Place, that the Englijb, and other modern Tongues, have 



properly no fuch thing as Cafes : but even in the antient 
Languages, from which the Notion of Cafes is borrow'd, 
the Ablative is only a fort of Supernumerary, or Supplement 
to the Cafes. 

The five proper Cafes not being found fufficient to exprefs 
all the Relations of Things to each other recourfe was had 
to an expedient ; viz. the putting a Prepofition before fome 
of the other Cafes 5 and this made the Ablative. See Pre- 
position. 

It may be added, that in the plural Number, the Ablative 
is ftill more obfeure ; as being only the Dative repeared. 

In Englijh, we have no precife Mark whereby to difiin- 
guifh the Ablative from other Cafes 5 and we only ufe rhe 
Term in analogy to the Latin. Thus, in the two Phrafes, 
'The Magnificence of the City, and He fpoke much of the 
City ; we fay, that of the City in the firft is Genitive, and in 
the latter Ablative .- by reafon it would be fo, if the two 
Phrafes were exprefs'd in Latin. 

ABLUENTS, Abluentia, in Medicine, a Name fome 
Authors give to thofe Remedies, better known under the 
Name of TMuters, and Abjlergents. See Diluter, and 
Abstergent. 

ABLUTION, in Antiquity, a Religious Ceremony, in 
ufe among the Romans; being a forr of purifying, perform'd 
by waffling the Body, ere they enter'd on Sacrifice. See 
Sacrifice. 

Sometimes they wafrt'd their Hands and Feet, fometimes 
the Head, and oftentimes the whole Body : For which 
purpofe, at the Entrance into their Temples were plac'd 
Veffels made of Marble Triumphant (as Z)ll Ckoul calls it) 
fill'd with Water. 

This Cuftom, without doubt, they learnt from the Jews, 
fince we read in Scripture, that Solomon plac'd at the Entry 
into the Temple which he ereaed to the true God, a great 
Laver, which the Holy Text calls a Sea of Brafs, where 
the Priefts wafli'd themfelves before rhey offer'd Sacrifice ; 
having beforehand fanaify'd rhe Water, by throwing into it 
the Afhes of the Viaim that was (lain in Sacrifice. 

Ablution, among the modern Rdfnanijls, is underftoodof 
the little Drop of Water and Wine, which they take after 
the Communion, to wafh down and facilitate the Digeftion 
of the Floft. 

The fame Term alfo fignifies that which ferves to wafh 
the Hands of the Prieft who confecrated it. 

Ablution, in Pharmacy, is a Preparation divers Reme- 
dies undergo, by warning 'cm in Water, or fome other Fluid, 
proper ro cleanfe and free 'em of their Impurities. See 
Lotion. 

The Word is fometimes alfo ufed, tho with lefs Propriety, 
for the warning, or infufing of certain Medicines in Water, 
to freinen 'em, and diffolve their Salts ; call'd Dulcifying. 
See Dulcifying. 

ABOLITION, the A3 of undoing, deftroying, or throw- 
ing a Thing out of ufe. 

Thus, in our Laws, rhe Abolition of a Law, Statute, or 
Cuftom, is the abrogating or repealing it. See Abroga- 
tion, Repealing, Statute, 0?c. 

So, the Leave given by the King or Judge, to a criminal 
Accufer, to defifr from furrher Profecution of the Accufed, 
is peculiarly called Abolition. 

The Word is form'd of the Latin Abolere, ita ext'vnguere 
& delere, ut ne oleat quidem. 

ABOMASUS, ABOMASUM, or ABOMASIUM, in 
Comparative Anatomy, one of the Stomachs, or Ventricles 
of Animals of the ruminating Kind. See Ruminating. 

Beafts that chew the Cud are found to have four Sto- 
machs ; viz. the Rumen, or Magnus Venter or Stomach, pro- 
perly fo call'd, the Reticulum, Omafus, and Abomafus. See 
Rumination, £•?£. 

The Abomafus, popularly call'd the Ma-x, is the laft ; 
being thcPlace wherein the Chyie is form'd, and from which 
the Food defcends immediately into the Interlines. 

It is full of Leaves like the Omafus ; but its Leaves have 
this particular to 'em, that befide the Membranes they con- 
fift of, they contain a great number of Glands not found in 
any of the reft. See Omasus, £i?c. 

'Tis in the Abomafus of Calves and Lambs, that the Ren. 
net or Earning is form'd, wherewith Houfwifes turn or curdle 
their Milk. See Rennet. 

ABORIGINES, or ABORIGENES, in Geography, a 
Name fometimes given to the primitive Inhabitants of a 
Country, or thofe who had their original therein ; in contra- 
diftinaion to Colonies, or new Races of Inhabitants, deriv'd 
from eliewhere. See Colony. 

The Term Aborigines is famous in Antiquity : Tho now 
an Appellative, 'twas originally a proper Name, given only 
to certain People of Italy 5 and both the Reafon and Origin 
of it are greatly difputed among the Learned : The princi- 
pal Opinions with regard thereto may be redue'd to four. 

The firft is that of Aurelius Vitlor, who will have 'em 
called Aborigines, q. d. Abeorigines, Vagabonds ; of ab, 
and erro, I wander here and there ; and maintains, that 

they 



A B R 



(7 ) 



A B R 



they were the Scythians who came and fettled in Italy. To Virtues or Powers, the Number of Days in the Fear ■ with 



this Sentiment Fejius adheres. 

id, S. Jero7?i fays, they were called Aborigines, as having 
no beginning j of <z/>, and w%0, original ; (. e. as being ori- 
ginally of that Country, and not a Colony deriv'd from elfe- 
where : or, as Halicarnaffteits explains it, £m t£ iwirzct rott 
psT *u7Kf ftf^*'* as being Chiefs, or Leaders of the Race that 
inhabited that Country. Of this Opinion Virgil feems to be 
JEneid. L. VII. ver. 177. 

Satumufque Senex J&mque bifrontis imago 
Vejlibulo adjiabant, aliique ab origine Reges. 

For, according to the Remark of Servius, ab origine Re- 
ges, here ftands for Aboriginum Reges. To which it may 



other idle Reveries. 

This ABPASAS S. Jerom will have to be the fame God 
whom the Perfians and other Heathens worfhip'd under 
the Name Mitra 5 which is warranted by fottie antient 
Grave-ftones. J Tis added, that moft of the Fathers afcnbs 
the Fable of the God A,3;«3-*£, to Safilides and his Follow- 
ers, a Branch of Guojl/cs. See Basilidians. 

The Gncftics, 'tis known, fuppoied wonderful Virtues in 
Numbers 5 and accordingly, this fame Abraxas, or rather 
Abrafax, was thus denominated, as including or compre- 
hending the Power or Virtue of 365 dependentlntellioences : 
which Number is exprefs'd by the Greek Letters of the 
Word ; it being the Cuftom of the Greeks to exprefs their 
be added, that 'Pliny, L. IV. calls the Tyrians, Aborigines Numbers by the Letters of their Alphabet : The Value of 
Gadium, the Aborigines of Cadi x ; as being the Founders thofe in the'prefent Word are thus 5 
thereof. A e P A % A s 

=;dly, 2)ion. Mali car najfeus takes 'em to have been called 1. 2. 100. 1. 60. 1. 200. 

Aborigines, A'@omyivt;, from their inhabiting the Mountains ; which added together make the Number 3<5"y. 



as who fhould fay, A-na ofe«, a Alontibus : Which Notion 
feems favour'd by Virgil, JEneid. L. VIII. ver. 321. 

Is genus indocile ac difperfum montibus altis 
Compofuit, Legefque dedit. 

Laftly, Others hold, that Cham, the Saturn of the, Egyp- 
tians, having gather'd together divers wandring Nations, 
conduced 'em into Italy, and that thefe were the Aborigines. 
Livy affirms, they came from Arcadia, under the Conduct of 
Oeuotrus Son of Lycaon. Genebrard will have 'em the tPbtf- 
nicians, or Canaanites expell'd by Jcflnta. 

ABORTION, in Medicine, an immature Exclusion of 
the Feems ; or the Delivery of a- Woman with Child, before 
the legitimate Term 5 popularly call'd Mifcarriage. See De- 
livery, &c. 

This may happen at any time of Pregnancy 5 but if be- 
fore the fecond Month after Conception, it ' 
a falfe Conception. See Conception. 



Abracadabra itill continues in ufe and efteem among fome 
fuperftittous People, who pretend to do Wonders hereby in 
the Cure of Agues and Fevers. The manner of preparing 
this extraordinary Medicine, they have been at the Pains 
to defcribe in the following Verfes. 

Infcribas charts quod dicitur Abracadabra 
Saepius "& fubter npetas, mirabile diEtu, 
1)onec in angujlum rediga.tur littera conum. 

That is, c The Word is fTrft to be wrote at length, Abra- 
t cadabra ; then, under that Abracadabr $ and in the third 
' Line Abracadab, &c. 

ABRASION, is iometimes ufed among Medical Writers 

for the Act of wearing away the natural Mucus which covers 

the Membranes, and particularly thofe of the Stomach and 

IntetKnes, by fharp corroltve Medicines, or Humors. See 

properly call'd Stomach, and Intestines. 

The Word is compounded of the Latin ab, and rado, I 



We have Inftances of Abortions by the way of the Mouth, fhave, or fcrape off. 
the Anus, the Navel, &c. See Foetus, Embryo, &c. ABRENUNCIATION. See Renunciation. 

The ufual Caufes of Abortion, are immoderate Evacua- ABRIDGMENT, a Summary, or Contraction of a Dilu- 
tions, violent Motions, fudden PaiTions, Frights, ££>c. Other courfe 5 wherein, the lefs material Things being more briefly 
Caufes are the largenefs and heavinefs of the Fcetus, Irrita- infilled on, the whole is brought into a lefler Compafs. See 
tions of the Womb, Relaxation of the Ligaments of the c Pla- Epitome. 

The Abridgments of the Philofopbical c tranfactions, of 



centa, Weaknefs, and want of Nourifhment in the Fcetus ; 
excefs of eating, Jong falling or waking, the ufe of Bulks for 
the Shape, offenfive Smells, violent Purgatives ; and, in the 
general, any thing that tends to promote the Menft 



Mr. Boyle's Philofopbical Works, &c. are Works very ufe- 
ful in their kind : Tho there is a very great Fault in the 
former ot thefe ; the Authors having taken upon 'em en- 



The Symptoms ufually preceding, are a Fever, either tirely to omit a vaft Number of fuch Papers and Difcourfes 



continual or intermitting 5 Pain in the Loins and Head, h< 
vinefs in the Eyes, a bearing down and Conftri£tion of the 
Abdomen. When the Time of Mifcarriage is juft at hand, 
the Pains are much the fame as thofe in Labour. See De- 
livery. 

Abortion is dangerous where the Time of Pregnancy is 
far advane'd fo that the Fcetus mufl be large, where the 



which is not the 
-ge, Anaie&a, or 



were not fo much to their own Tafte ; 
Nature of an Abridgment, but of a Flori 
Excerpta. 

Abridgment of a Count, or declaration, in Law, is 
particularly ufed for the making it fhorter, by fubtrafting 
fome of its Subftance. See Declaration. 

Thus, a Man is faid to abridge bis Plaint, in Affize, or a 



Caufe is very violent, the Patient ttrongly convulfed, a large Woman her Demand in an Action of Dower, when, having 

Hemorrhage precedes or enfues, the Fcetus is putrify'd, &G. put any Lands therein which are not in the Tenure of the 

Under other Circumltanccs it rarely proves mortal. Tenant or Defendant ; and Non-Tenure, or the like, is plead- 

The Treatment is to be adapted to the particular Symp- ed to that Land in Abatement of the Writ; they are brought 

toms and Circumftances : If the Patient be Plethoric, as foon to abridge, i. e. to defift from and leave that Parcel out of 

as the firft Symptoms difcover themfelves, a Vein is to be the Demand 3 and pray that the Tenant may anfwer to the 

open'd : In cafe of Flooding, recourfe is to be had to proper reft, to which he has not yet pleaded any thing. 
Afiringents ; or if thofe fail, to Fomentations, Injections, and Tho the Demandant hath abridged his Plaint or Demand 5 

Suffu irrigations : If a Tenefmus attend, Rhubarb is to be us'd 5 yet the Writ ftill remains good for the reft. The Reafon is, 

and if there be an habitual Laxity of the Uterine VefTels, that fuch Writs run in general, and do not fpecify Particulars. 
Guaiacum. ABROGATION, the Acl: of annulling or repealing a 

Abortion is alfo ufed where the Child dies in the Womb; Law, or of abolifhing or fetting afide the Authority thereof. 

tho it remain there many Years, or even as long as the Mo- See Law, Repeal, &c. 



ther lives. 

AEORTIVE, fomething come before its due time, or be- 
fore it has arriv'd at its Maturity and Perfection. See A- 
bortion. 

F. Jerom Florentius has an exprefs Treatife of the Bap- 
tifm of Abortives, or abortive Children. His Aim is to 
fhew that an Abortive may, and ought to be baptiz'd, at 
what Time or Term foever it come into the World ; by rea- 



The Word, in this Senfe, is borrow'd from the Civil Prac- 
tice of the Romans. Among that People, to propofe a Law 
to the People for their Approbation, was call'd Rogare Z<?- 
gem : hence, to abolifti it was call'd Abrogare 5 to take 
fomething from it, Derogare ; to add a Claufe to it, Subro~ 
gare ; and to limit or reftrain it, Obrogare. 

ABSCESS, in Medicine and Chimrgery, a Tumor arifing 
on divers Parts of the Body, and tending to Suppuration. See 



fon the precife Time when the Fcetus begins to be animated Tumor, Suppuration, &c. 

is not known. There are feveral curious and uncommon Abfceffes arife from Collections of peccant Humours in the 

Things in this Work, which is intitled Homo dubius, five de internal Parts of the Body ; and are alfo called Impojlbumes, 

baptifmo Abortivorum. Lugd. 16-74. 4to. See Imposthume. 

Abortive I\lom, is that made of the Skin of an abortive Their Name Abfcefs comes from the Latin Verb abfee- 

Calf, See Velom. dere, to depart, or remove to another Place ; in allufion to 

ABRACADABRA, an Infcription, antiently ufed as a the morbid Humors being deriv'd from e-fewhere. 

Charm or Spell, for the curing of feveral Difeafes, and dri- Abfceffes arife ofrcneft in Women after Delivery : and tho 

Ting out Devils. See Charm, Phylactery, J^c. dangerous in themfelves, yet appear to be the Crifis of the 

The Author of this piece of Superftition, who is faid to Difeafe that gave rife thereto. For the Cure, if they can- 
have lived under the Emperor Adrian, form'd the Name not be dtfcufs'd, i. e. be carried off by proper artificial Eva- 
from that of the Deity he adored, Abrafax, or Abraxas; cuations, as Phlebotomy, Purging, gjfe. with the ufe of Ca- 
whnm he made God-paramount ; having feveral petty Divi- lomel between whiles, and gentle perfpirative Fotus's, Li- 
nities under him, and particularly feven Angels who prefided niments and Cataplafms ; recourfe is to be had to the con- 
over the feven Heavens 5 and to whom he attributed 365 trary Method, and they muft be brought to Suppuration. 

When 



3 



A B S 



(8 ) 



A B S 



When tile Matter is fully ripen 'd, they are to be open' J with 
a Lancet or Cauflick, and their Cure attempted by Digef- 
tives and Incarnadves. See Ripener, Digestive, Incar- 

NAT1VE, He. 

ABSC1SSE, ABSCISSA, in Conies, a Fart of the Dia- 
meter, or tranfverfe Axis of a Conic Section, intercepted 
between the Vertex or Tome other fix'd Point, and a Semior- 
dinate. See Conic SetJion. 

Such are the Lines AP, AP, EJ?c. (Tab. Conies, Fig- 2°) 
intercepted between the Vertex A and the Semiordinates 
PM, PM, He. , T _. 

They are called Abfciffes of the Latin Abfcmdo, I cut oft; 
as being Parts cut off from the Axis. Others call 'em Sa- 
gitt£, Arrows. Sec Sagitta. 

In the Parabola, the Abfiifs is a third Proportional to the 
Parameter and Semiordinate ; and the Parameter a third 
Proportional to the Jbfiifs and Semiordinate. See Parabo- 
ia, Semiordinate, He. 

In the Ellipfis, the Square of the Semiordinate is equal to 
the Rectangle of the Parameter into the Abfiiffe, fubtract- 
ing another" Rectangle of the fame Abfiiffe, into a fourth 
Proportional to the Axis, Parameter, and Abfiiffe. See El- 
lipsis. 

In the Hyperbola, the Squares of the Semiordinates are 
to each other as the Rectangles of the Abfiiffe into ano- 
ther Line, compos'd of the Abfiiffe and the tranfverfe Axis. 
See Hyperbola. 

ABSENT. See Present. 

ABSOLUTE, is underftood of fomcthing that is free, or 
independent of another. ■ Hence, as there are various ways 
wherein one thing may be confider'd is free in refpect of ano- 
ther, there arife divers forts of Abfolutes. 

Abfolute, e. g. fometimes imports a Thing which does not 
include the Idea of Relation to another ; in which Senfe it 
Hands oppos'd to Relative. 

Thus, Man is an abfolute Term ; and, on the contrary, 
Creature and Father are Relatives, the one referring to 
Creator, the other to Children. See Relative. 

In the like Senfe, the Schoolmen hold Abfolute to imply 
a Thing's not being in ordilie ad, in order to any other 
Thing. Thus, Man, Tree, He. are Abfolutes ; and every 
other Thing which has any real Exiffence which it does not 
owe to another. 

In this Senfe too, the Terms of a Propofition are faid to be 
taken abfolutely ; that is, without Relation to each other. 

Thus, Man, confider'd abfolutely, and in himfelf, is an 
Abfolute Reafonable Creature. 

Sometimes, Abfolute denotes a being free from Restric- 
tion, Limitation, or Modifications ; in which Senfe, fay the 
Schoolmen, it (lands oppos'd to a -rs ficundum quid.^ Thus, 
a Prince is faid to be Abfolute, when his Will is his Law ; 
or when he is no way reftrain'd or tied down by any Laws of 
his Country. And thus a Thing is faid to be abfolutely and 
fimply good. > 

Sometimes, again, Abfolute denotes a Thing s being free 
from Conditions : In which Senfe it Hands oppos'd to Condi- 
tional. See Conditional. 

Thus, the Decrees of God are faid to be Abfolute with 
refpect to Men. The rigid Calvinifts maintain abfolute un- 
conditional Predeftination and Reprobation. A Prieft does 
not forgive Men's Sins abfolutely, but on Condition of Re- 
pentance and Amendment. In this Senfe alfo, we fay, an 
Abfolute Promife, an Abfolute Propofition, He. 

The Divines frequently ufe Abfolute in a ffill further 
Senfe, viz. in oppofition to Declaratory : Thus, the Church 
of Rome holds that the Prielt can forgive Sins abfolutely ; 
the Proteftants fay, only dedaratively and ministerially. See 
Decree, Absolution, He. 

Again, Abfolute is fometimes ufed in refpect of Caufe ; 
and denotes a Thing's being without any Caufe. In which 
Senfe, God alone is abfolute. , 

Absolute Number, in Algebra, is the known Quantity 
which poffeffes one entire Side or Part of an Equation ; be- 
ing the Rectangle, or Solid whofe Root or Value is to be 
found. See Equation, and Root. 

Thus, in the Equations a -|-itftf = 5<f, the Abfolute Num- 
ber is 3<f ; which is equal to a multiplied by it felf, added 
te 1 5 times a. 

This is what Victa calls Homogencum Comfarationis. 
Absolute Equation, in Aftronomy, is the Sum of the 
Optic and Eccentric Equations, See Equation. 

Ablative Absolute, is a Diction detach'd, and indepen- 
dent of the reft of the Difcourfe ; neither governing, nor 
being governed of any other Thing. See Ablative. 

This is frequent among the Latins ; in Imitation of whom, 
the modern Languages have likewife adopted it : SDeleto 
exereitu : The Army being cut to pieces. All things con- 
fider'd, Reafon will appear the bell Guide in Matters of 
Religion. 

Absolute 'Place. ~) CPlace. 
Absolute Sface. f SeepSpACE. 
Absolute Motion. J 'Motion. 



ABSOLUTELY, ABSOLUTE, in Philofophy.and Theo- 
logy. See Absolute. 

In Grammar, we fay, A Word is taken abfolutely, Abfo- 
lute fumptus, when it has no Regimen, or Governmenr. 
Thus, in the Phral'e We Jbou'd fray without ceafing ; the 
Word fray is taken abfolutely, as it governs nothing. 

In Geometry, Abfolutely is taken for entirely, compleatly. 
Thus, we fay, fuch a thing is abfolutely round ; in contra- 
diftinction from what is only partly fo, as a Spheroid, Cy- 
cloid, He. 

ABSOLUTION, ABSOLUTIO, in the Civil Law, He. 
a definitive Sentence, whereby a Perfon accufed of any 
Crime, He. is acquitted, and declared Innocent. 

Among the Romans, the ordinary Method of pronouncing 
Judgment was this : After the Caufe had been pleaded on 
both fides, the Pretor ufed the Word 2)ixerunt, q. d. rhey 
have faid what they had to fay. Then, three Ballots were 
diftributed to each Judge 5 one mark'd with the Letter A. 
for Abfolution ; another with C. for Condemnation ; and a 
third with N. L. pen liquet, it is not clear, to require re- 
fpite of Judgment : and according as the Majority fell of 
this or that Mark, the Accufed was abfolved or condemn'd, 
He. If be were abfolved, the Pretor difmifs'd him with Vi- 
detur noti fecij/e, or nihil in eo damnationis digimm inveuic. 
When the Votes are equally divided on the Sides of Abfo- 
lution and Condemnation, the Accufed is abfolved : This Pro- 
cedure is fuppofed to be founded on the Law of Nature. 
Such is the Sentiment of Faber on the 11 ;th Law. de Hiv. 
Reg. Jur. of Cicero, fro Cluentio ; of guntilian, Declam. 
254 5 of Stralo, Lib. IX. 

Absolution, in the Canon Law, is a Juridical Aft, where- 
by a Prieft, as a Judge, and in virtue of a Power given him 
by Jefus Chrift, remits the Sins of fuch as appear to have 
the Conditions requifite thereto. 

The Romanifls hold Abfolution a Part of the Sacrament 
of Penance : The Council of Trent, SetCXIV. cap. iii. and 
that of Florence, in the Decree ad Arminos, declare the 
Form or Effence of the Sacrament to lie in the Words of 
Abfolution, I abfolve thee of thy Sins. 

This Formula of Abfolution in rhe Romijh Church is Ab- 
folute 5 in the Greek Church, Deprecatory j and in the 
Churches of the Reformed, Declarative. Arcuvius, indeed, 
contends that the Greek Formula is abfolute ; and that it 
confifts in thefe Words, Mea mediocritas habet te venia do- 
natum. But the Inftances he produces are either no For- 
mula's of Abfolution, or only of Abfolution from Excom- 
munication. 

Absolution is chiefly ufed in the Reformed Churches 
foraSenrence whereby aPerfon who ftands excommunicated, 
is releas'd or freed from thefame. See Excommunication. 
In the Church of Scotland, if the Excommunicated fhew 
real Signs of godly Sorrow, and if upon Application to the 
Presbytery a Warrant be granted for his Abfolution, he is 
brought before the Congregation to confefs his Sin, and ex- 
prefs his Sorrow, as often as the Presbytery fhall think meet : 
When the Congregation is fatisfy'd of his Penitence, the Mi- 
nifter puts up a Prayer, defiring Jefus Chrift who has infti- 
tuted the Ordinance of Excommunication, (i. e. of binding 
and loofing the Sins of Men on Earth) with a Promife of ra- 
tifying the righteous Sentence above, to accept of this Man, 
to forgive his Difobedience, He. Thisdone, he pronounces 
the Sentence of Abfolution ; by which his former Sentence is 
taken off, and the Sinner is again receiv'd into Communion. 

In the Church of Rome there are divers other Political 
Jbfolutions ; as Abfolutio a fievis, which is neceffary where 
a Perfon has been concern'd in feeing Sentence of Death exe- 
cuted on a Criminal, or has any other way difqualify'd him- 
felf for the holding of a Benefice. 

Abfolutio ad Cautelam, is that granted to a Perfon who has 
lodg'd an Appeal againft a Sentence of Excommunication. 
It being a Maxim in the Papal Jurifprudence, that the Sen- 
tence ftands good notwithftanding any Appeal ; this fort a£ 
Abfolution is fometimes granted till the Ifflue of his Appeal 
be known : by means hereof, fome Articles, at leaft, ot his 
Excommunication are taken off ; infomuch that Perfons may 
converfe with him without danger : And befide, in Cafe of 
Death, this Sentence is fuppofed to ftand him in fbme Head. 
ABSORBENTS, in Medicine, Remedies which by the 
Softnefs or Porofity of their component Parts, become proper 
to fheath the Afperities of fharp pungent Humors ; or to 
imbibe or dry away, as with a Sponge, fuperfluous Moiftures. 
Such are the Teftaceous Pouders, Hartfhorn, Coral, Crabs 
Eyes and Claws, calcin'd Bones, burnt Ivory, He. 

Abforbents are the fame with what we otherwife call 
tDriers and Sweetners. 

The Term Abforbent is frequently confounded with Al- 
caly ; Alcalies having, really, the Effect ot Abforbents with 
refpect to Acids. See Acid, and Alcaly. 

ABSTEMIOUS, is properly underftood of fuch Perfons as 
refrain abfolutely from Wine. 'Pliny more exprefly fays, 
Vini abjlemius ; and Afuleius, Invimui. 

3 In 



AB'S 



f 9 ) 



ABS 



In the Religious Senfe of the Word, rhey are laid to be 
Abfiemious, who in the Sacrament of the Supper cannot 
partake of the Cup, by reafon or fome natural Averfion to 
the Liquor. The Biifhop of Meaux pi j ads the Example of 
the Abfiemious, in behalf of excluding the Laity from Com- 
munion under that Kind. 

The Roman Ladies, in the firft Ages of the Republic!^ 
were all enjoin'd to be Abfiemious ; and. that it might ap- 
pear whether or no they kept up to the Injunction, it was 
one of the Laws of the Roman Civility, that they fhould 
kifs their Freinds and Relations whenever they accofted 
them. 

The Word feems form'd of abs and tcmetum, an old Word 
fignif'ying Wine. 

ABSTERGENTS, or Abstersive Medicines, a Clafs 
of Remedies, whofe Effect is to abrade and wipe away fuch 
mucous Particles as they meet in their PaiTage ; and thus 
cleanfe the Parts of vifcid or impure Adhefions, and carry 
off the morbid Matter of Wounds, Ulcers, &c. SeeMEDi- 

ClNE, MuNDIFICATIVE, &C. 

Abstergents are more ufually call'd among Phyficians "De- 
tergents. See Detergent. 

Abfiergents are of the Genus of Balfamicks ; and only 
differ in their degree of Subtilty and Efficacy, from Vulne- 
raries. See Balsamick, and Vulnerary. 

The principal Simples in the Clafs of Detergents, are the 
Leaves of Wormwood, Garlicky Zeeks, Capers, Scurvygrafs, 
'Fumitory., Liverwort, Tanjy y and Vervain ; Sitter Al- 
mond^ Figs, Ju'jcbs, Raifins, Dates, Jumper-Berries $ 
Gum Ammoniac, Salfam of Capivi, Balm of Gi lead, Taca- 
wahaca, Sapo ; 'Turpentines ; 'Barberries, Liquorice, Tur- 
meric, Madder, c ParmaJitty, Mummy, Sulphur, Salt, Mer- 
cury, and Native Cinnabar. Moft of which the Reader 

will find particularly defcrib'd under their proper Articles. 

The Word Abfiergent is compounded of the Latin abs, 
from ; and tergo, I wipe.' — Whence, alfo, Abficrfion is fome- 
times ufed for the mechanical Act of Terfion, or Wiping. 
See Tersion. 

ABSTINENCE, Abfiincntia, the Habit of reflraining or 
containing one's felf from fome Pleafure, or Enjoyment. See 
Pleasure. 

The Word is compounded of the Latin abs, from 3 and 
teneo, I hold. 

The Jews were oblig'd to abfia'm from their Wives at 
certain Seafons. — The lame is enjoin'd in the Apoftolical 
Conflitutions, on all faft and meagre Days 3 and the Church 
of England recommends certain Days of Fafting and Abfii- 
■nence. — The Great Fafl, fays St. Augufiin, is to abftain 
from Sin. See Fast. 

The antient Athletds liv'd in a perpetual Abfiinence from 
all kind of fenfible Pleafure, to render their Bodies more ro- 
buft and hardy. See Athleta. 

Abstinence is particularly ufed for a fpare Diet, or a 
flender parfimonious ufe of Food. See Food, and Diet. 

The Phyficians relate Wonders of the Effects of Abfii- 
nence in the Cure of many Diforders, and the protracting 
the Term of Life. — The Noble Venetian, Cornaro, after 
all imaginable means had proved vain, fo that his Life was 
defpair'd of at 40 $ rccover'd and liv'd to near 100, by mere 
dint of Abstinence : as he himfelf gives the Account. 

'Tis indeed furprizing to what a great Age the primitive 
Chriftians of the Eaft, who retir'd from the Perfecutions in- 
to the Defarts of Arabia and Egypt, lived, healthful and 
chearful, on a very little Food : Cajjian affures us, that the 
common Rate for twenty four Hours was twelve Ounces of 
Bread, and mere Water : with this St. Anthony lived 105 
Years 5 James the Hermit, 104 5 Arfenius, Tutor of the 
Emperor Arcadius, rzo; St. Epiphanius 115 5 Simeon Sty- 
lites 112 ; and Romualdus 120. 

Indeed, we can match, nay out-do thefe Inflances of Lon- 
gevity, at home : Buchanan writes, that one Lawrence 
preferv'd himfelf to 140 by force of Temperance and La- 
bour ; and Spotfitood mentions one Kentigorn, afterwards 
call'd St. Mougah or Mungo, who lived to 185 by the fame 
means. — Other Inftances fee under the Article Longevity. 
In effect, molt of the Chronical Difeafes, the Infirmities 
of old Age, and the fhort Lives of EngUfJimen, are ow- 
ing, according to Dr. Chcyne, to Repletion ; and may be 
either cured, prevented, or remedied, by Abfiinence. See 
Repletion, Evacuation, $$c. 

Among the Brute Creation, we fee extraordinary Inflan- 
ces of long Abfiinence. — 'Tis the natural Courfe for divers 
Species to pafs four, five, or fix Months every Year without 
either eating or drinking : Accordingly, the Torroife, Bear, 
Dormoule, Serpent, Swallow, Fly, ^c, are obferv'd regu- 
larly to retire, at thofe Seafons, to their refpectivc Cells and 
hide thcmfelves, fome in the Caverns of Rocks, or Ruins $ 
others dig Holes under Ground ; others get into the Woods, 
and lay themielves up in the Clefts of Trees ; others bury 
themfelves under Water, £*?r. See Migration, Pas- 
sage, £$c. 



In effect, feveral Species of Birds, the whole Tribe al- 
moftof Infc&s, and many among the other Tribes, are able 
to fubfift all Winter, not only without Food, but many of 'em 
without Rcfpiration too.— This furniflies an admirable In- 
stance of the Wifdom of the Creator. The proper Food of 
thefe Creatures, efpecially the Infect-Tribe, -being now want- 
ing 5 there is a Provifion for 'em to live without it. When 
the Fields are diverted of their flowery Furniture, when the 
Trees and Plants are ftripp'd of their Fruits 5 what would 
become of fuch Animals as are fubfiited by the Produce of 
the Spring, and Summer ? And when the Air is grown rigid 
and chilly with Froft, what would become of thofe many 
tender Species which arc impatient of Cold ? To prevent 
the total DeAruction and Extirpation of many Species of Ani- 
mals ; the Author of Nature has provided, that Creatures 
thus bereav'd of their Food, fliould be likewife impatient 
of Cold 5 to lead 'em thus to flielter themfelves out of the 
way of Danger ; and that when there arrived, the natural 
Texture and Vifcidity of the Blood, ftiouid dif ( ofe it, by a 
further degree of Cold, to lag and flagnate in the VeiTels : 
fo that the Circulation flopping, and the Animal Functions 
being in great meafure fufpended 5 there is no fenfible Wafte 
or Confumption of Parts, but they remain in a kind ofdrou- 
fy neutral State, between Life and Death ; till the warm 
Sun revive both them and their Food together, by thawing 
the congealed Juices both of fuch Animals and Vegetables, 
See Heat. 

'Tismore than probable, that, all Motion of the Animal 
Juices is extinct in Flies and other Infects, when thus afleep 5 
in that, tho cut in pieces they do not awake, nor docs any 
Fluid ooze out at the Wound ; unlefs fome extraordinary de- 
gree of Warmth have been firfl app ied to unbind the Ice. 
— The Sleep of fuch Animals is little elfethan a real Death 5 
and their Waking, a Refurrection. — For if Life do not con- 
fift in a Circulation of the Blood, we don't know what it 

confifls in.- Animals thus afleep, therefore, are rather 

faid to be alive potentially than actually ; much as an Em- 
bryo is before Conception, or Incubation. See Life, Sleep, 
Blood, Circulation, Foetus, &c. 

Hence 'tis no wonder that Tortoifes, Dormice, Bears, &c. 
are found as fat and flefliy after fome Months Abfiinence as 
before. — Sir G- Ent weigh'd his Tortoife feveral Years fuc- 
ceffively, at his going to Earth in Otlober, and his coming 
out again in March ; and found that of 4 Pounds 4 Ounces, 
he only ufed to lofe about r Ounce. \Philofoph. TranfaEi. 
N°i 9 4.- ^ 

Indeed, we have Inftances of Men patting feveral Months 
as ftrictly abfiinent as other Creatures. — The Records of the 
Tower mention a Scotchman imprifon'd for Felony, and 
ftrictly watch'd in that Fortrefs for fix Weeks ; in all which 
time he took not the leaft Suftenance : for which he had his 
Pardon. The Ephem. German, fpeak of one Martha Tay- 
lor, who by a Blow on the Back fell into fuch a Proflration 
of Appetite, that /he took no Suftenance befide a few Drops 
with a Feather for thirteen Months : But this was a morbid 
and unnatural Cafe, for flie flept but little ail the Time.-— 
We may add the Inflance of S. Chilton of Tinsbury near 
Bath, who in the Years 1693, 165)4, 1695, flept fometimes 
four Months, and fometimes above fix together, with very 
little Food 5 and fix Weeks without any more than a little 
Tent, convey'd with a Quill into his Mouth thro* a hole 
in his Teeth. "Philofoph. Tranjhfl. N° 304. 

It is to be added, that in molt Inflances of long Abfi'raence 
related by Naturalifls, there were apparent Evidences of a 
Texture of Blood and Humours, much like that ofSummer- 
Beafls, and Infects. — Tho it is no improbable Opinion, that 
the Air it felf may furnifli fomctbing for Nutrition. 'Tis 
certain, there are Subrtances of all Kinds, Anim-al, Vegeta- 
ble, ££?(,-. floating in the Atmofphere ; which mull be conti- 
nually taken in by Rcfpiration. And that an animal Body 
may be nourifli'd thereby, is evident in the Inflance of Vi- 
pers, which if taken when firfl brought forth, and kept from 
every thing but Air, will yet grow very confiderably in a 
few Days. So the Eggs of Lizards are obferved to increafe 
in Bulk, after they are produced, tho there be nothing to 
furnifli the Increment but Air alone 3 after the like man- 
ner, as the Eggs or Spawn of Fifties grow, and are ncurifh'd 

with the Water. See Air, and Water. And hence, 

fay fome, it is, that Cooks, Turn-fpit Dogs, £5?c. tho they 
cat but little, yet are ufually fat. See Nutrition, Per- 
spiration, £sc. 

ABSTRACT, Abstr actum, in Philofophy, that which 
is feparated from fome other thing, by an Operation of the 
Mind called AbfirnBion. See A.bstraction. 

An Abstract Idea, is fome fimple Idea, detach'd and 
feparated from any particular Subject, or Complex Idea • for 
the fake of viewing and confidering it more diflinctly, as it 
is in it felf, its own Nature, &c. See Idea, Sii.iple, Com- 
plex, g£c. 

Thus, Magnitude and Humanity are AbfiraSH when con- 
lider'd in themfelves, and without being attached to any par- 
D ticular 



AB S 



10) 



A B S 



tkutar Body, or Perfon 5 tho they cannot have any real 
Subfiftence without fuch Subjcfts, nor the Subjects without 
them. 

Thus, alfo, Wbitenefs is an Abjiratl, or abjlratt Term 5 
inafmuch as it docs not denote any one white Object, but 
that Colour or Idea in the general, wherever found. See 
General. r 

From the Knowledge of Abjlratls we arrive at that ot 
Concretes, which is the oppofuc Term ; Concrete denoting 
a General or AbjlraEt Idea's being attach'd to fame parti- 
cular Subject, or confider'd as combin'd with fome other 
Ideas : as, great Houfe, white Wall. See Concrete. 

The School Philofophers define an Abjiratl Term from 
the Simplicity of its Signification.— Abjlratts, according to 
them, cxprefs only the Forms of Things, or Attributes ot 
Things, diftinct from the Subjeds whereof they are Forms 
or Attributes : as, Jujlice, Crookedncfs, Sec— They diflm- 
guifh 'em into divers Kinds 5 Metaphyseal, as Humanity 5 
Logical, asWhitenefsj *xA e Pby/ical > as Life, in refped of 
an Animal. 

All our fimplc Ideas, fays Mr. Locke, have abjiratl, as 
well as concrete Names 3 as, Wbitenefs, white 5 Sweetnefs, 

fixeet, &c. 

The like alfo holds in our Idea of Modes, and Relations ; 
as, Jujlice, jujl ; Equality, equal 5 &c. 

But as to our Ideas of Subftances, we have very few ab- 
jiratl Names at all— Thofe few that the Schools have forg- 
ed, as Animalitas, Humanitas, 6kc. hold no Proportion with 
the infinite Number of Names of Subftances ; and could 
never get admittance into common Ufe, or obtain the Li- 
cence of publick Approbation : which feems to intimate a 
ConfeiTion of Mankind, that they have no Ideas of the real 
Effcnces of Subftances 5 flnce they have not Names for fuch 
Ideas. 

It was only the Doctrine of Substantial Forms, and the Con- 
fidence of miftaken Pretenders to a Knowledge they had 
not, which firft coined, and then introduced Animalitas, 
Humanitas, and the like 5 which yet went very little farther 
than their own Schools, and could never get to be current 
among understanding Men. See Substance. 

But the Reality and Exigence of all Abjiratl Ideas, and 
of any fuch Faculty in the Mind as Abjlratlion, has of late 
been controverted. Sec the Article Abstraction. 

In efte-a, if there were any fuch Things as Abjlratls, 
Abjiratl: Qualities, &c. we don't fee how they could be de- 
ilroy'd ; they muft be permanent and immutable : For that 
which deftroys the white warm Flame, cou'd not reach the 
Whitenefs or the Warmth : That which deftroys the figu- 
red, moving, folid Ball, could not hurt the Figure, Motion, 
Solidity, &c— Abjiratl Ideas, in fine, feem to tend to Sub- 
stantial Forms. See Subjlantial Form. 

Abstract is alfo extended to divers other Things, in 

refpect of their Purity, Simplicity, Subtility, ££& In this 

Senfe, we fay, 

Abstract Mathcmaticks, are thofe Branches ot Mathe- 
matical Learning, which confider Quantity and its Affections, 
limply, and abfoluteiy. See Quantity, and Mathema- 
tics. 

Such are Arithmetic, Algebra, Geometry, Trigonometry, 
and Analyticks. See Arithmetic, Algebra, Geome- 
try, &c. 

They are thus denominated, in opposition to Mixt Ma- 
thematicks; where the fimplc and abftracted Properties and 
Relations of Quantity deliver'd in the former, are applied 
to fenfible Objects 5 and by that means become intermix'd 
with Phyfical Con fi derations Such are Hydrojlatics, Op- 
tics, Navigation, ckc. where Water, Light, H$c. are con- 
cern'd. 

In the like Senfe fome Authors fpeak of Abjiratl Num- 
bers ; meaning no more thereby than Numbers, or Affem- 
blages of Unities, confider'd in themfelves, and not appli- 
ed to denote any Collections of particular forts of Things. See 
Number. 

Abstract is alfo ufed in Matters of Literature, for a 
compendious View, or Epitome of a larger Work. See Epi- 
tome. 

An Abjiratl is fuppofed to be a degree fhorter, and more 
fuperficial than an Abridgment. See Abridgment. 

ABSTRACTION, an Operation of the Mind, whereby 
we feparate Things naturally conjunct, or exifting together ; 
and form and confider Ideas of Things thus fcparated. See 
Abstract. 

The Faculty of AbjlraBUig, {lands directly oppofite to 
that of Compounding — By Composition we confider thofe 
Things together, which in reality are not join'd together in 
one Exiftence. And by Abjlratlion, we confider thofe 
Things feparately and apart, which in reality do not exift 
apart. See Composition. 

Abjlratlion is chiefly employ *d thefe three ways— Firft, 
when the Mind confiders any one Part of a Thing, in fome 
refpects diftin& from the Whole 5 as a Man's Arm, without 
the Confideration of the reft of his Body. 



Secondly, when we confider the Mode of any Subftance, 
omitting the Subftance it felf; or when we feparately confi- 
der feveral Modes which fubfift together in one Subject. Se© 
Mode. 

This Abjlratlion the Geometricians make ufe of, when 
they confider the Length of a Body feparately, which they 
call a Line ; omitting the Coniideration of its Breadth and 
Depth. 

Thirdly, it is by Abjlratlion that the Mind frames gene- 
ral or univerfal Ideas ; omitting the Modes and Relations 
of the particular Objects whence they are form'd. — Thus, 
when we would understand a thinking Being in general, we 
gather from our Self con fcioufn efs what it is to Think ; and 
omitting the Coniideration of thofe Things which have a 
peculiar Relation to our own Mind, or to the human Mind, 
we think of a thinking Being in general. 

Ideas fram'd thus, which are what we properly call Ab- 
jiratl Ideas, become general Rcprefentstives of all Objects 
of the lame Kind ; and their Names applicable to whatever 
exifts conformable to fuch Ideas. — Thus, the Colour that we 
receive from Chalk, Snow, Milk, ££?c. is a Reprefentative 
of all of that Kind 5 and has a Name given it, Whheucfs y 
which fignifies the fame Quality, wherever found or ima- 
gin'd. See General. 

'Tis this laft Faculty, or Power of Abflratling, according 
to Mr. Locke, that makes the great Difference between Man 
and Brutes ; even thofe latter muft be allowed to have fome 
fhare of Reafon : That they really reafon in fome Cafes, 
feems almoii as evident as that they have Senfe ; but 'tis 
only in particular Ideas. They are tyed up to thofe narrow 
Bounds ; and do not feem to have any Faculty of enlarging 
them by Abjlratlion. Fffay on Human Underjlandhig^ 
L. III. c. ;. 

Such is the Doctrine of Abjiratl Ideas, under the Im- 
provements of that excellent Author. In effect, 'tis tho 

ftanding Opinion, that the Mind has fuch a Power or Faculty 
of framing Abjiratl Ideas or Notions of Things; and on fuch 
very Ideas do a great part of the Writings of Philofophers 
turn. Thefe are"" fuppofed in all their Syftems ; and without 
them there would be nothing done. — They are more efpeci- 
ally reputed the Object of Logick and Metaphyficks, and all 
that paffes under the Notion of the mott abjlratled zxi&fub- 
lime Learning. 

Yet has a late eminent and ingenious Author, Dean Berke- 
ley, contelted the Reality of any fuch Ideas ; ;nd gone a 
good way towards overturning the whole Syflar., and confe- 
quently towards fetting our Philofophy on a new footing. 

The Qualities or Modes of Things, 'tis on all hands a- 
greed, do never really exift apart, and feparated from all 
others ; but are conftamly mix'd and combin'd together, fe- 
veral in the fame Object. — But, fay the Philofophers, the 
Mind being able to confider each Quality fingly, or abjlrac- 
ted from other Qualities with which it is united, does by that 
means frame to it felf Abjiratl Ideas, of a different Nature 
and Kind from the fenfible ones. 

For an Example hereof, The Eye perceiving an Object 
extended, coloured, and moved, refolves this Compound 
Idea, into its fimple, conftituent ones 5 and viewing each 
by it felf, exciufive of the reft, frames Abjiratl Ideas of 
Fxtenfion, Colour, and Motion themfelves, or in their own 
Nature. — Not that it is pofTible for fuch Colour and Motion 
to exift without Extension ; but only that the Mind can 
frame to it felf, by Abjlratlion, the Idea of Colour exciufive 
of Exrenfion; and of Motion, exciufive both of Colour and 
Ext ciifton. 

Again, fay the fame Philofophers, the Mind having ob- 
ferv'd that in the particular Extensions perceived by Senfe, 
there is fomething common, and alike in all ; and fome; 
other things peculiar ; as this, or that Figure or Magnitude, 
which diftingui/h them one from another ; it can confider 
apart, or fingle out by jit felf, what is common; making 
thereof a general abftract Idea of Extenfion, which is nei- 
ther Line, Surface, nor Solid, nor has any Figure or Mag- 
nitude, but is an Idea entirely prefcinded from 'em all.— — ■ 
So, likewife, by leaving out of the feveral Colours perceived 
by Senfe, that which diftinguifh.es them from one another, 
and only retaining what is common to all, it makes an Idea 
of Colour in the Abjiratl, which is neither red, nor bine, 
nor white, ccc. — After the fame manner, by considering Mo- 
tion abftractedly, both from the Body moved, and from the 
Figure it defences, and all particular Directions, and Velo- 
cities ; an Abjiratl Idea of Motion is framed, which equally 
correfponds to all Motions whatever. 

They add, that as the Mind frames Abjiratl Ideas of 
Qualities or Modes ; fo does it, by the fame Faculty, attain 
Abjiratl Ideas of the more compound Beings, w : hich include 

many coexistent Qualities. For an Example — Having 

obferv'd that Teter, James, John, ckc. refemble each other 
in Shape, and other Qualities ; we can leave out of the Com- 
plex Idea we had of "Peter, James, ckc. that which is pe- 
culiar to each, retaining only what is common to all, and fo 
make an Abjiratl Idea, wherein all the Particulars equally 

partake, 

3 



A B S 



partake. — And thus if is we arc fuppofed to come by the Ah- 
flraEl Idea of Man, or of Humanity, or Human Nature ; 
wherein there is indeed included Colour, becaufc no Man 
but has fome Colour, but it is neither white, nor black, nor 
hroiwi 5 becaufe there is no one particular Colour wherein 
all Men partake. So likewife there is included Stature, but 
then it is neither tall, nor lew, nor yet middle Stature, but 
fomething abflraEied from all thefe : And fo of the reft. 

Farther yet, there being a general Variety of other Crea- 
tures, which partake in fome Parts, but nor all, of the Com- 
plex Idea of Man ; the Mind leaving out thofe Parts which 
are peculiar to Men, and retaining thofe only which are com- 
mon to all living Creatures, frames the Idea of Animal 5 
which abflraEt s or participates not only of all Men, but all 
Birds, Beads, Fifties, and Infects. 

The constituent Parts of fuch AbflraEt Idea of Animal, 
are Body, Life, Senfe, and fpontaneous Motion. — By Body, 
is meant, Body without any particular Shape, or Figure 5 
there being no one common ro all Animals 5 without Cover- 
ing, either of Hair, of Feathers, or Scales : nor yet naked ; 
Hair, Feathers, Scales, and Nakedness, being the diftin- 
gui filing Properties of particular Animals, and for that Rca- 
fon left out or the AbflraEt Idea. Upon the fame Account, 
the fpontaneous Motion muft be neither walking, nor flying, 
nor creeping ; it is nevcrthelefs a Motion — But what that 
Motion is, it is not eafy to conceive. 

' I will not affirm, fays 2)r. Berkeley, that other People 

* have not this wonderful Faculty of abflratl'wg their Ideas 5 
c but I am confident I have it not my felf. — I have, in- 
' deed, a Faculty of imagining, or reprefenting to my felf 

* the Ideas of Things I have perceived, and of varioufly 
c compounding or dividing them : I can imagine a Man with 

* two Heads, or the upper Parts of a Man join'd to the Bo- 
1 dy of a Horfe. I can confider the Hand, the Eye, the 
4 Nofe, each by it felf, abflraEied or feparatcd from the reft 

* of the Body — But then, whatever Hand or Eye I ima- 

* gine, itmuft have fome particular Shape and Colour. — So, 

* again, the Idea of a Man I frame to my felf, rnuft be 
c either of a white, or a black, or a tawny, a ftrait or a 
c crooked, a tall, or a low, or a middle-hVd Man. 

* I cannot by any Effort of Thought conceive the Ab- 
1 flraEt Idea above defcribed 5 and it is equally impoffible 
e for me to form the AbflraEt Idea of Motion, diftincT: from 
e the Body moving, and which is neither fwifr nor flow, 
( curvilinear, nor rectilinear. — -And the like may be faid of 

* all other abflraEt general Ideas whatever.* 

Since all things that exift are only Particulars, c Whence, 

* fays Mr. Locke, is it, that we come by general Words, 

* expreffive of a thoufand Individuals V His Anfwer is, 
6 Terms only become general, by being made the Signs of 
c abfiratl and general Ideas ;' fo that the Reality of Ab- 
flraEt Ideas, fhould follow from the Reality of General 

Words. But this is a Deception. — A Word becomes Ge- 
neral, by being made the Sign, not of an abflraEt general 
Idea, but of feveral particular ones ; any one of which it 
indifferently fuggefts to the Mind.— For an Example, when 
I fay that Whatever has Extenfion is dlvijible j the Propo- 
iltion is to be underftood of Extenfion in general : not that 
I muft conceive any abflraEt general Idea of Extenfion j 
which is neither Line, Surface, nor Solid, neither great nor 
fmall, &c. 

To make this more evident, Suppofe a Geometrician to 
be demonftrating a Method of dividing a Line in two equal 
Parts : In order hereto, he draws, Tor inftance, a black 
Line, an Inch long j and this, which in it felf is a particu- 
lar Line, is nevcrthelefs, with refpecl: to its Signification, 
general 5 fince it rcprefents all Lines whatever : So that 
what is demonftrated of this one, will hold of all others — 
And as that particular Line becomes general by being made 
a Sign ; fo does the Name Line : And as the former owes 
its Generality, not to its being the Sign of an abflraEt or 
general Line, but of any or all particular right Lines that 
may poffibly exift ; fo muft the latter derive its Generality 
from the fame Caufe. See General ''Term. 

Mr. Locke, fpeaking of the Difficulty of forming Ab- 
flraEt Ideas, fays 5 ' And does it not require fome Pains 
< and Skill to form the general Idea of a Triangle, which 
c yet is none of the mofl abflraEt and comprehenfive ; for 

* it muft be neither Oblique, nor Reftangular ; neither E- 
1 quilateral, Ifofceles, nor Scalenous ; but all, and none of 

4 thefe, at once.' * Now, let any Man look into his 

' Thoughts, and try whether he has, or can attain to an 
' Idea of a Triangle, correfpondent to this Defcription.* 

From the Notion of AbflraEt Ideas, Dr. Berkeley endea- 
vours to ftiew, it was, that Bodies firft came to be fuppofed 
to have an Exiftence of their own, out and independent of 
the Mind perceiving 'em: — Can there be a greater Strain of 
Abflracfion, fays he, than to diftinguifh the Exiftence of 
feniible Objects from their being perceiv'd, fo as to conceive 
them exifting unperceiv'd. See Bod*, and External 
World. 



tii ) 



A B S 



We iliall only add, that abflraBiiig, on the corrim'oti Syf- 
tem, is no more than generalizing : "'tis making one thing 
ftand for an hundred, by omitting the Confideration of the 
Differences between 'em : It is taking feveral Differentsj 
i. e. different Combinations, fetting affdc the Peculiarities 
in each, and confidering only whar is found alike in ail. — : — - 
Thus it is that I fay, I love my Friend,, love my Mtfirifii 
love my felf, my 'Bottle, my Book, my Eafe, &c— Not that 
it is poffible I iliould have the fame Senfation with refpeft 
to fo many different forts of things, things that ftand in 
fuch different Relations to me ; but only that there ap- 
pearing fomething in them all that bears a refemblance to 
the relt, in fome Circumitaoces or other, I chufe to cali 
'em all by one Name, Zone. For if I confider the Tendency of 
the Effects of them all, I (hall find they iead me very dif- 
ferent ways to very different AHions : and there is not more 
refemblance between the Caufes than between the Effects : 
All the Analogy there is between them, is a fort of Pieafarei 
or Satisfaction, arifing upon the Application of the particular 

Object to its proper Organ, or Senfe. The AbflraB 

Idea of Love, then, will terminate in the Idea of Pleafure i 
But, 'tis certain, there can be no Idea of Pleafure, without 
a thing plealant to excite it. Any other AbftraB Idea of 
Pleafure, will amount to no more than a View or Perception 
of the Circumitances wherewith our Pieafurcs have been at- 
tended : But thefe are mere Externals, foreign to the plea- 
furabie Senfation it felf; which nothing but an Object appli- 
ed in fuch and fuch a manner, can excite. — To fuppole an 
Idea of Pleafure produced obliquely, by any other than the 
proper Caufe, is as abfurd as to fuppofe an Idea of Sbund, 
produced without a fonorous Object. The Mind has nd 
Power of making any Ideas, call 'em what you will, whe- 
ther AbftraB, or Concrete ; or General, or Particular : Its 
Activity goes no farther than to the perceiving of fuch a3 
are prefemed to it : So that its Action is really no other than 
a degree of Paflion. See Sense. 

ABSTRUSE, denotes fomething to be deep hidden, or 
far-removed from the common Apprehenfions, and ways of 
conceiving ; in opposition to what is obvious and palpable. 

In this Senfe, Mctaphyficks is an al/ftrufe Science ; thei 
new Doctrine of Infinites is an abftrufe Point of Knowledge* 
that few People attain to. — The Word is of Latin Origi- 
ginal, Abftrtifm ; form'd of abs, from, and trudo, 1 thrult 3 
q. d. being far off, and out of reach. 

ABSURD, Absurdum, a thing that thwarts, or' goes 
contrary to our common Notions and Apprehenfions. See 
Absurdity. 

Thus, a Propofition would be abfurd, that mould affirm, 
that two and two make five ; or that fhould deny 'em to" 
make four. See Prof-osition. 

The Logicians have a way of proving the Truth of a Pro- 
pofition, by fhewing the contrary is abfurd. See Truth.-— 
This they call 

ReduBio ad Absurdum, or arguing ex Abfurdo: See 
Reduction. 

ABSURDITY, Absurdities, is a kind of Error, or 
Offence againit fome evident, and generally allowed Truths 
or Principle. See Error, Maxim, &c. 

The greateft of all Abfurdities is the ContradiBion. See 
Contradiction. 

The Schoolmen make two Species of Abfurdities — The 
one, a-r/.oV, which contradicts the common Senfe of Mankind 5 
the othet rm, which gives the Lye to fome one or more 
Philofophers ; e.g. Arifiotle. — The latter fort may be a 
real Truth. 

ABSINTHIUM, Wormwood, a Medicinal Plant, ofcon- 
fiderable Efficacy in quality of a Bitter and Stomachic. See 
Stomachic, &c. 

There are divers Kinds hereof enumerated by Botanifrsj 
at lealt 30. Thofe which obtain in Medicine, are, i°, the 
Roman or fmall, call'd alfo 'Pontic 5 ufed as a Stomachic* 
Aftringent, Difcutient, and to prevent Putrefaction. — F.tmul- 
ler fays, there is not a chronic Diftemper in which it is not 
ferviceable. — A Conferve of the Roman Abfyntbium is now 
alfo much ufed. 

2 , The common or large Wormwood, bitterer much than 
the former, and antiently ufed not only as a Stomachic and 
a Deftroyer of Worms, but alfo a Detergent ; and prefcrib'd 
againft the Jaundice and Dropfy : But it is now grown intd 
difufe in thofe Intentions, as being prejudicial to the Eyes 5 
and is now chiefly rctain'd as an Ingredient in fome of the 
Officinal Compofitions ; and particularly fome csphalick dif- 
till'd Waters. See Water. 

Its Infufion in Wine, makes what they call Vinmn Abfyn- 
thites. See Wise. — The Pharmacopeias alfo mention art 
Extract of Abfynthium, ExtraBum Abfynthii ; and a Sy- 
rup of Abfynthium, Syropus de Abfynthio. 

Some will have this to yield the Semen Sanftum, or San- 
tonicum, i. e. Wormfeed ; but Matthiolm affirms the cow 
trary. See SANTomct'Mi 

Th'« 



A C A 



( *o 



A C A 



The Word is compounded of the Privative Particle «, and 
ShyA/op, potable ; q. d. not potable. 

ABUNDANCE, Ce#ut- t 'Plenty. See Fertility, Cor- 
nucopia, &c. 

Abundance, when carried to an Excefs, is a Fault, call'd 
Redundance, Exuberance, &c. See Redundance, EXU- 
BERANCE, £f?C. 

. The Author of the DiBionaire Oeconomique gives divers 
Manners or Secrets of producing Abundance $ an abundant 
Crop of Wheat, Pears, Apples, Peaches, &c. See Foecun- 
dity. 

ABUNDANT Numbers, are thofc whofe Quota-Parts 
added together, exceed the Number it felf whereof they 
are Parrs. See Number. 

Thus, the Number 12 is abundant, its Quota-Parts 1, 2, 
3, 4, and 6, amounting to 16. — In oppofition to Abundant 
'Numbers (land DefeBive ones. See Defective. 

ABUSE, an irregular Uic of a thing 5 or fomething in- 
troduced contrary to the proper Order, and Intention thereof. 

The Eufinefs of Reformations, Vifitations, &c. is to cor- 
tc.Et Abufes fecretly kept into Difcipline, &c. — Conflantinc 
the Great, by introducing Riches into the Church, laid the 
Foundation for thofe numerous Abufes which the fucceeding 
Ages groaned under. 

oV/'-A buse, is a Phrafe ufed by fome late Writers for the 

Crime of Self-Pollution. See Pollution. Nero is faid 

to have frequently abttfed Sritannicus. 

In Grammar, to apply a Word abitjivcly, or in an abufivc 
Senfe, is to mifapply or pervert its meaning. See Cata- 
chresis. 

A Permutation of Benefices, without the Confent of the 
Bifhop, is deem'd abujive, and confequently null. 

ABUTALLS, orABBUTALs. See Abbuttals. 

ABYSS, Agyssus, a profound, and as it were, bottomlefs 
Gulph, or Cavern. See Gulf. 

The Word is Greek, a@v<ra@- 5 compounded of the Priva- 
tive a, and 0vg>, I enter, reach - 7 q. d. fomething impenetra- 
ble, or not to be fathom'd. 

In Scripture, the Word Abyfs, a$v<rtr§-, is ufed by the 
Septuagint, for the Waters which God created at the Be- 
ginning with the Earth, which encompafs'd it round ; and 
which our Tranflators render the Deep. Thus it is that Dark- 
nefs is faid to have been on the Face of the Abyfs. — The 
fame Word is aifo ufed for that immenfe Cavern in the 
Earth where God collected all thefe Waters on the third 
Day ; which in our Verfion is render'd the Sea 5 and elfe- 
where the Great Deep. 

Dr. Wood-ward has let fome Light into this great Abyfs, 

in his Natural Hijlory of the Earth. He afTerts, That 

there is a mighty Collection of Waters inclofed in the Bow- 
els of the Earth ; conflicting a huge Orb in the interior 
or central Parts of it 5 and over the Surface of this Water, 
he fuppofes the Terrefirial Strata to be expanded. — This, 
according to him, is what Mofes calls the great Deep, and 
what moll Authors render the great Abyfs. 

That there is fuch an Aflemblage of Waters lodged in 
the Depths of the Earth, is confirmed by abundance oi" Ob- 
servations. See Earth, Deluge, £*?£. 

The Water of this vail Abyfs, he aflerts, does communi- 
cate with that of the Ocean, by means of certain Hiatus's, 
or Chafms pafling betwixt it and the bottom of the Ocean : 
And this and the Abyfs he fuppofes to have one common 
Centre, around which the Water of both is placed ; but fo, 
that rhc ordinary Surface of the Abyfs is not level with that 
of the Ocean, nor at fo great a diltance from the Centre as 
the other, it being for the moft part reftrained and depreffed 
by the Strata of Earth lying upon it ; but wherever thofe 
Strata are broken, or fo lax and porous that Water can per- 
vade them, there the Water of the Abyfs doth afcend, fills 
up all the Cletts and Fiffurcs into which it can get admit- 
tance ; and faturates all the Interftices and Pores of the 
Earth, Stone, or other. Matter all around the Globe, quite 



up 



to the Level of the Ocean. See Strata, Fossil, &c. 



ACACIA, in Medicine, an infpiffated Juice, of a Shrub 
of the Thorn kind ; ufed as an Allringent. See Astrin- 
gent. 

There are two Kinds, the Vera and Germanica. 
The Acacia Vera, is brought from the Levant ; and fup- 
pofed to be the Juice of the Pods of a large thorny Tree, 
growing in Egypt and Arabia. — Some NaturaliAs will have 
it the fame Piant that yields the Gum Arabick. 

It is very auflere and binding ; and on that account good 
a?,aind Fluxes. — Chufe that of a tan-colour, fmooth, and 
Ihining 5 and an aftringent di (agreeable Tafle. — It is, or 
ihnuld be, an Ingredient in the T'heriaca Audromachi. 

The German Acacia is a Counterfeit of the former j be- 
ing made of the Juice of unriiie Sloes, boil'd to the Confif- 
tence of a fo'.id Extracl - and put up in Bladders, like the 
former. — It is diAinguifh'd from it chiefly by its Colour, 
which is as black as that of Spanijb Liquorice. — It is ufed 
as a Subftitute to the true Acacia* 



AcaciA, among Antiquaries, is a kind of Roll, ram- 
bling a Bag j feen on Medals in the Hands of feveral of 
the Confuls and Emperors, from the Time of Anaftajiiis. 

Authors are not agreed either about the Ufe of this Roll, of 
about the Subflance whereof it confifls ; fome taking it for 
a plaited Handkerchief, which the Pcrfm who preGded at 
the Games threw out as a Signal for their beginning ; whillt 
others rather imagine it intended to reprefent a Roll of Me- 
moirs, or Petitions. See further under the Article Roll. 

ACADEMICKS, Academici, Academists, a Seel of 
antient Philofophers, founded by Plato 3 and called, alfo,. 
the Academy. See Acatjemy. 

The Acade /nicks, in the later Ages, have taken the Name 
of Tlatonifis. See Platonist. 

The great Dogma of the Academicks was this : Unum 
fcio, quod nihil fcio ; ( I know this one tiling, that I know 

' nothing.' 'Accordingly, they pleaded, that the Mind 

ought always to remain undetermin'd and in Sufpence ; as 
having nothing to determine on but bare Probability or Ve- 
riiimilitude, which is as likely to lead into Error as Truth. 
See Probability, Truth, Error, &c. 

It mull be added, that 'Plato, in thus recommending it to 
his Difciples to diflruft and doubt of every thing ; had it not 
fo immediately in View to leave 'em flu equating, and in 
continual Sufpence between Truth and Error $ as to guard 
againfl thofe rafli precipitate Decisions which young Minds 
are fo liable to, and put 'em in a Difpofition to enable 'em 
the better to fecure themfelves from Error, by examining 
every thing without Prejudice. 

M. des Cartes, has adopted this fame Acatalepfia, or Prin- 
ciple of Doubting 5 but, it mull be allow'd, he makes a ve- 
ry different ufe of it. — The Academicks doubted of every 
thing, and were rcfolved flill to doubt : Des Caries, on the 
contrary, fcts out with doubting of every thing; but declares 
he will not always doubt 5 and that he only doubts at fir A, 
that his Determinations afterwards may be the furer. Sea 
Cartesianism. 

* In Ariflotle's Philofophy, fay the Followers of Des Car- 
t tcs, there is nothing doubted of ; every thing is accounted 
c for, and yet nothing is explain'd, otherwile than by bar- 
6 barous unmeaning Terms, and dark confulcd Ideas : 
1 Whereas Des Cartes makes you even forget what you 
c knew before : but from your new affected Ignorance, leads 

c you gradually into the fublimeft Knowledge.' Hence 

they apply to him what Horace fays of Homer. 

Non Fttmum ex Fulgore, fed ex fumo dare Lttcem 
Cogitat, v.t fpeciofa dehinc miracula prodat 
Antiphatem, Scyllamque & cum Cy elope Charybdim. 

'Tis thus the Cartefians talk : But we may add, that long 
before their Mafler, Ariflotle him felf had faid, that to know 
a thing well, a Man mufl full have doubted of it ; and that 
'tis with doubting all our Knowledge muft begin. See Pe- 
ripatetic, Pyrriionian, Sceptic, ££fc. 

Academics, or rather Academists, is alfo ufed among 
us for the Members pf the modern Academic s, or inilitutcd 
Societies of learned Perfons. See Academy. 

ACADEMY, Academia, in Antiquity, a fine Villa, or 
Pleafure-Houfe, fituate in one of the Suburbs of Athens* 
about a Mile from the City ; which gave the Denomina- 
tion to the Seel of Academifhs. See Academick. 

It took its Name, Academy, from one Academus or Eca- 
demus, a Citizen of Athens, to whom it originally belong'd ; 
and who ufed to have Lectures, and Affemblics of learned 
Men therein. — He lived in the Time of 'Thefeus. 

Some, miflakenly, derive its Name and Origin from Cad- 
mus the, Phoenician, as being the full who introdue'd Learn- 
ing, and the ufe of Letters among the Greeks. 

The Academy was further improved and adom'd by Cy- 
mon, with Fountains, Trees, fliady Walks, &c. for the 
Convenience of the Philofophers and Men of Learning, who 
here met to confer, difpute, ci?c.—- It was alfo the Burying- 
Place of illuflrious Perfons, who had deferv'd well of the 
Republick. 

Here it was that Plato taught his Philofophy ; and from 
him, al! publick Places deflin'd for Aflemblies of the Learn- 
ed and Ingenious, have been fmce call'd Academies. 

Sylla facrifie'd the delicious Groves and Walks of the 
Academy, planted by Cymon to the Laws of War ; and em- 
ploy^ thofe very Trees to make Machines wherewith to 
batter the City. 

Cicero\\c\A a Villa, or Country Retirement near Puzzndi t 
which he call'd by the Name Academia ; where he ufed to 
entertain his Philofophical Friends. — 'Twas here, fays Dr. 
Harris, he compos'd his Academical J^ucfcions, and his 
Books de Ojficiis, de Amicitia, and de Na'mra Decrum. 

Academy is alio ufcd for a Seel of Philofophers, called 
the Academicks. See Philosopher, and Academick. 

We ufually reckon three Academics, or Seels of Acade- 
micks ; tho fome make five. — The Antient Academy, was 
that whereof Plato was the Chief. See Platonism. 

Arceft- 



A C A 



c y ) 



A G A 



Arcefilaus, one of his Succeffbrs, introducing fome Alte- 
rations into the Philofophy of this Sect, founded what they 
call the Second Academy. 

The EftabliJhment of the third, call'd alfo the Neiv A- 
eademf) is attributed to Laades, or Cameades. 

Some Authors add a fourth, founded by Philo and Car- 
mides ; and a fifth by Antiochus, called the Antiochan, 
which temper'd the Antient Academy with Stoicifm. See 
Stoicism. 

The Antient Academy doubted of every thing ; and went 
fo far as to make it a Doubt, whether or no they ought to 
doubt. — 'Twas a fort of Principle with them, never to be 
fure or fatisfy'd of any thing ; never to affirm or deny any 
thing either tor true or falfe. — In effect, they afferted ari 
abfolute Acatalepfia. See Acatalepsia. 

The New Academy was fomewhat more reafonablej they 
own'd feveral things for Truths, but without attaching 

themfelves to any with entire Affurance. Thefe Philofo- 

phers had found, that the ordinary Commerce of Life and 
Society was inconfiftent with the abfolute and univerfal 
Doubtfu-lnefs of the Antient Academy ; and yet, 'tis evi- 
dent, they themfelves looked upon things rather as probable, 
than as true and certain $ by this Amendment, thinking to 
fecure themfelves from thofe Abfurdities into which the 
Antient Academy had fallen. See Doubting, &c. 

See alfo further in the Academical £>iieftioi2S of Cicero ; 
where that Philofopher explains and unravels the Senti- 
ments of thofe who in his Days call'd themfelves Follow- 
ers of the new and old Academy, with great Clearnefs and 
Addrefs. 

Academy is particularly ufed among the Moderns, for a 
regular Society or Company of learned Perfons ; instituted 
under the Protection of a Prince, for the Cultivation and Im- 
provement of Arts, or Sciences. See Society. 

Some Authors confound Academy with Univerfity 5 but, 
tho much the fame in Latin, they are very different things 
in Englijh. — An Univerfity is, properly, a Body compofed 
of Graduates in the feveral Faculties ; of Profeffbrs, who 
teach in the publick Schools 5 of Regents or Tutors, and 
Students who learn under them, and afpife likewife to De- 
grees. See University. 

Whereas an Academy is not intended to teach, or profefs 
any Art, fuch as it is, but to improve it : 'Tis not for No- 
vices to be inftructed in, by thofe that are more knowing ; 
but for Perfons of diftingui/h'd Abilities to confer in, and 
communicate their Lights and Difcovefies to each other for 
their mutual Benefit. 

The firft Academy we read of, was eftablifh'd by Char- 
lemaign at the Motion of Alcuin : It was compofed of the 
chief Wits of the Court, the Emperor himfelf being a Mem- 
ber, — In their Academical Conferences, every Perfon was to 
give an account of what antient Authors he had read $ and 
each even affumed the Name of fome antient Author 
whom he affected mod, or fome celebrated Perfon of Anti- 
quity. Alcuin, from whofe Letters we learn thefe Particu- 
lars, took that of Flaccus, the Sirname of Horace ; a young 
Lord, named Augilbert, took that of Homer : Adelard, 
Bifhop of Corbie, was called Augnjlin : Riculfe, Bi/hop of 
Mentz, was ^Dametas ; and the King himfelf, 2)avid. See 
School. 

This lets us fee a Miftake in fome modern Writers, who 
relate, that it was in Conformity with the Genius of the 
learned Men of thofe Times, who were great Admirers of 
Roman Names, that Alcuin took the Name of Flaccvs Albimls. 

Moft Nations have now their Academies, Rufjia not ex- 
cepted : But, of all Countries, Italy bsars the Bell in this 

reipect. We have but few in England. — The only one 

of Eminence is called by another Name, m9. the Royal 
Society : An Account whereof, fee under the Article Royal 
Society. 

Befide this, however, we have a Royal Academy of Mu- 
fick ; and another of Painting ; eftablifh'd by Letters Pa- 
tent, and govern'd by their refpective Directors. 

The French have flourifhing Academies of all Kinds, 
eftablinYd at 'Paris j moftly by the late King. 

Royal Academy of Sciences, for the Improvement of 
Phyficks, Mathematicks, and Chymiflry 5 was firft fet on 
foot in 1666, by Order of the King, tho without any Aft 
of Royal Authority iffued for that End. — In the Year 
1699, it had as it were a fecond Birth 5 the fame Prince, by 
a Regulation dated the 2<Sth of January, giving it a new 
form, and putting it on a new and more folemn Footing. 

In Virtue of that Regulation, the Academy was to be 
compofed of four Kinds of Members, viz. Honorary, Peti- 
tionary, AJfociates, and Eleves. — The firft Clafs to confift of 
ten Perfons $ and the reft of twenty each. — The Honorary 
Academics to be all Inhabitants of France ; the Penfiona- 
ries all to refide at Paris $ eight of the Ajfociates allowed 
to confift of Foreigners ; and the Eleves all to live at 'Paris. 
■ — The Officers, to be a c Prefident, named every Year by 
the King, out of the Clafs of Honorary Academijls 3 and a 
Secretary and treafitrer, to be perpetual. 



Of the Penfionancs, three to be Geometricians, three A- 
itronomers, three Mechanicks, three Anatomifts, three Chy- 
milts, three Botanifts ; the remaining two, Secretary and 
Treaiurer. Of the twelve Affbciates, two to apply them- 
felves to Geometry, two to Aftronomy, two to Mechanicks 3 
two to Anatomy, two to Botany, and two to Chymiflry.— The 
Eleves to apply themfelves to the fame kind of Science with 
the Penfionariestheyareattach'dto ; andnot to fpeak, except 
when called thereto by the Prefident.— No Regular or Re- 
ligious to be admitted, except into the Clafs of Honorary 
Academijls ; Nor any Perfon to be admitted, either for Af- 
fociatu or Penfionary, unlefs known by fome confiderable 
printed Work, fome Machine, or otht:r Diwovery. — Further, 
no Perfon to be allowed to make ufe of his Quality of Aca- 
demi/l, in the Title of any of his Books, umefs fuch Book 
have been read to, and approved by the Academy. 

The Meetings of the Academy were appointed to be held 
twice a-week, on Wednefdays and Saturdays, in the King's 
Library: (Tho foon after, they were removed to a more 
commodious Apartment in the Louvre) And to lait, at 
leaft, two Hours, viz. from Three to live. At the Begin- 
ning of every new Year, each Penfionary to be obiig'd to 
declare in Writing what Work he intends chiefly to profecute 
that Year 5 and the reft io be invired to do the fame. All 
the Obfervations the Academijls bring to the Meeting to be 
left in Writing, in the Hands of the Secretary 5 who is to 
enter the SubUance of what pafles at each Affembly in a 
Regifter : and at the End of every Year, to publifh. the 
Hiftory, or Tranfactions of the Academy for that Year. 

No Perfon, not a Member, to be prefent at their ordi- 
nary Meetings ; unlefs fuch as are introduced by the Secre- 
tary, to propofe fome new Machine or Difcovery 5 tho their 
publick Meetings, twice a-year, {hall be open to every body. 
To encourage the Members to continue their Labours,; 
the King engages not only to pay the ordinary Penfions j 
but even to give extraordinary Gratifications, according to 
the Merit of their refpective Performances : furnifning, 
withal, the Expence of the Experiments, and other Inqui 
ries ncceflary to be made. — Their Motto, Invcnit%3 fer fecit. 
In the Year 1716, the Duke of Orleans, then Regent^ 
made an Alteration in their Conftitution ; augmenting the 
Number of Honoraries, and of Affbciates capable of being 
Foreigners, to twelve ; admitting Regulars among fuch AI- 
fociates $ fup^refling the Clafs of Eleves, and eitabli filing, 
in lieu thereof, a new Clafs of twelve Ad]unBs, to the fix 
feveral Kinds of Sciences cultivated by the Academy : and, 
laftly, appointing a Vice-Prefident, to be chafe yearly by the 
King, out 0^ the Hon6rary Members ; and a Director and 
Sub-: director out of the Penfion.uies. 

Their Secretary, M. He Fo?ztenelle, has oblig'd the Publick 
with 28 elegant Volumes of the Productions of this illuftri- 
Ous Body 5 under the Title of Hijloire de lAcademe Royale, 
&c. avec les Memoires de Mathematiqzte & de Tkyfique tirez> 
des Regijlres, &c. 

Academy of 'Painting, was eftabliflYd fifty Years ago, 
under the Cardinal Mazarin, firft Protector thereof; and the 
Chancellor Seguier, Vice-Protector. 

It confifts of a Director, a Chancellor, four Rcftors, a 
Treafurer, twelve Profeffbrs ; Adjuncts to the Rectors and 
Profeffbrs $ Counfellors 5 a Secretary ; a Profeflbr fbr Anatomy, 
and another for Geometry, and Perfpective. 

Perfons are here admitted either in Quality of Painters or 
Sculptors. — The Painters are admitted according to their 
refpedtive Talents ; there being a Diftinction made between 
thofe who work in Hiftory, and thofe who only paint Por- 
traits, or Landfkips, or Beafts, or Fruits, or Flowers, or 
paint in Mignature 5 or only Defign; or Engrave 5 or 
Carve, £#c. 

Academy of Medals and Infcriptions, was erected for 
the Study and Explanation of antient Monuments ; and to 
confecrate great and memorable Events to Pofterity, by fimi- 
lar Monuments j as Medals, Relievo's, Infcriptions, &c. 

Academy of Politicks, is compofed of fix Perfons, who 
meet on certain Days each Week at the Louvre, in the 
Chamber where the Papers relating to foreign Affairs are 
lodg'd. — Here they perufe fuch Papers as are put in their 
Hands, by order of the Secretary for foreign Affairs, who 
acquaints the King with the Progreffes they make, and the 
Capacities of each, that his Majefty may employ them ac- 
cordingly. 

French Academy, eftablifh'd for the Improvement and 
Refining of the Language. See French, and Language. 
Academy of Mttjick, is no other than the Managers and 
Directors of the Opera. See Opera. 

The French have alfo confiderable Academes in raoft of 
their great Cities ; as, at Montpelier, a Royal Academy of 
Sciences, on the like Footing as that at Paris ; being as it 
were a Counterpart thereof: At T'holoufe, an Academy un- 
der the Denomination of Lanternijls : Others at Niftnes, 
Aries, &c. 
'The Royal Spanifh Academy, is an Academy eftablifh'd 

at Madrid, on the Model of the French Academy, • 

E The 



A G A 



The- Deftgil #as laid by the Du'Jce eVEfcakn'a ; and ap- 
prov'd of by the King in 1714, who declar'd hirnfelf Pro- 
teclor thereof— It coniilts of 24 Acadcnujls } including the 
Director and Secretary. 

Its Device is a Crucible on the Fire, with this Motto, Liffl- 
f'm, fija, y da efplendor. 

Academy of the Nature Curiofi, in Germany, was firft 
founded in 1652, by M, Saucb a Phyfician ; and taken in 
itfyo under the Protection of the Emperor Leopold. 

There are other Academical Inftitutions at 'Berlin, and 
'other Parts 'of the North 5 feveral of which having diitin- 
guifh'd 'themfelvcs by their -Journals, Ephemcrides, &c. the 
Reader will find an Account of 'em under the Article 
Journal. 

Italy, aione, has more Academics of note than all the reft 
of the World ; not a City but furni flies a Set of learned Per- 
sons for an Academy, which to them feems an efTential Part 
of a regular Conlritution. — Jarckius has given us a Speci- 
men of their Hiftory, printed at Leipjtc, in 1725 ; and gives 
us, withal, to ex peel a fuller and more perfect Account from 
feveral learned Perfons, who have been long 'employ'd about 
the fame 5 as Kratifius, Profeflbr of Eloquence at Leipjtc 5 
Hyacinth. Gimma, and Mich. Richcyus. 

Jdrckiffi y s Account goes no further than thofe of T'icdmont, 
Ferrara, and Milan - 7 in which laft City he reckons 25 : 
But he adds a Lift of all the reft, to the Number of 550. — 
The Karnes of moft of 'em are very curious. 

The Academics, e.g. of Boulogne, are called Abandona- 
ti, Anfiofi, Otioji, A/cadi, Confuji, Difettuojt, Dubbiofi, 
Impaticnti, Inabili, Indifferent! , Indomiti, Inquieti, Injla- 
bili, "Delia notte, <Piacere, Sitienti, Sonnolenti, Twbidi, 

Vefpertin'u Thofe of Genoa, Accordati, Sopiti, Refae- 

gliati : Of Gubio, Addormentati ; Of Venice, Acuti, Allct- 
tatiy Difcordanti, Difgutnti, Difingannati, Dodonei, Fila- 
delfici, Incrufcabili, Injiancabili : Of Rimini, Adagiati, 
Eutrapeli ■ OfPavia, Affidati, "Delia Chiave : Of Per mo, 
Raffrontati : Of Moiifa, Agitati .- Of Florence, Alterati, 
Humidi, Furfurati, Delia Crufca, Del Cimcnto y Infocati : 
Of Cvcmom,Animoji; QtJ$2,y\Qs,Arditi,Infemati, Intronati, 
Lunatici, Segreti, Sirenes, Sicnri, Volanti: Of Ancona, Ar- 
gonauti, Caliginofi : Of Urbino, AJforditi : Of Perugia, A- 
romiy Eccentrici, Infenfati, Injifidi, Unifoni : Of Taren- 

tum, Audaci : Of Macerata, Catenati t Imperfetti : Of 

Chim<erici : Of Sienna, Cortefi, Gioviali, TrapaJ/dti : Of 
Rome Delfici, Humorifti, Lyncei, Fantaftici, Mluminati, 
Incitati, Indifpofitiy Infeccondi, Malencolici, Negletti, Notti 
Vaticane, Nottumi, Ombrojt, Pellegrini, Sterili, Vigilant! : 
Of Padua, Delii, Inimaturi, Ordati : Of Trepano, Diffi- 
cili : Of BrefTe, Difperjt, Erranti : Of Mutina, Diffonan- 
ti : Of Recanatum, Difvguali : Of Syracufe, Ebrii : Of 
Milan, Eliconii, Faticoji, Fenici, Incerti, Nafcojli : Of 
Candia, Extravaganti : Of Pefaro, Eterocliti : Of Coma- 
chio, Fluttitanti : Of Arezzo, Forzati .- Of Turin, Fnlmi- 
nates: OfReggio, Fumojt, Muti ; Of Cortona, Hitmoroji : 
Of Bari, Incogniti : Of RofTano, Incur iojl -. Of Brada, In- 
nominati, (Pigri : Of Acis, Intricati : Of Mantua, In- 
vaghiti : Of Agrigento, Mutabili, Offilfcati : Of Verona, 
Olympici, Uranii : Of Viterbo, Oflinati : Of Vaga- 
bond}. , 

ACADEMY, is alfo ufed among us for a kind of Colle- 
giate School, or Seminary ; where Youth are inftructed in 
the Liberal Arts, and Sciences ; in a private way. See 
School, Seminary, College, &c. 

The Nonconformift Minifters, lye. are many of them bred 
up in fuch private Academies 3 as not relifhing the common 
Univerfity- Education. 

Academy is alfo ufed in fpeaking of the Schools of the 
ye-zvs : i. e. thofe where the Rabbins or Doctors inftrucT: the 
Youth of their Nation in the Hebrew Tongue 5 explain to 
'em the Talmud i, teach 'em the Cabbala, ^&c. See Rab- 
ein, Cabbala, f£c. 

The fo-ws have had of thefe Academies, ever flnce their 
Return from the 'Babylonijlj Captivity. 

The Academics of \fibcrias and 'Babylon are celebrated. 
See Tiberias, Massoretes, Talmud, &c. 

Academy is particularly underitood of a Riding- School • 
or a Place where young Gentlemen are taught to ride the 
great ilorfc, with other luitable Exerdfes 5 as Fencing, Qfo 
See Exercise. 

This is what Vitnivius calls Ephcbeim. See Gymnasi- 
um, Gym as tic, &c. 

The Duke of Ne-zvcajile will have the Art of Riding to 
have had its Origin m Italy, and the &*i\ Academy tf thisYort 
to have been eftabli/h'd at Naples, by Frederic Grifon ; who 
hesdds, wasthefirft that wrote on the Subject ; which he did 
like a true Cavalier, and a great Mafter. — Henry VIII. fays 
the fame Author, call'd over two Italians, Difciples of Gri- 
jbfii into England ; who foon ftock'd the Nation with Ecu- 
yers, or Riding-Mafters. 

He adds, that the greateft Mafter Italy ever produe'd, was 
2 Neapolitan, 'Fignatelli by Name ; that La Broiie rid un- 



C*4) 



A C A 



^er him five Yeats ; 'Plnviucl nine ; and S. Antboine many 
Years : and that thefe three Frenchmen fill'd France witli 
French Mailers ; which till then had known none but Ita- 
lians. 

The Ground fct apart in an Jcademy, for riding, is call'd 
the Manage; having ufually a Pillar in the Centre, and other 
Pillars, placed two by two, at the Sides. See Manage, and 
Pillar. 

Academy, or kchttw.\- Figure, in Painting, is a Draw- 
ing or Defign made after a Model, with a Crayon or Pencil. 
— Or the Copy of fuch a Draught. See Design. 

ACANACEOUS, among Botanifls, a Term applied to a 
Oafs of Plants, popularly known under the Name of the 
I'bifile Kind. See Thistle, and Cardoos. 

The Word is form'd of the Greek azafa, Jaw, I ftiar- 
pen ; in regard of the Prickles they are befet withal. 

ACAKTABOLUS, or Acanthabolus, a Surgeon's In- 
flrument ; called alfo Volfella. 

'Tis ihaped like a Pair of Pincers ; and is ufed to take 
out any prickly Subftance that fhall chance to flick to the 
Oefophagus or Gullets or the Fragments of corrupted 
Bones, Hair ; or any thing that by chance remains in a 
Wound. 

The fame Term, Acantabolm, is alfo ufed for an Inftru- 
ment wherewith People pull out the Hairs from their Eye- 
brows, i$c. 

It is form'd from the Greek cLHM^a t Spina, and |3&M<y, ja- 
cio, I throw away. 

ACANTHA, among fome Anatomifls, is applied to the 
hind, or pofterior Protuberances of the Vertebra of the 
Back ; forming what we call the Spina 'Dorfi. See Ver- 
tebra, and Spina. 

ACANTHUS, in Architeflurc, an Ornament in the Co- 
rinthian and Compofite Orders ; being the Reprefentation 
of the Leaves of an Acanaceous Plant, in the Capitals thereof. 
See Capital, and Leaves. 

It takes its Name from dK&vfa, the Name given the 
Plant among the Greeks, as being prickly, or of the Thiftle 
Kind. The Latin Botanifls call it Srancha Urfina, Bears- 
foot, from fome fuppofed refemblance it bears thereto ; or 
Srancha Hircina, by reafon its Leaves bend and twill 
fomewhat like a Goat's Horns.- 

There are two Kinds of the Plant Acanthus, one whereof 
grows wild, and is full of Prickles ; the other grows in Gar- 
dens, and is by Virgil called Mollis, in regard it is foft, and 
without any Prickles. — The Greek Sculptors adorn'd their 
Works with the Figure of the latter 5 as the Gothic did witb. 
that of the former, which they reprefented not only in their 
Capitals, but alfo in other Ornaments. 

The Garden Acanthus, is the moft dented ; bearing a 
good deal of refemblance to Parfley, or Smallage : And 
thus it is we find it reprefented in the Compojite Capitals of 
1'itus, and Septimiils Sevens at Rome. 

Thefe Leaves make the principal Character and Diftinflion 
of the two rich Orders from the reft : and their different 
Number and Arrangement does alfo diftinguifh the two Or- 
ders from each other. See Order 5 fee alfo Corinthian, 
and Composite. 

The Origin and Occafion of the Ornament, fee under 
the Article Abacus. 

ACATALECTIC, Acatalectus, in the antient Poe- 
try, a Term applicable to fuch Verfes as have all their Feet 
and Syllables ; and are in no wife defective at the End. See 
Verse, and Foot. 

As, on the contrary, CataleBic Verfes are thofe which 
end too haftily, and with a Syllable fliorr. See Catalec- 
tic. 

The Words come from h'rya, define 5 whence wwaMfitJ- 
x®-, which wants fomething at the End ; and the Privative 
« being prefix'd a'«et)aAiis7'x©-, which wants nothing at the 
End. 

In the following Strophe of Horace, the two firft Verfes 
are AcataleQic, and the laft Catalectic. 

Sohitur acris byems, grata vice 
Veris S? Favoni : 
Trahuntque Jiccas machine carinas— 

ACATERY, in the King's Houfhold, a kind of Check 
betwixt the Clerks of the Kitchen and the Purveyors. See 
Purveyor, Clerk, Houshold, &c. 

The Officers of the Acatery, are a Sergeant, two Joint- 
Clerks, and a Yeoman of the Salt-Stores. 

ACATALEPS1A, Acatalepsy, in Philofophy, Incom- 
prebenfiblenefs ; or the Impoffioiiiry of comprehending or 
conceiving a thing. See Comprehension. 

The •Pyrrhmans and Sccpticks, and even the Antient 
Academy, afferted an abfolute Acatalepfta : All human Sci- 
ence or Knowledge, according to them, went no further 
than to Appearances and Verilimilitude. See Pyrriionian, 
Sceptic, and Academy. 

They 



ICC 



They declaimed much .aga'nft the Senfes ; and charg'd 
them with a principal Hand in /educing and leading us into 
Error, Sec Sense, Error, Truth, Falshood, Doubt- 
ing, &c. 

The Word is a Compound of the Privative et, and xaV- 
*ay.gM>a l deprchendo, I find cut ; of x&T<i, and Aa^&tM, Ca- 
fio, I take. See Catalepsis. 

ACCAPITCJM, in our antient Law-Books, fignifics Re- 
lief to the Chief Lord. — Hence alfo, 

Accapitare, to pay Relief to the Chief Lord. See 
Relief. 

ACCEDAS ad Curiam, is a Writ which lies for him who 
has received falfe Judgment, or fears Partiality, in a Court- 
Baron, or Hundred Court ; being directed to the Sheriff.— 
The like Writ lies alfo for him that has received fuch Judg- 
ment in the County-Court , and is called de Falfo Judicio. 

The Accedas ad Curiam lies alfo for Juflice delayed, as 
well as falfly given ; and is a Species of the Writ Rccor- 
dari. See Recordari. 

Accedas ad Vice-ccmitem, is a Writ directed to the Co- 
foner, commanding him to deliver a Writ to the Sheriff 5 
who having a Pone deliver'd to him, fupprefles it. See 
Pone. 

ACCELERATED Motion, in Mechanicks, is a Motion 
which receives continual Increments, or Accefllons of Velo- 
city. See Motion. 

If the Acceffions of Velocity be equal in equal Times ; 
the Motion is faid to be uniformly accelerated. See Acce- 

f.ER ATION. 

The Motion of falling Bodies is an accelerated Motion : 
And fuppofing the Medium they fall thro', i. e. the Air, 
void of Refinance ; the fame Motion may be alfo confider'd 
as uniformly accelerated. See Descent, i$c. 

For the Laws of Accelerated Motion, fee Motion. 

ACCELERATION, in Mechanicks, the Increafe of Ve- 
locity in a moving Body. See Velocity, and Accelera- 
ted Motion. 

deceleration ftands directly oppofed to Retardation, which 
denotes a Diminution of Velocity. See Retardation. 

Acceleration is chiefly ufed in Phyficks, in refpect, 
of falling Bodies, i.e. of heavy Bodies tending towards the 
Centre of the Earth by the Force of Gravity. Sec Gravi- 
ty, and Centre. 

That Natural Bodies are accelerated in their Defcent, is 
evident from various Considerations, both d priori and pofte- 
riori. — Thus, we actually find, that the greater Height a 
Body falls from, the greater Impreffion it makes, and the 
more vehemently does it ftrike the fubject Plane, or other 
Obftacle. 

Caufe of the Acceleration of Falling "Bodies. 

Various are the Syflems and Opinions which Philofophers 
have produced to account for this Acceleration. — Some attri- 
bute it to the Preflure of the Air : The farther, fay they, a 
Body falls, the greater Load of Atmofphere is of confequence 
incumbent on it : and the Preflure of a Fluid, is in propor- 
tion to the perpendicular Altitude of the Column thereof — 
Add, that the whole Body of the Fluid preffing in innume- 
rable right Lines, which all meet in a Point, viz. the Cen- 
tre 5 that Point, by the meeting of thofe Lines, fuftains, as 
it were, the Preffion of the whole Mafs : Confequently, the 
nearer a Body approaches theteto, the Effect or Preflure of 
more united Lines muit it fuftain. See Air, and Atmo- 
sphere. 

But what overturns this Account, is, that as the Preflure 
of the Air downwards increafes ; fo, by the known Laws of 
Staticks, does the Refiftance, or the Force wherewith the 
fame Fluid tends to repel, or drive the Body upwards again. 
See Fluid. 

Others infift, that the incumbent Air is the grofler and 
more vaporous, the nearer the Earth ; and fill'd with more 
heterogeneous Particles, which are not true elaflick Air : 
and hence, fay they, a defcending Body, meeting continually 
with lefs Refiftance from the Elafticity of the Air, and hav- 
ing the fame Force of Gravity Hill acting on it, nil necef- 
farily be accelerated. See Elasticity. 

But what overturns all Accounts where the Air or Atmo- 
fphere are concern'd, is, that the Acceleration holds in Va- 
cuo, and even more regularly than in Air. See Vacuum. 

The 'Peripatetic Account is worfe than this : The Mo- 
tion of heavy Bodies downwards, fay they, arifes from an 
intriniick Principle, which makes 'em tend to the Centre, as 
their proper Sear, or Element, where they would be at 
reft : Hence, add they, the nearer Bodies approach thereto, 
the more is their Motion intended. See Element, Qua- 
lity, &c. 

The Gajfindifls, on the other hand, hold that the Earth 
emits a fort of attractive Effluvia, innumerable Threads 
whereof continually afcend and defcend ; which Threads, 
proceeding like Radii from a common Centre, divaricate 
the more, the further they go : So that the nearer a heavy 
Body is to the Centre, the more of thefe magnetic Threads 



XM) 



A C C 



it receives; and hence the more is its Motion accelerated 
See Effluvia, and Magnetism. 

But this is rcfell'd by an cafy Experiment : for if a Ball 
be let fall out or the loweft Window of a high Tower and 
alfo out of the higheft ; the Accclentiai- will be the feme 
in both Cafes, notwithstanding the greater Vicinity to the 
Centre m rhe one, than in the other Cafe. 

The Cartcfians account for the Acceleration, from the 
repeated Pulfcs of a fubtil ethcrial Matter, which is conti- 
nually acting on the failing Body, and impelling it downwards. 
SeeCARTEsiANisM, jEther, Element, Matter, Sub- 
tile, £s?c. 

Alter all, the Caufe of Acceleration is nothing myftcrious ; 
the Principle of Gravitation, which determines the Body to 
defcend, determining it to he accelerated by a neceflary Con- 
fequence. See Gravitation. 

For, fuppofo a Body let fall from on high : the primary 
Caule of its beginning to defcend, is, doubtlefs, the Power of 
Gravity ; but when once the Defcent is commenced, that 
State becomes in fome meafure natural to the Body ; fo that 
if left to it feif, it would pcrfevere in it for ever, even tho 
the firft Caufe fhould ceafe ; as we fee in a Stone caft with 
the Hand, which continues to move, after it is left by the 
Caufe that gave it Motion. See Law of Nature. 

But, befidc the Propensity to defcend imprefs'd by the 
firft Caufe, and which of it felf were fufficient to continue 
the fame degree of Motion once begun, in infinitum ; there 
is a conftant Acceflion of fubfequent Efforts of the fame 
Principle, Gravity, which continues to aft on the Body al- 
ready in Motion, in the fame manner as if it were at reft. 

Here, then, being a double Caufe of Motion, and both 
acting in the fame Direction, viz. directly towards the Cen- 
tre of the Earth ; the Motion they jointly produce muft ne- 
ceflarily be greater than that of one of 'em.— Ani the 
Velocity thus increas'd, having the fame Caufe of Increafe 
flill perfifting, the Defcent muft neceflarily be continually 
accelerated. 

For, fuppofing Gravity, whatever it be, to aft uniformly 
on all Bodies, at equal Diftances from the Earth's Centre ; 
and that the Time in which a heavy Body falls to the Earth, 
be divided into equal Parts infinitely fmall : let this Gra- 
vity incline the Body towatds the Earth's Centre, while it 
moves, in the firft infinitely fmall Part of the Time of its 
Defcent ; if after this, the Action of Gravity be fuppos'd 
to ceafe, the Body would proceed uniformly on towards the 
Earth's Centre, with a Velocity equal to the Force of the 
firft Impreflion. 

But, now, fince the Action of Gravity is here fuppofed 
ftill to continue ; in the fecond Moment of Time, the Body 
will receive a new Impulfe downwards, equal to what it re- 
ceived at firft 5 and thus its Velocity will be double of what 
it was in the firft Moment : in the third Moment it will be 
ttiple ; in the fourth quadruple, and fo on continually : For 
the Impreflion made in one Moment, is not at all alter'd by 
what is made in another; but the two are, as it wete, ag- 
gregated, or brought into one Sum. 

Wherefore, fince the Particles of Time are fuppofed infi- 
nitely fmall, and all equal to one another ; the Impetus ac- 
quir'd by the falling Body, will be every where as the Times 
from the Beginning of the Defcent. — And hence, fince the 
Quantity of Matter in the Body given, continues the fame 5 
the Velocity will be as the Time in which it is acquir'd. 

Further, the Space pafs'd over by a moving Body in a 
given Time, and with a given Velocity, may be confider'd 

as a Rectangle made by the Time and the Velocity. . 

Suppofe A, (Tab. Mechanicks, Fig. 61.) a heavy Body de- 
fcending, and let A B reprefent the Time of its Defcent 5 
which Line fuppofe divided intoany Number of equal Parts, 
AC, CE, EG, ($c. reprefentative of the Intervals, or Mo- 
ments of the given Time.— Let the Body defcend thro' the 
firft of thofe Divifions, AC, with a certain equable Velocity 
arifing from the propofed Degree of Gravity : this Velocity 
will be reprefented by AD ; and the Space pafs'd over, by 
the ReaangleCAD. 

Now, as the Action of Gravity in the firft Moment pro- 
duced the Velocity A D, in the Body before at reft ; in 
the fecond Moment, the fame will produce in the Body fo 
moving, a double Velocity, C F ; in the third Moment, to the 
Velocity C F wii! be added a further degree, which together 
therewith, will make the Velocity E H, which is triple of the* 
firft, and fo of the reft. So that in the whole Time A B, 
the Body will have acquir'd a Velocity B K. — Again, taking 
the Divifions of the Line, e.g. AC, CE, &c. for the 
Times, the Spaces gone thro' will be the Areas or Rectan- 
gles, CD, E F, S?c. So that in the whole Time A B, the 
Space defcribed by the Moveable, will be equal to all the 
Rectangles, i. e. to the dented Figure ABK. 

Such would be the Cafe, if the Accefllons of Velocity on- 
ly happen'd in certain given Points of Time, e.g. in C, in 
E, c5c So that the Degree o^ Motion fliouid continue the 

fame till the next Period of Acceleration come up. 

If the Divifions or Intervals of Tims were fuppofed lefs, 

e.g. 



A C C 



( 1* ) 



A C C 



*. g. by half ; then the Dentures of the Figure would be 
proportionably fmaller ; and it would approach fo much the 
nearer to a Triangle.— If they were infinitely fmall, l. e. if 
the Acccffions of Velocity were fuppofed to be made continu- 
ally, and in every Point of Time, as is really the Cafe ; the 
Reftangles thus fuccefiively produced will make a lull Tri- 
angle, e.g. ABE, (Fig. 63.) Here > ,he who1 ^ T "? e 

A B, confining of the little Portions of Time A i, A :, SSc. 
and the Area of the Triangle ABE, of the Sum of all the 
little triangular Surfaces anfwering to the Divifions of the 
Time : The whole Area ot Triangle cxpreHes the Space 
moved thro' in the whole Time A B ; and the little Triangles 
A if, &c. the Spaces gone thro' in the Divifions ot lime 

But thefe Triangles being fimilar, their Areas are to one 
another, as the Squares of their homologous Sides AB, Ai, 
££c. and confcqucntly, the Spates moved, are to each other 
as the Squares of the Times. 

Laws of Acceleration. 

Hence we eafily infer the great Law of deceleration, viz. 
" That a defcending Body uniformly accelerated,^ defcribes, 
" in the whole Time of its Defcent, a Space which is juft 
" half of what it would have defctibed in the fame Time, 
" with the accelerated Velocity it has acquir'd at the End 
" of its Fall." 

For, the whole Space the falling Body has moved thro' in 
the Time A B, we have already fliewn, will be reprefented 
by the Triangle ABE; and the Space the fame Body 
would move thro' in the fame Time, with the Velocity B E, 
will be reprefented by the Rectangle ABE F — But the Tri- 
angle is known to be equal to juft half the Rectangle. — 
Therefore, the Space moved, is juft half of what the Body 
would have moved with the Velocity acquir'd at the End of 
the Fall. 

Coroll. Hence, i°, we gather, that the Space moved 

with the laft acquired Velocity B E, in half the Time A B ; 
is equal to that really moved by the falling Body in the 
whole Time AB. 

2°, If a falling Body defcribe any given Length in a given 
Time, in double that Time it will defcribe four times that 
Length ; in thrice the Time, nine times, gJc. and univer- 
fally, if the Times be in Atithmetical Proportion, 1,2, 3, 4, 
J5?c. the Spaces defcribed will be 1, 4, 9, icf, t>c. 

3 , The Spaces defcribed by a falling Body, in a Series of 
equal Moments or Intervals of Time, will be as the une- 
qual Numbers 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, &c— And fince the Velocities 
acquir'd in falling are as the Times ; the Spaces will alfo be 
as the Squares of the Velocities ; and both Times and Ve- 
locities in a fubduplicate Ratio of the Spaces. 

The Motion of a Body afcending, or impell'd upwards, is 
diminifli'd or retarded from the fame Principle of Gravity 
acting in a contrary Direction, in the fame manner as a fall- 
ing Body is accelerated. See Retardation. 

A Body thus projected upwards, rifes till it has loft all its 
Motion ; which it does in the fame Time that a Body fall- 
ing would have acquir'd a Velocity equal to that wherewith 
the Body was thrown up. 

And hence, the fame Body thrown up, will rife to the 
fame height, from which, falling, it would have acquir'd 
the Velocity wherewith it was thrown up. 

And hence, the Height which Bodies thrown up with 
different Velocities do aicend to, are to one another as the 
Squatcs of thofe Velocities. 

Acceleration of Bodies on inclined Tlanes. — The fame 
general Law obtains here, as in Bodies falling perpendicu- 
larly : The Effect of the Plane is, to make the Motion flow- 
er 5 but the Inclination being every where equal, the Retar- 
dation rifing therefrom will proceed equally in all Parts, at 
the Beginning and the Ending of the Motion.— The par- 
ticular Laws, fee under the Article Inclined Plane. 

Acceleration of the Motion of 'Pendulums. — The Mo- 
tion of pendulous Bodies is accelerated in their Defcent ; 
but in a lefs Ratio than that of Bodies falling perpendicu- 
larly. Sec the Laws thereof under the Article Pendulum. 

Acceleration of the Motion of 'ProjeBiles. See Pro- 
jectile. 

Acceleration of the Motion of comfreffed "Bodies, in 
expanding or reftoring themfelves. See Compression, Di- 
xatation, Tension, Fibre, &c. 

That the Motion of comprefs'd Air, expanding it felf by 
its Elafticity to its former Dimenfions, is accelerated, is evi- 
dent from various Considerations. See Air, Elasticity,^. 

Acceleration is alfo applied in the antient Aftronomy, 
in refpect of the Fixed Stars. — This Acceleration was the 
Difference between the Revolution of the Primum Mobile, 
and the Solar Revolution ; which was computed at 3 Mi- 
nutes, and 56 Seconds. See Star, Primom Mohile, &c. 

ACCELERATOR Urintg, a Mufcle of the Penis, by 
fome made a Pair of Mufcles ; thus call'd from its Office in 
expediting the Difcharge of the Urine and Semen. See 
Musme, Penis, Use 



It arifes tendinous from the upper and fore-Part of the 
Urethra ; but foon grows flefliy, paffes under the Os PuHs, 
and incompaftes the Bulb of the cavernous Body of the U- 
rethta. — Both fides of this Mufcle meet in a middle Line, 
correfponding to the Seam in the Skin over it 5 and continue 
fo united, the fpace of two Inches ; after which, it deta- 
ches two flefliy Elongations, which become thin Tendons at 
their Terminations on the cavernous Bodies of the Penis. 

Its upper Part covering the Bulb, when in Acfion, ftreigh- 
tens the Veins which pals thro' it from the Corpus Caverno- 
fum of the Urethra 5 and hinder the Reflux of the Blood in 
an Erection ; and by the repeated Contractions of this upper 
Part, drives the Blood in the Bulb towards the Glans. See 
Erection. 

The two Elongations comprefs the Channel of the Ure- 
thra, and fo force out the contain'd Seed, or Urine ; whence 
the Mufcle takes its Name. See Urine, and Seed. 

ACCENSION, Accensio, in Phyficks, the Aft of 
Kindling, or fetting a Body on Fire. See Fire, Fuel* 
Heat, &c. 

Accenfion, on other Occafions, is sailed Inflammation, Ig- 
nition, Conflagration, &c. See Ignition, Inflammation, 
Conflagration, £<?e. 

Accenfion ftands oppofed to Extinction. See Extinc- 
tion. 

The Word is form'd of the Latin Accendo, I kindle. 

ACCENSUS, a Roman Officer, whereof there were two 
Kinds. 

The firft, were Officers of the Magiftrates ; that is, of the 
Confuls, Pretors, Proconfuls, S$c. who had their Name, Ac- 
cenfi, ah acciendo ; their principal Employment being to 
call Affemblies of the People, and fummon People to appear 
in Court. 

The other Order of Accenfi, were a kind of fupernume- 
rary Soldiers, kept on foot, to be ready to fupply the Place 
of thofe who were kill'd or wounded in Battel. — And thefe, 
according to Afconius <Pedianus, becaufe they were added 
to the proper Number, were called Accenfi, quia adcenfe- 
lantur, or accenfeiantur, i. c. ad cenfiim adficielantur. 

ACCENT, Accentus, a certain Inflection of Voice ; or 
a peculiar Tone and manner of Pronunciation, contracted 
from the Country or Province where a Perfon was bred. See 
Voice, and Pronunciation. 

In this Senfe, we fay, the Welch Tone or Accent, the 
Northern Accent, the Gafcoign Accent, Norman Accent, &c. 
See Tone, ££?c. 

The Word is form'd of the Latin Accentus ; compounded 
of ad, and cano, I fing. 

Accent is alfo a Tone or Modulation of the Voice, 
frequently ufed as a Mark of the Intention of the 
Speaker ; and giving a good or an evil Signification to his 
Words. 

One may give Offence with the fofteft and moft foothing 
Words imaginable, by a proper Management of the Ac- 
cent, and manner of rehearfing them.— The Accent fre- 
quently gives a contrary Senfe to what the Words themfelves 
naturally imported. See Word, Figure, &c. 

The Accent, properly, has only to do with high and low. 
— Tho the modern Grammarians frequently alfo ufe it in re- 
fpect of loud and foft, long and fliort ; which confounds Ac- 
cent with Quantity. See Quantity. 

The Difference between the two may be conceiv'd from 
that which we obferve between the Beat of a Drum, and 
the Sound of a Trumpet : the former expreffes every thing 
belonging to loud and loft, and long and fliort ; but, fo long 
as there is a lutmwtn. in the Sound, there is nothing like 
Accent. 

Accent is alfo ufed in Grammar, for a Character placed 
over a Syllable, to mark the Accent, i. e. to ftiew it is to be 
pronounced in a higher or a lower Tone, and regulate the 
Inflexions of the Voice in reading. See Character, Tone, 
Voice, l3c. 

We ufually reckon three grammatical Accents in ordinary 
ufe, all borrow'd from the Greeks, viz. the Acute Accent, 
which fliews when the Tone of the Voice is to be raifed ; 
and is expreffed thus ('). See Acute. 

The Grave Accent, when the Note or Tone of the Voice 
is to be depreffed 5 and is figur'd thus ( ' ). See Grave. 

The Circumflex Accent is compofed of both the Acute 
and the Grave ; it points out a kind of Undulation of the 
Voice, and is expreffed thus ( A ). See Circumflex. 

The Word Accent is alfo applied, fomewhat abufively, to 
the Characters which mark the Quantities of Syllables ; or 
the Time the Voice is to dwell on them. See Time. 

The fpurious Accents anfwer to the Characters of Time 
in Mufick ; as Crotchets, Quavers, &c. — The genuine Ac- 
cents anfwer to the mufical Notes, Sol, fa, &c. See Note, 
&c. 

Such are, the long Accent, which fliews that^ the Voica 
is to flop on the Vowel, and is expreffed thus ( "). 

The 



ACC 



The Jhort Accent /hews that the Time of Pronunciation 
ought to be fhort, and is marked thus (- u ). 

Some even rank the Hyphen, Diaftole, and Apoftrophe, 
among Accents. See Hyphen, Diastole, and Apostro- 
phe. 

The Hebrews have a Grammatical, a Rhetorical, and a 
Mufical Accent ; tho the firft and laft feem, in effect, to be 
the fame ; both being comprized under the general Name 
of Tonic Accents, becaufe they give the proper Tone to Syl- 
lables : as the Rhetorical Accents are faid to be Euphonic; 
inafmuch as they tend to make the Pronunciation more 
fwect and agreeable. 

There are four Euphonic Accents, and twenty five Tonic, 
of which fome are placed above, and others below the Syl- 
lables ; the Hebrew Accents ferving not only to regulate the 
Rifings and Fallings of the Voice, but alfo to diftinguifh the 
Sections, Periods, and Members of Periods in a Difcourfe ; 
and to anfwer the fame Purpofcs with the Points in other 
Languages. See Point. 

Their Accents are divided into Emperors, Kings, Dukes, 
&c. each bearing a Title anfwerable to the Importance of 
the Diftinclion it makes. — TheirEmperor rules over a whole 
Phrafe, and terminates the Senfe compleatly ; anfwering to 
our Point.— Their King anfwers to our Colon ; and their 
Duke to our Comma. — The King, however, occafionally be- 
comes a Duke, and the Duke a King, as the Phrafes are 

more or lefs fhort. It mud be noted, by the way, that 

the Management and Combination of thefe Accents differs 
in Hebrew Poetry from what it is in Profe. 

The Ufe of thefe Tonic or Grammatical Accents has 
been much controverted; fome holding that they diftinguifh 
the Senfe, while others maintain that they are only intend- 
ed to regulate the Mufick or Singing ; alledging, that the 
Jews fing rather than read the Scriptures in their Syna- 
gogues. 

The Truth feems here to be between the two Opinions ; 
for tho we are inclined to think, that the primary Intention 
of thefe Accents was to direct the Singing ; yet the Singing 
feems to have been regulated according to the Senfe ; fo 
that the Accents feem not only to guide the Singing, but alfo 
to point out the Diftinctions. — Tho it muft be conk-fs'd, that 
many of thefe Diftinctions arc too fubtil and inconfiderable ; 
nor can the modern Writers, or the Editors of old ones, 
agree in the Matter ; fome of them making twice as many 
of thefe Diftinctions as others. 

The Hebrew Accents, in effect, have fomething common 
with thofe of the Greeks and Latins ; and fomething pecu- 
liar to the Hebrew.— What they have in common, is, that 
they mark the Tones ; fhewing how rhe Voice is to 
be rais'd and funk on certain Syllables. What they have 
peculiar, is, that they do the Office of the Points in other 
Languages. Sec Pointing. 

Be this as it will, 'tis certain the antient Hebrews were 
rot acquainted with thefe Accents ; fo that, at beft, they 
are not Jure divine. — The Opinion which prevails among 
the Learned, is, that they were invented about the Vlth 
Century, by the Jcwijh Doctors of the School of Tiberias, 
called the MaJJbretes. See Massoretes. 

The learned Hetmin, affirms 'em to be of Arabic Inven- 
tion ; and to have been adopted and transfer'd thence into 
the Hebrew by the MaJJoraes : He adds, that they were 
firft brought to their degree of Perfection, by Rabbi Jtlda 
Sen David Chi l/g, a Native of Fez, in the Xlth Century. 
— 'Tis indeed poffible, the Jews might borrow their Points 
from the Arabs ; but how they fhould have their Accents 
from 'em is hard to conceive, the Arabic Language having 
no fuch thing as Accents, either in Profe or Verie. 

The fame Hcnnin makes the Arab Alchahil Ebn Ahmed, 
who lived about the Time of Mahomet, the great Improver 
of the Arabic Accents. — The chief ground of the Opinion, 
is, that this Writer is faid to have been the firft who reduced 
Poetry into an Art ; marking the Meafures and Quantities of 
the Vcrfes, by the Latins call'd Tedes, and by us, Feet. — 
Add, that the Share Hcnnin gives Rabbi Jttda of Fez, in 
compleating the Hebrew Accents, is chiefly founded on the 
common Opinion, that this Rabbin was the firft Gram- 
marian among the Jews. But the Opinion is erroneous ; 
there having been a Hebrew Grammar compos'd by R. Saa- 
dias Gaon, many Years before R. Juda. In M. Simon's 
Critical Hiftory of the Old Teftament, we have a Catalogue 
of Hebrew Grammars ; at the Head of which is this of 
R. Saadias : M. Simon, on this Occafion, obferves, " That 
" after the Jews of Tiberias had added Points and Accents 
" to the Text of the Old Teftament, the Doftors of the 
tl other Schools began to do the like in their Copies, which 
" were afterwards imitated by the reft." 

As to the Greek Accents, now fcen borh in the manufcript 
and printed Books, there has been no lefs Difpute about 
their Antiquity and Ufe, than about thofe of the Hebrews. 
— Ifiac Vojjitis, in an exprefs Treatife de Accentibus Grte- 
camas, endeavours to prove them of modern Invention ; 



(17) 



ACC 



aucrting, that antiemly they had nothing of this Kino* 
but a few Notes in their Poetry, which were invented by 
Ariftophanes the Grammarian, 'about the Time of 'Ptole- 
my Tbllopiater ; and that thefe were of mufical, rather 
than grammatical Ufe, ferving as Aids in the ringing of 
their Poems ; and very different from thofe introduced af- 
terwards. 

He adds, that Arijlarcbus, a Difdple of Ariftopbtinesj 
improved on his Matter's Art ; but that all they both did 

only tended to facilitate Youth in the making of Vcrfes. • 

The fame Vcjjius (hews from feveral antient Grammarians/ 
that the manner of writing the Greek Accents in thofe Days, 
was quite different from thofe ufed in our Books. 

Hen. Chrift. Hennin, in a Differtation publifhed to fhew 
that the Greek Tongue ought not to be pronounced according 
to the Accents, efpoules the Opinion o(VoJfius,and even carries' 
the Matter ffill further.— He thinks that Accents were the 
Invention of the Arabians, about nine hundred Years ago ; 
and that they were only ufed in Poetry ; that they were' in- 
tended to afcertain the Pronunciation of the Greek, and to 
keep out that Barbarifm which was then breaking in upon 
them ; that the antient Accents of Ariftophanes were per- 
fbaiy agreeable ro the genuine Greek Pronunciation, but 
that the modern ones of the Arabs deftroy it. 

Wetftein, Greek Profeffor at Safil, in a learned Differta- 
tion, endeavours to prove the Greek Accents of an older 
Sanding. — He owns that they were not always form'd in the 
fame manner by the Antients ; but thinks that Difference 
owing to the different Pronunciation which obtain'd in the 
feveral Farts of Greece. 

He brings feveral Reafons a -priori for the Ufe of Accents, 
even in the earlicft Days ; as that they then wrote all in 
capital Letters, equidiflant from each other, without any 
Diltinction cither o( Words or Phrafes ; which without Ac- 
cents could fcarce be intelligible : and that Accents were ne- 
ceffary to diftinguifh ambiguous Words, and to point out 
their proper meaning ; which he confirms from a Difpute 
on a Paffage in Homer, mention'd by Ariftotle in his 'Poe- 
ticks, Chap. V. Accordingly, he obferves, that the Syri- 
ans, who have tonic, but no diftinctive Accents, have yet 
invented certain Points, placed either below or above the 
Words, to fhew their Mood, Tenfe, Petfon, or Senfe. See 
further in his Diffcrtatio Eiiflolica de Accestuma Grcecorum 
Antiquitate l£ Ufit. Bafii, i6%6. 

Accent, in Mufick, is a Modulation of the Voice, to 
exprefs a Paffion. See Passion. 

Every Bar or Meafure is divided into accented and unac- 
cented Parts. See Measure. 

The Accented Parts are the Principal ; being thofe in- 
tended chiefly to move and affect : 'Tis on thefe the Spirit 
of the Mufick depends. See Bar, and Musick. 

The Beginning and Middle ; or the beginning of the firft 
half of the Bafs, and the beginning of the latter half thereof, 
in common Time ; and the beginning, or firft of the three 
Notes in triple Time ; arc always the accented Parts of the 
Meafure. See Time. 

In Common Time, the firft and third Crotchet of the 
Bar are on rhe accented Part of the Meafure.— In Triple 
Time, where the Notes always go by three and three, rhat 
which is in the middle of every three is always unaccented ; 
the firft and laft accented. But the Accent in the firft is fo 
much ftronger, that in many Cafes the laft is accounted as 
if it had no Accent. See Composition. 

The Harmony is always to be full, and void of Difcords 

in the accented Parts of the Meafure. See Harmony. . 

In the unaccented Parts this is not fo neceffary ; Difcords 
here pafling without any great Offence to the Ear. SeeDiS- 
coro, Counterpoint, &c. 
ACCEPT. See Acceptance, and Acceptation. 
ACCEPTANCE, Acceptio, Acceptatio, in Matters 
of Law, in agreeing or confenting to fome Act already 
done j which, without fuch Content, might have been un- 
done, cr render 'd invalid. 

The Acceptance of a Donation, is neceffary to its Validity 5 
is a Solemnity eflential thereto. — Acceptance, fay the Civi- 
lians, is the Concurrence of the Will or Choice of the Do- 
nee, which renders the Act compleat ; and without which 
the Donor may revoke his Gift at pleafure. See Dona- 
tion, £S?c. 

In Beneficiary Matters, the Canonifts hold, that the Ac- 
ceptance fhould be fignify'd at the fame time with the Re- 
fignation ; & non ex intervallo. See Resignation. 

In Common Law, Acceptance is particularly ufed for a 
tacit kind of Agreement to what has been done by another, 
— If Baron and Feme, feiz'd of Land in Righr of the Feme, 
make a joint Leafe, or Feoffment by Deed 5 refervinp 
Rent : The Baron dying, and the Feme receiving the 
Rent ; fuch Receipt is deemed an Acceptance, and fhall 
make the Leafe good : So that fhe fhall be barr'd from 
bringing the Writ Cut ill Vita. See Cut in Vita. 



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(■i.*) 



A C C 



In the Romifb Theology, the manner of receiving or ad- 
mitting the Pope's Conftitutions ; or the AS whereby they 
are receiv'd, is alfo call'd Acceptance. See Constitution, 
Bull, &c. , . „ 

There are two Kinds of Acceptances ; the one iolemn, 
the other tacit. , r 

The Solemn Acceptance is a formal Aft, whereby lome 
Error or Scandal which the Pope condemns, is expreily con- 
demn'd by the Acceptor.— Infinite Difputes and Dijfcrmops 
have been rais'd in the Catholick World cfpecially in 
France, on occafion of the Acceptance of the Confiitution 
Umgenitus : Many of the French Prelates full refiife to 
accept it. , , , r 

When a Confiitution has been folcmnly accepted by tho c 
it more immediately relates to; it is fiippoTed to be tacitly 
accepted by all the other Prelates in the Chriftian World, 
who have cognizance thereof: and this Acquiefccnce is what 
they call Tacit Acceptance. 

In thisSenfe, France, Poland, &c. tacitly accepted I the 
Confiitution againfl the Doflrine of Molinos, and the ®uie- 
tifts.—AnA Germany, "Poland, &c. tacitly accepted the Con- 
Aitution againfl Janfenius. See Molinist, Jansenist, &c. 

Acceptance, in Commerce, is particularly underftood 
in refpect of Bills of Exchange.— To accept a mi of Ex- 
change, is to fign, or fubfetibe it ; and thereby become prin- 
cipal Debtor of the Sum contain'd therein ; with an Obliga- 
tion to pay, or difcharge it at a Time ptefix'd. See Bill 
of Exchange. 

The Acceptance is ufually perform'd by him on whom 
the Bill is drawn ; upon its being prefented to him by the 
Perfon in whofe behalf it was drawn, or his Order. — While 
the Acceptor is Mafler of his Signature, i. e. ere he have 
return'd rhe accepted Bill to the Bearer, he may erafe his 
Acceptance : But not after he has once deliver'd it. See Ex- 
change. 

Bills payable at Sight are not to be accepted ; as being 
to be acquitted at their firft prefenting ; or, in defeft of 
Payment, to be protefled.— In Bills drawn for a certain Num- 
ber of Days after fight, the Acceptance muft be dated ; in 
regard the Time is to be accounted therefrom. — The Form 
of this Acceptance, is, Accepted fitch a Day, and then the 
Signature. 

Bills drawn payable on a Day named, or at U lance, or 
double Ufance, need not be dated ; Ufance being reckon'd 
from the Date of the Bill it felf. See Usance— On thefe 
'tis fufficient to write, Accepted, and the Signature. 

If the Bearer of a Bill be contented with an Acceptance 
to be paid in twenty Days after Sight, where in the Bill it 
felf only eight Days are exprefs'd ; he runs the Rifque of the 
twelve additional Days : So that if the Acceptor fail, he 
has no Remedy againfl the Drawer. And if the Bearer 
content himfelf to receive a lefs Sum than is exprefs'd, in 
parr ; he is to fland the Chance of the reft. See Protest, 
Endorsement, t£c. 

Acceptation, or Acception, in Grammar, the Sig- 
nification of a Word ; or the Senfe wherein it is taken and 
receiv'd. See Word, tie. 

Such a Word has feveral Acceptations.— In its firft and 
moft natural Acceptation, it denotes, &c. 

ACCEPTILATION, in the Civil Law, an Acquittance 
given without receiving any Money : or a Declaration of 
the Creditor, in favour of the Debtor, fignifying, that he is 
fatisfy'd for his Debt, or that he forgives it him, and will 
make no further Demands. 

ACCEPTION, or Acceptation. See Acceptation. 

ACCEPTOR, of a Sill of Exchange, the Perfon who 
accepts the Bill. See Acceptance. 

The Acceptor becomes perfonal Debtor by the Accep- 
tance ; and is obliged to pay it, tho the Drawer fail before 
it become due. See Exchange. 

ACCESS, literally fignifies, Eafinefs of Approach, or En- 
trance. See Accessible. 

Such a Perfon has Accefs to the Prince : A Man of eafy 
Accefi : The Accefs on that fide was very difficult, by rea- 
fon of Rocks, i$c. 

The Word is of Latin Original, Accejfus, or Accefjio ; 
form'd of Accede, I come to. 

Access, in Medicine, a Fit, or Return of fome periodi- 
cal Difeafe. See Disease, and Periodical. 

Thus, we fay, an Accefs of the Gout, an Ague, or an In- 
termitting Fever, i£c. See Gout, Ague, Intermitting 

Authors frequently confound Accefs with "Paroxyfm ; but 
thev are different things. See Paroxysm. 

ACCESSIBLE, fomething that may be approached ; or, 
that .lecefs may be had to. See Access and Approach 

Such a Place, a Fortrefs, is Accefftble from the Sea-ward, 
i. e. the Paffage to it is praaicable. See Fortification, 
and Fortified 'Place. , . 

Accessible Height, or <Diftame, in Geometry, &c is 
either that which may be mechanically meafur d by the Ap- 



plication of a Meafure to it ; ot it is a Height whofe Bafe 
and Foot may be approach'd to ; and a Di fiance meafured 
thence on the Ground. See Height, Distance, S$c. 

With the Quadrant, (Sc. we can take Altitudes both Ac- 
ceffille and Inacceflible. See Altitude, Quadrant, ££?<;. 

Surveying, includes the Meafuring, Plotting, &c. both of 
Acceffiblc and Inacceflible Diftances. See Surveying. 

ACCESSION, is particularly ufed for the Act whereby a 
thing accedes, i. c. joins or unites it felf to fomething exis- 
ting before. See Accessory. 

Thus, we fay, the Accefjion of a Governour to a Go- 
vernment, igc. — The firft of Augtifl is obferv'd in Memory 
of the King's Afceffion to the Crown of Great Britain. — 
This Senfe of the Word coincides with Inauguration. 

The Term is alfo ufed for the AS of engaging, and be- 
coming a Party in a Treaty before concluded between other 
Powers ; on the fame Footing and Conditions as if originally 
comprehended in the Treaty it felf. — The Acceffion of the 
States General to the Treaty of Hanover ; of the Czarina 
to the Treaty of Vienna, &c. See Treaty. 

ACCESSORY, or Accessary, fomething that accedes, 
or is added to another more considerable thing, or arifes 
as a natural Confequence therefrom. See Accession. 

In this Senfe, the Word ftands oppofed to Principal. See 
Principal. 

Accessory, or Accessary, in Common Law, is chief- 
ly ufed for a Perfon guilty of a felonious Offence ; not prin- 
cipally, but by Participation ; as, by Advice, Command, or 
Concealment. See Felony. 

There are two Kinds of Acceffories ; before the FaS, 
and after it. — The firft is he who commands or procures 
another to commit Felony, and is not prefent himfelf j for 
if he be prefent, he is a Principal. See Principal. 

The fecond, is he who receives, aflifts, or comforts any 
Man that has done Murder or Felony, whereof he has Know- 
ledge. 

A Man may alfo be acceffory to an Acceffory, by aiding, 
receiving, £5jc. an Acceffory to Felony. 

An Acceffory in Felony fhall have Judgment of Life and 
Member as well as the Principal, who did the Pelony ; but 
not till the Principal be firft attainted and convicl, or out- 

law'd thereon. Where the Principal is pardoned without 

Attainder, the Acceffory cannot be arraigned ; it being a 
Maxim in Law, Ubi non eft principalis, non poteft effe Ac- 
cejforius. But if the Principal be pardoned, or have his 
Clergy after Attainder, the Acceffory fhall be arraign'd. 

In the lowefl and highett Offences there are no Acceffories ; 
but all are Principals : as in Slots, Routs, Forcible Entries, 
and other Trefpaffes, which are the lowefl Offences. — So 
alfo in the higheft Offence, which is High Treafon, there 
are no Acceffories. See Treason. 

Acceffories in Petty Treafon, Murder, and Felony, are 
not to have their Clergy.— There can be no Acceffory before 
the Fact in Manilaughter ; becaufe that is hidden and un- 
prepenfed. See Manslaughter. 

Acceffory by Statute, is fuch a one as abets, advifes, aids, 
or receives one that commits an Offence made Felony by 
Statute. See Statute. 

Accessory Nerves, or Accessorius Willifii, or 'Par 
accefforium, in Anatomy, a Pair of Nerves, which arifing 
from the Medulla in the Vertebra of the Neck, afcends 
and enters the Skull, and -paries out of it again, with the 
'par vagum, wrap'd up in the fame common Integument 
therewith ; 'and after quitting the fame, is diftributed into 
the Mufcles of the Neck, and Shoulders. See Nerve, 
Par Vagum, &c. ,.•.„, r 

In its Afcent towards the Head, it receives Branches from 
each of the firft five Pair of Cervical Nerves, near their rife 
from the Medulla ; and fends forth Twigs to the Mufcles of 
the Larynx, Gula, (Sic.— -Uniting with a Branch of the In- 
tercoftal, it forms the Plexus Ganglioformis. See Pl-exus. 

ACCIDENCE, Accidentia, a Name ufed for a little 
Book, containing the firft Elements or Rudiments of the 
Latin Tongue. See Grammar. 

ACCIDENT, Accidens, in Philofophy, fomething ad- 
ditional, or fuperadded, to Subftance ; or not effentially be- 
longing' thereto, but capable, indifferently, either of being 
or not being in it, without the Deftruclion thereof See Sub- 
stance. 

Some will have the Word compounded of ad aliud ca- 
dens, q. d. falling or belonging to another ; others fuppofe 
it form'd ab accidendo, happening carnally. 

The Schoolmen diftinguiih three Kinds of Accidents ; 
Verbal, 'Predicable, and 'Predicamental. 

Verbal Accident, Accidens Verbale, flands oppofed to 
Ejfence ; and in this Senfe, the Adjuncts to a thing, tho Sub- 
flances themfelves, are denominated Accidents thereof. See 
Adjunct. 

Thus, the Clothes a Man has on, tho real Subftances, 
yet, as they are not effential, but adventitious, or acceffory 
to £is Exiftence, are Accidents. See Essence. 

'Pre- 



A C C 



'Predkable Accident, Accident Tr<£dicabile, isufedin 
oppofuion to 'Proper. — Such is any common Quality ; as, 
Whitenefs, Heat, Learning, or the like. See Quality. 

Thus, a Man may be fick or well ; and a Wall white 
or black ; yet the one be {till a Man, and the other a Wall. 

Thefe are call'd in the Schools Predicable Accidents ; 
becaufe ufually laid down and explain'd in the Doctrine of 
Predicables. See Predicable. 

^Predicable Accidents may either be taken in the Ab- 
ftract, as Whitenefs, Learning ; or in the Concrete, White, 
Learned. See Abstract, and Concrete. 

If taken in the Abftract, as is done by 'Porphyry ; the 
Accident is defined as above, that which may either be pre- 
fent or abfent, without the Deftruction of its Subject. 

If it be taken in the Concrete : Accident is ufually defln'd 
by the Schoolmen, to be fomething capable of being pre- 
dicated contingently, of many, in refpett of Quality. 

As Learnings which may probably be predicated of You, 
He, i$c. 

Predicamental Accident, Accidens Predicament ale 3 
which alone properly anfwers to the Idea of an Accident ; 
is a Mode, or Modification of fome created Subftance, in- 
hering or depending thereon, fo as not to be capable of fub- 
fifting without the Tame. See Mode. 

In this Senfe, Accident is oppofed to Subftance. — Whence, 
as Subftance is defined a thing that fubfifts of it felf, and 
the Subftratum of Accidents ; lb an Accident is faid to be 
that cujftS effe eft inejje : And therefore Ariftotle, who ufual- 
ly calls Subftances fimply aew, Entities % Beings ; commonly 
calls Accidents, far©- op-nt, Entities of Entity 5 as requi- 
ring fome Subftance wherein to refide, as their Subject of In- 
hefion. 

An Accident, then, has an immediate and effential De- 
pendence on its Subftance ; both as to its Production, its 
Continuation, and its Effects : It arifes or is deduced from 
its Subject, is preferved or fubfifted by it ; and can only be 
affected by what alters or affects the Subject, 

The Schoolmen, however, will not have Accidents to be 
mere Modes of Matter, but Entities really diftinct from it 5 

and, in fome Cafes, feparable from all Matter.- But the 

Notion of real Accidents and Qualities is now exploded. See 
Qualitt. 

Ariftotle and the Peripateticks make nine Kinds or Claf- 
fes of Predicamental Accidents ; others contract em into a 
lefs Number. See Predicament, and Category. 

Abfolnte Accident, is a Term ufed in the Romijb Theo- 
logy, for an Accident which fubfifts, or may pofiibly fubfift, 
at leaft miracuioufly, and by fome fupernatural Power, with- 
out a Subject. 

Such, they contend, are the Accidents of the Bread and 
"Wine in the Eucharift ; e. g. the Colour, Flavour, Figure, 
ESfc. thereof, which remain after the Subftances they be- 
long'd to are changed into other Subftances of Flem, £■><;. 
See Eucharist, Species, Transubstantiation, &c. 

This Abfurdity has been very ftifly maintained by many 
of their Cafuifts ; and even decreed by fome of their Coun- 
cils. — The Eucharift, fay they, being a Sacrament, i, e. a 
Vifible Sign of an Invifible Grace ; 'tis neceflary there be 
fomething fenfible therein : Now, this cannot be the Sub- 
flance, that being deftroy'd or tranfubftantiated ; and there- 
fore mull be Accidents, — Add, that in every Conversion 
there muft be fomething of the former Nature remaining 
after the Change 5 otherwife it would be no more than a 
fimple Subiiitution of one thing for another : As, then, no- 
thing of the Subflance remains, it muft be Accidents. ■ 

Hence, the Council of Conftans condemns the following 
Proportion, which is the fecond of WicHijf, as Heretical : 
The Accidents of Bread do not remain without a SubjeGt 
in the Sacra?nent. SefT. VIII. 

Some of the Fathers feem to give Countenance to the 
fame Opinion. — S. Bafil, in his Vlth Homily on the Crea- 
tion, obferves that Light, or rather Brightnefs, the Splendor 
of Light, tv p*T©- h a*,u-w£?ths, is a thing diftinct from 
its Subject, as Whitenefs is from a white Body 5 and that it 
exifted in the Beginning, without this Subject y having been 
created four Days before. 

The Cartefians, to a Man, combat the Notion of A b fo- 
late Accidents, it being their Doctrine, that the Effence of 
Matter confifts in Extenfion • and that Accidents are only 
Modifications thereof, in no wife diftinct from it : An Acci- 
dent without a Subject mutt be a Contradict:on.' — And hence, 
Cartefianifm is branded as contrary to the Faith. See Car- 

TESIANLSM. 

Various Expedients have been invented by the Carte/Fans, 
to account for Tranfubftantiation, &c. without the Hy- 
pothec's of Abfolute Accidents.— Some hold, that the ufual 
Impreffwns are made on the Senfe by the immediate Agen- 
cy of God ; and without any thing remaining of the former 
Nature. Others afcribe the whole to heterogeneous Matters 
contained in the Pores of the Bread, &c. which remaining 
unalterd by the Tranfubftantiation, produce the fame Sen- 
fations as the Bread produced. 



OsO 



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Accident fs a fo popularly ufed for a Contingent Effeft • 
or fomething produced cafually, and without any Foreknow- 
ledge or Delt.nation thereof in the Agent that produced it 
See Chance, Fortune, l£c. ' 

Per ACCIDENS, is frequently ufed among Philofophers 
to denote what does not follow from the Nature of a 
Thing, but from fome accidental Quality thereof: In which 
Senfe, it Hands oppofed to fer fe, which denotes the Na- 
ture and Effence of a Thing. See Per fe. 

Thus, Fire is faid to burn fer fe, or confider'd as Fire 
and not fer accidens : But a piece of Iron, tho red hot, on-' 
ly burns per accidens, by a Quality accidental to it, and 
not confider'd as Iron. 

Accident, in Heraldry, is an additional Note, or Mark 
in a Coat-Armour, not ncceffarily belonging thereto, but ca- 
pable either of being retain'd or omitted, without altering 
the Effence of the Armour.— Such are Abatements, Diffe- 
rences, and Tincture. See Abatement, Tincture, and 
Difference. 

ACCIDENTAL, fomething of the Nature of an Acci- 
dent i or, that is not effential to its Subjeft, but indifferent 
thereto. See Accident, and Essential. 

Thus, Whitenefs is Accidental to Marble ; and Heat, to 
Iron. 

Accidental 'Point, in Perfpeflive, is a Point in the- 
horizontal Line, where Lines parallel to one another, tho 
not perpendicular to the Piflure or Reprefentation, meet. 
See Point, Perspective, &c. 

Accidental Dignities, and Debilities, in Aftrology, are 
certain cafual Difpofitions and Affeflions of the Planets, 
whereby they are fuppofed to be either flrengthen'd or 
weaken'd, by their being in fuch a Houfe of tho Figure tSct 

ACCLAMATION, a confufed Noife, or Shout of Joy, 
by which the Publick exprefs their Applaufe, Efteem, or 
Approbation of any thing. 

Thefe were formerly ufed in Churches, as well as Thea- 
tres ; and the Bifhops and other Ecclefiaftical Officers, were 
elefled by the Acclamations of the People. — But their prin- 
cipal Ufe has always been at the folemn Entries of Princes 
and Heroes ; where they are ufually attended with good 
Wimes, Prayers, "Vows, fsic. See Vow. 

Antiquity has handed down to us feveral Forms of Ac- 
clamations ; as, Dii te nobis fervent, veftra fatus, nofira 
falus : ' The Gods preferve you for us ; your Safety, our 
' Safety.' In te omnia, fer te oiitnia babemus, Antomne. 

In you, Antoninus, and by you, we have every thing " 

Lampridius relates, that at the Entry of Sevens the 

People cried out, Salve Roma, quia falvus Alexander. ''Oh 

' Rome, be fafe ; fince Alexander is fafe.' M. Sriffin 

in his Treatife of Formula's, enumerates various fores of 
Acclamations, ufed by the Senate, the Army, ££?c. 

The Hebrews ufed to cry Hofanna. — The Greeks Aza- 
the Tuche, that is, Good Fortune. See Hosanna. 

ACCLIVIS, in Anatomy, a Mulcle, otherwife called 
Obhquus Afcendens. See Obliojius Afcendens. 

ACCLIVITY, theStecpnefs, or Slope of a Line or Plane 
inclined to the Horizon ; reckon'd upwards. See Inclined 
Plane. 

The Afcent of a Hill is an Acclivity ; the Defcent of the 
fame a Declivity. See Declivity. 

Some Writers of Fortification, ufe Acclivity for Talus. 
See Talus. 

The Word is compounded of the Latin ad, and clivus, 
Hill, Eminence. 

ACCOLA, properly denotes an Husbandman who came 
from other Parts to till the Land, Eo quod adveniens terram 
colat ; by which he is diftinguifli'd from Incola. Jf. Accola 
non fropriam, profriam colit incola terram. Du Frefne. 

ACCOLADE, a Ceremony antiently ufed in the confer- 
ring of Knighthood. See Knight. 

The Accolade confided in the King's laying his Arms 
about the young Knight's Neck, and embracing him ; in to- 
ken of Friendihip.— After the Accolade, the Prince giving 
him a little Blow on the Shoulder with the Flat of a Sword 
he forthwith enter'd into the Profeffion of Arms. 

The Word is French, and literally denotes an Embrace, 
or Hugging ; being form'd of ad, and col, Neck 

ACCOMMODATION, in Philofophy, the Application of 
one thing, by Analogy, to another. See Analogy. 

Thus, to know a thing by Accommodation, is to know it 
by the Idea of a fimilar thing refer'd thereto. 

A Prophecy of Scripture is faid to be fulfill'd various ways; 
Properly, as when a thing foretold comes to pafs ; and Im- 
properly, or by way of Accommodation, when an Event hap- 
pens to any Place or People, like to what fell out fome time 

before to another. Thus, the Words of Ifaiah, fpoke to 

thofe of his own Time, are faid to be fulfill'd in thofe who 
liv'd in our Saviour's ; and are accommodated to them : Te 
Hypocrites, well did Ifaias prophefy of you, &c. which fame 
Words, St. 'Paul afterwards accommodates to the Jews of his 
Time. — This Method of explaining Scripture by Accommo- 
dation, ferves as a Key for folving fome of the Difficulties 

tela ting 



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(20) 



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Mating to the Prophecies. See Type, Prophecy, &c. 

On many Occafions, a Man finds it expedient to tranflate 
by Accommodation : Thus, the Word Librarius, Scrivener, 
may be translated, by Accommodation, a 'Printer ; as it ori- 
ginally fignifies thofe who made it their Bufinefs to furni/h 
Copies of Books, before the Invention of Printing. 

Accommodation, is alfo ufed for an amicable Agreement, 

or Compofition between the two contending Parties.- ■ 

The Procefs is grown fo intricate and perplex'd. that there 
is no Hopes of getting out of it but by an Accommodation. 

Accommodations are frequently effected by means of Com- 
promife and Arbitration. See Compromise, and Arbi- 
tration. - 

ACCOMPANYMENT, fomcthing attending, or added 
as a Circumftancc to, another ; either by way of Ornament, 
or for the fake of Symmetry, or the like. See Circum- 
stance. 

The Mufick, in Dramatic Performances, fhould only be 
a fimple Accompany ment. — The Organitts Sometimes apply 
the Word to feveral Pipes which they occafionally touch to 
accompany the Treble ; as the Drone, Flute, &c. 

In Heraldry, the Accompanyments are all fuch things as 
are applied about the Shield, by way of Ornament ; as the 
Belt, Mantling, Supporters, See. See Escutcheon,Shield, 

A Thing is alfo kid to be accompanied, acompagnc, when 
there are feveral Bearings or Figures about fome one prin- 
cipal one 5 as a Saltecr, Bend, Fefs, Chevron, or the like. 

ACCOMPLICE, Complice, one that has a hand in a 
Bufinefs ; or is privy in the fame Deiign or Crime with ano- 
ther. See Accessory, Privy, &c. 

ACCOMPLISHMENT, the entire Execution, Achieve- 
ment, or fulfilling of fomethlng propos'd, or undertaken. 

The Accomplijhment of the Prophecies of the Old Tef- 
tament, in the Perfon of our Saviour, is the great Mark of 
his being the Meffiah. See Prophecy. 

There are two ways of accompli JJjing a Prophecy ; di- 
rectly, and by Accommodation. See Accommodation. 

The Reverend Mr. Sykes has a particular Inquiry into 
the Meaning of thofe Words us'd by the Evangeliit, 'That 
it might he fulfiWd, or accompli/lied, ivhich was /poke by 
the Prophets : where he fhews, that the Word tahp^o, 
fulfiWd, does not neceiTarily refer to a Prediction of a fu- 
ture Event accompli]]? d ; but frequently a mere Accommo- 
dation of Words, borrow'd from fome other Author, and 
accommodated to the prefent Occafion. See Type. 

ACCORD, in Mufick, is more ufually calFd Concord. See 
Concord. 

The Word Accord is French, form'd, according to fome, 
from the Latin ad cor ; but others, with more probability, 
derive it from the French Corde, a String, or Cord 5 on ac- 
count of the agreeable Union between the Sounds of two 
Strings {truck at the fame time. See Chord. 

Whence alfo fome of the Confonances in Mufick come to 
be called Tetrachord, Hexachord, &c. which are a fourth, 
and a fixth. See Tetrachord, &c. 

M. Carre, in the Memoirs of the Royal Academy of Sci- 
ences, lays down a new general Propofition, of the Propor- 
tion which Cylinders are to have, in order to form the Ac- 
cords or Confonances of Mufick. And it is this — That the 
folid Cylinders, whofe Sounds yield thofe Accords, are in a 
triplicate and inverfe Ratio of that of the Numbers which 
exprefs the fame Accords. 

Suppofe, e. g. two Cylinders, the Diameters of whofe 
Bafes and Lengths, are as 3 to 2 ; 'Tis evident their Solidi- 
ties will be in the Ratio of 27 to 8, which is the triplicate 
Ratio of 3 to 2 ; We fay, that the Sounds of thofe two Cy- 
linders will produce a Fifth, which is exprefs'd by thofe Num- 
bers ; and that the biggelt and longelt will yield the grave 
Sound, and the fmalleft the acute one. — And the like of all 
others. See Sound, Gravity, and Acuteness, 

Accord, in Law, is an Agreement between two, at the 
leaft, to fatisfy an Offence that the one hath committed 
againfl: the other 5 whether it be a Trefpafs, or fuch like 
thing, for which he hath agreed to fatisfy him. — This, if 
executed, becomes a good Bar in Law to any Suit to be 
brought for the fame Matter. 

ACCOUNT, or Accompt, a Calculus, or Computation of 
the Number of certain things. See Calculus, and Number. 

There are various Ways of accounting $ as, by Enumera- 
tion, or fetting one by one j and by the Rules of Arirhme- 
tick, Addition, Subtraction, &c. See Arithmetic, Ad- 
dition, Subtraction,.^. 

We account Time by "Years, Months, &c. The Greeks 
accounted it by Olympiads 5 the Romans by Indictions, Lu- 
itres, %3c. See Time, Year, Olympiad, &c. We ac- 
count Diftanccs by Miles, Leagues, &c. See Mile, League, 
Distance, &C. fee alfo Computation. 

Money of Account, is an imaginary fort of Species, con- 
trived for the facilitating and expediting the taking and 
keeping of Accounts.— Such are 'Pounds, Angels., &c. See 
Money of Account 5 fee alfo Pound, £j>c. 



Account is alfo a Relative Term, ufed in refpecl HC i 
Company, or Society, when two or more Perfons have rc- 
ceiv'd, or disburs'd for each other ; or when this has been 
done by. their Order or Commiffion. See Company, Com- 
mission, Factorage, &c. 

Account, or Accounts, is alfo ufed collectively, for the 
feveral Books or Regilters which Merchants keep of their 
Affairs, and Negotiations. See Book-keeping, !&c. 

Hence, to make out an Account j to pafs one's Accounts, 

ckc- Bankrupts are oblig'd to furrender their Accounts. 

See Bankrupt, i£c. 

Account, or Accompt, in a Legal Scnfe, is a particular 
Detail, or Enumeration deliver'd 10 a Court, a judge, or 
other proper Officer or Perfon, of what a Man has receiv'd 
or expended on ihe Behalf of another, whofe Affairs he has 
had the Management of . 

In the Remembrancer's Office in the Exchequer, are en- 
ter'd the States of all the Accounts concerning the King's 
Revenue, ibr Cultoms, Excife, Subfidies, 13c See Re- 
membrancer ; fee alfo Revenue, Custom, Excise, 0$c. 

The great Accounts, as thofe of the Mint, Wardrobe, 
Army, Navy, Tenths, &Q* are called Impreji Accounts. See 
Imprest. 

All Accounts which pafs the Remembrancer's Office, are 
brought to the Office of the Clerk of the Pipe. See Pipe ; 
fee alfo Tally, Clerk, Auditor, £f?c. 

Account, in Law, is particularly ufed for a Writ 
which lies where an Agent, Steward, or other Perfon, who 
ought to render an Account, refules to give his Account. 
See Steward. 

Chamber of Accounts, in the French Polity, is a fove- 
reign Court, of great Antiquity, wherein the Accounts rela- 
ting to the King's Revenue are deliver'd in, and regiiter'd. 
See Chameer. 

This anfwers pretty nearly to the Court of Exchequer in 
England. See Exchequer. 

There are Presidents of Accounts, Mailers of Accounts, 
Correctors of Accounts, &c. 

ACCOUNTANT, or Accomptant, a Peribn, or Offi- 
cer appointed to keep or make up the Accounts of a Com- 
pany, Office, Court, or the like. See Account. 

There are Accountants in the Cuftomhoufe, the Excife, 
£5?c. See Excise, and Customhouse. 

The Account ant -General of the Court of Chancery. 
See Chancery. 

ACCOUNTING- or Accompting- orCouNTiNG-Z/'w//^; 
See CauNTiNG-Ifttf/Z', Green-C/o;/', &c. 

ACCOUTREMENT, an antient Term, ufed for an ffs- 
billement 5 or a part of the Apparatus, and Furniture of 
Soldier, Knight, or even a Gentleman. See Habillement. 

The Word is French 5 form'd from the antient German, 

Ktijler. In fome Cathedrals in France, e.g. at Sayeux, 

the Name Coutrc is given to the Sacriftan, or Officer who 
has the Care of furmfhing and fetting out the Altar, in the 
Church j call'd in German Kujler, nuKo^t. 

ACCRETION, the Growth or Increafe of an organical 
Body, by the Acceffion of new Parts. See Nutrition. 

Accretion is of two Kinds ; the one, confiiling in an ex- 
ternal Appofition of new Matter. 

This is what we otherwife call, Juxtapofltion 5 and Vis 
thus, Stones, Shells, &c. are fuppofed to grow. See Stone, 
and Shell. 

The other is by fome fluid Matter received into proper 
Veffels, and gradually brought to adhere or grow to the 
Sides thereof. 

This is what we call, Introfufception ; and 'tis thus Plants 
and Animals are nourifh'd. See Plant, and Animal ; 
fee alfo Nutrition. 

Accretion, Accrement, in the Civil Law, a vague or 
vacant Portion of Ground, join'd or united with Grounds 
held or poffefs'd by another. — >A Legacy given to two Per- 
fons jointly, tam re qnam verbis, falis wholly to him that 
furvives the Teitator, by Right of Accretion. 

Alluvion is another Species of Accretion. See Alluvion. 

ACCRUE, or Accrew, denotes fomething to fall by 
way of Acceffion, or Accretion, to another. See Accre- 
tion, and Accession. 

ACCUBITOR, an antient Officer of the Emperors of 
Constantinople $ whofe Bufinefs was to He near the Emperor. 

The Word is Latin, form'd of the Verb Accumbo, I lie 
by ; whence Accnbatio, that State or Pofture of the Body 
when we fir, and at the fame time lean backwards. 

ACCUMULATION, the Act of heaping, or amaffing 
feveral things together. — 'The Word is compounded of ad, 
and cumulus, heap. 

The Lawyers fpeak of an Accumulation of Titles ; as, 
when a Perfon claims Lands, a Benefice, or the like, in 
Virtue of feveral Titles, or Pretenfions of different Kinds 5 
e.g. by Death, by Refignation, £5?c. 

In a like Scnfe, we read of Accumulative Treaion, £>c 
See Treason. 

ACCUR- 



A C C 



( 2i ) 



ACE 



ACCURSED, fomething that lies under a Curfe, or 
under a Sentence of Excommunication. See Anathema, 
Excommunication, &c. 

ACCUSATION, Accusatio, in the Civil Law, the in- 
tenting a criminal Action againft any one, either in one's 
own Name, or that of the Publick. See Action, and 
Criminal. 

By the Roman Law, there was no publick Accufer, for 
publick Crimes 5 every private Perfon, whether interested 
in the Ctime or not, might accufe, and profecute the Ac- 
cused to Punilhment or Abfolution. 

But the Accufation of private Crimes was never received, 
excepting from the Mouths of thofe who were immediately 
intcrefled in them. — None but the Husband could accttfe 
his Wife of Adultery. See Adultery. 

Indeed, it was not properly an Accufation except in pub- 
lick Crimes j in private ones it was call'd limply Aclion, or 
interning an Action, intendere Actionem, or litem. See 
Action. 

Cato, the molt innocent Perfon of his Age, had been ac- 
cufed 42 times 5 and abfolved 42 times. See Absolution. 

When the Accufed accufes the Accufer, it is called Re- 
crimination 5 which is not admitted till the Accufed has 
been firtt purg'd. See Recrimination. 

By the cruel Laws of the Inquifition, the Accufed is for- 
ced to accufe himielf of the Crime objected to him. See 
Inquisition. 

It has formerly been the Cuflom in fome Patts of Europe, 
where the Accufation was very heavy, either to decide it 
by Combat, or at leaft to make the Accufed purge him- 
felf by Oath ; which, however, was not admitted, except- 
ing a certain Number of his Neighbours and Acquaintance 
fwote together with him. See Duel, Combat, Oath, 
Purgation, &c. 

ACCUSATIVE, in Gtammar, the fourth Cafe of Nouns 
that are declined. See Case, and Noun. 

Its Ule may be conceived from this, That all Verbs 
which exprefs Actions that pafs from the Agent, as, to 
beat, to break, &c. muft have Subjects to receive thofe 
Actions : for, if I beat, I muft beat fomething ; fo that a 
Verb evidently requires after it a Noun, or Name, to be the 
Subject or Object of the Action exprefs'd. See Verb. 

Hence, in all Languages which have Cafes, the Nouns 
have a Termination which they call Accufative 5 as, a'mo 
Ileum, I love God 5 Ctsfar vicit Pompeium, Ctefar over- 
came Pompey. 

In Englify, we have nothing to diftinguiiTi this Cafe ftom 
the Nominative, but as we ordinarily place Words in their 
natural Order, it is eafily difcover'd, the Nominative con- 
itantly preceding, and the Accufative following the Verb. — ■ 
Thus, when we fay, the Prince loves the Princeis, and the 
Princefs loves the Prince : The Prince is the Nominative 
in the firft, and the Accufative in the laft 5 and the Prin- 
cefs the Accufativc in the firft, and the Nominative in the 
fecond. See Nominative. 

ACEPHALUS, 01 Acephalous, fomething without a 
Head. See Head. 

The Word is compofed of the Ptivative <*, and xspaAij, Ca- 
put, Head. 

Pliny reprefents the Blemmyes as a Headlefs or Acepha- 
lous Nation. See Blemmyes.- Acephalous Worms are 

frequent. See Worm, and Vermes. 

Acephalus is more frequently applied, in a figurative 
Senfe, to thole deftitute of a Leader, or Chief. 

Thus, the Name Acephali is fometimes applied to fuch 
Priefts or Biffiops, as are exempted ftom the Difcipline and 
Jurisdiction of their ordinary Bifliop or Patriarch. See Ex- 
emption, Privilege, Peculiar. 

Anaflafius the Library-Keeper, calls this Exemption 
from the Jurisdiction of a Patriarch, Autocephalia. See Pa- 
triarch. 

We find a great Number of Canons of Councils, Capitu- 
lars of Princes, S?c. againft Acephalous Clerks, &c. 

In our antient Law-Books, the Term is alfo ufed for thofe 
poor People who had no proper Lord j as holding nothing in 
Fee, either of King, Bifhop, Baron, or other Feudal Lord. 
L. Hen. I. 

In Ecclefiaftical Hiftory, Acephali frequently occurs as the 
Denomination of divers Sects: Particularly, — i Q , Of thofe 
who in the Affair of the Council of Efbefus, tefufed to follow 
either St. Cyril, or John of Autioch. — 2 , Of certain Here- 
ticks of the Vth Century, who at firft follow'd 'Peter Mongus ; 
but afterwards abandon'd him, upon his fubferibing to the 
Council of Chalcedon ; they themfelves flicking to the Er- 
rors of Eutyches. — 3 , Of the Adhetents of Severn* of An- 
tioch; and of all in general who refufed to admit the Ceuncil 
of Chalcedon. 

Some will have the Word properly to denote Hefitator ; 
and fuppofe it applied on this Occafion, by reafon they flood 
neuter, or dubious, hefitating about coming into the Coun- 
cil : But the former Opinion is the mote ptobable ; Acepha- 
lous being never ufed in the latter Senfe. 



In fome Writers, the Acephalous Hereticks ara called 
Acepahtes, Accphalita. 

ACERB Acerbus, a compound Tafte, confining of 
four, with the Addition of a degree of Roughnefs. See 
Taste. a 

Such is the Tafte of all Fruits before they are ripe See 
Fruit, Maturity, &c. 

The Phyficians ufually make Acerb an intermediate Sa- 
vour between Acid, Aufterc, and Bitter. See Acid, $$c. 

All Mattets which come under this Denomination are 
Aftringent. See Astringent. 

ACERRA, in Antiquity, a kind of Altar, erected near' 
the Gate of a Perlon defunct, among the Romans ; whereon 
his Friends and Familiars daily offer 'd Incenfe, till the time 
of his Burial. See Altar, Funeral, SJe. 

ACETABULUM, in Antiquity, a little Vafe or Cup f 
ufed at Table ; to ferve up things proper for Sauce, or Sea- 
fcning : much after the manner of our Salts, and Vinegat- 
Cruets. See Vase, and Vessel. 

Hence, Agricola, in his Tteatife of Roman Meafures^ 
L. I. takes the Name to have been form'd from Acetunii 
Vinegar ; as luppofing it principally deflin'd to ferve Vine- 
gar on. 

Acetabulum is alfo ufed for a Roman Meafure, in ufe 
chiefly in Medicine, for liquid Matters. See Measure. 

The Acetabulum contain'd a Cyathus and a half, as is 
proved by Agricola, from two Verfes of Fannius ; who 
fpeaking of the Cyathus, fays, it weighs ten Drachms; and 
the Oxubaphus or Acetabulum, 15. 

Sis quinque hunc faciunt Drachma, Ji appendere tentes, 
Oxybaphus fiet fi quinque addautur ad Mas. 

Billet, in his Treatife of Weights and Meafures prefix'd to 
his Tranflation of 'Pliny, makes the Acetabulum of Oil 
weigh two Ounces and two Scruples ; rhe Acetabulum of 
"Wine, two Ounces, two Drachms, a Grain, and a third of 
a Gtain ; and the Acetabulum of Honey, three Ounces, 
three Drachms, a Scruple, and two Siliqua:. See Cyathus, 

COTYLE, ££C. 

Acetabulum, is alfo ufed in Anatomy, for a deep Cavi- 
ty, in certain Bones, appointed for rhe Reception of the 
latge Heads of other Bones, in order ro rheir Articulation. 
See Bone, and Articulation. 

Thus, the Cavity of the Ifchium, or Huckle-Bone, which 
receives the Head of the Thigh-Bone, is called Acetabu- 
lum, Cotyla, or Cotyloides. See Ischium, Femur, Coty- 

LE, £?f. 

The Acetabulvm is lined and tipp'd round with a Carti- 
lage, whofe circular Margin is called Supercilium.—ln its 
bottom lies a large mucilaginous Gland. See Mucilagi- 
nous, &c. 

Acetabulum is alfo ufed by Anatomiflsin the fame Senfe 
with Cotyledon. See Cotyledones. 

ACETARIA, a Salade. See Salade. 

The Word is form'd of Acetum, Vinegar ; in regard that 
Fluid is commonly ufed for the Seafoning thereof. 

ACETOUS, fomething relating to Acetum, or Vinegar. 
See Acetum, and Vinegar. 

Thus, we fay, an Acetous Tafte ; Acetous Qualities, S$c. 
Wine, and all vinous Liquors, are render 'd Acetous by exci- 
ting their Salts, and tempering or abating their Sulphurs. 
See Wine, and Vinous. 

The Chymifts mention divers Aceta, or Acetous Liquors; 
as, Acetum Alcalizatum ; made of diflill'd Vinegar, with 
the Addition of fome Alkaline, or Volatile Salt. See Al- 
kali. -Acetum Philofophorum, a four kind of Liquor ; 

made by diffolving a little Butter of Antimony in a gteac 
deal of Water. Boyle. 

Acetum, in Medicine, tic. the fame with Vinegar ; the 
Properties, Ufes, and Preparation whereof, fee under the 
Article Vinegar. 

The Word is pure Latin $ form'd of Aceo, I am fliarp. 
See Acid. 

There are feveral Medicines in the Shops, whereof this 
Liquor is the Balls ; as, Acetum Diflillatum, diftill'd Vine- 
gar ; chiefly ufed in other Preparations for Diflblution, and 
Precipitation. See Distillation, Dissolution, Preci- 
pitation, £5?i*. 

Spiritus Aceti, Spirit of Vinegar ; made by drenching 
Copper Filings or Spittle Duft with diftill'd Vinegar, then 
evaporating it till the Fumes of the Vinegar cannot be 
fmelt ; the Saturation and Evaporarion to be again repeated^ 
till the Metal be fatiated ; which being then diftill'd, the 

Spitit comes over. Its Qualities and' Ufes are much the 

fame with thofe of the former, only more powerful. 

Acetum Rofarum, Vinegar of Rofes ; made of Rofe-buds 
infufed in Vinegar 40 or 50 Days ; the Roles then prefs'd 
out, and the Vinegar preferv'd. — It is chiefly ufed by way 
of Embrocation on the Head and Temples, in the Head-ach. 

After the fame manner is made Acetum Sambucinum, 
Vinegar of Elders ; Acetum Anthofamm, Vinegar of Rofe- 
maries, S$c, 

G The 



A C I 



( « ) 



A C I 



The German Difpenfatories abound with medicated Vine- 
gars, chiefly aim'd againft peftilential Difeafes : but they are 
•not ufed among us.— The College retains Come of 'em, as the 
jcetum theriacale Norimbergenfe, but it is never prefcrib'd. 
ACHAT, in our "Liw-Ffeticb, fignifies a ContraS, or 
Bargain. 

Purveyors were by Aft of Parliament 3 S Ed. III. ordain- 
ed to be thenceforth called Achators. See Purveyors. 

ACHE, or Ach, a painful Ailment in any part of the Bo- 
dy. See Pain, and Disease. 

Aches are either Scorbutica, Rheumatick, owing to vio- 
lent Strains, or the like. 

Head-hcu. See HEAB-yftZ;, and Cefhalalgy 
ACHERNER, or Acn miner, in Aftronomy, a Conflel- 
lation of the firfl Magnitude in the Sign 'Pifces — Its Longi- 
tude, Latitude, gfc. See under the Article Pisces. 

ACHILLES, a Name which the Schools give to the 
principal Argument allcdg'd by each Soft of Philcfophers 
in their behalf. See Sect. _ 

In this Ssnfe, we fay, this is his Achilles ; that is, his 
Mailer-Proof : Alluding to the Strength and Importance of 
Achilles among the Greeks. 
Item's. Argument againft Motion, is peculiarly term d an 

Achilles. That Philolbpher made a Comparifon between 

the Swiftnefs of Achilles, and the Slowncfs of a Tortoife ; 
whence he argu'd, that a flow Moveable that precedes a 
fwift one by ever fo fmall Dittance, will never be outrun by 
it. See Motion. 

The antient Botanifls gave the Name Achillea, to feveral 
Plants • one of which is faid to be the fame with our Mil- 
lefolium ; and took its Name from Achilles; who, having 
been the Difciple of Chiron, firft brought it into ufe for the 
Cure of Wounds and Ulcers. 

'the Tendon of Achilles, Corda Acbillis, is a large Ten- 
don, form'd by the Union of the Tendons of the four Mufcles 
of the Foot, called Extenfires. See Tendon, and Foot. 

It is fo called, becaufe the fatal Wound whereby Achilles 
is faid to have been flain, was given there. 

ACHILLE1S, or Achilleid, a celebrated Poem of Sta- 
tins, wherein he propofed to deliver the whole Life and Ac- 
tions of that Hero. See Poem. 

It only takes in his Infancy, the Poet being prevented 
from proceeding, by Death. 

The Achilleid is of the Heroic or Epic Kind ; but ex- 
tremely faulty in the Plan, or Fable. See Fable, &c. 

'Tis a Point controverted among the Criticks, whether 
the whole Life of a Hero, e.g. of Achilles, be a proper fub- 
jea Matter of an Epic Poem. See Eric, and Heroic. 

ACHOR, Achores, in Medicine, the third Species or 
Degree of a tinea, or Scald Head. See Tinea. 

Achores are a fort of Spreading Ulcers, which break the 
Skin into a Number of little Holes, out of which oozes a 
vifcid Humour. — Achores only differ from Favi in this, that 
their Holes are fmaller. 

ACHRONICAL, in Aflronomy, is applied to'theRifing of 
a Star when the Sun fets ; or the Setting of a Star when the 
Sun rifes. See Rising, and Setting. 

The Achronical Rifing of Mars, who is then found to be 
nearer the Earth than the Sun, has been one great Occafion 
of exploding the antient 'Ptolemaic Syftcm, which places 
the Sun in the Centre of the World, and Mars beyond the 
Sun. See Earth, Mars, igc. 

The Achronical is one of the three Poetical Rifings and 
Settings of the Stars. See Poetical. 
The Word comes from the Greek a, and %e?V©-, Time. 
ACID, Acidum, any thing which affects the Tongue 
with a Senfe of Sharpnefs, and Seurnefs. See Taste. 
Acids are ufually divided into manifeft and dubious. 
The Manifeji Acids, are thofe above defined, which im- 
prel-s the Idea fenfibly. — Such are Vinegar, and its Spirit 5 
the Juices of Citrons, Oranges ; Spirit of Nitre, Spirit of 
Alumn, Spirit of Vitriol, Spirit of Sulphur for Campanam, 
Spirit of Sea Salt, &c. See Vinegar, Nitre, Vitriol, 
Alumn, Sulphur, &c. 

'Dubious Acids, arc thofe which do not retain enough of 
tit&Acid Nature to give fenfiblc Marks thereof on theTafte, 
but agree with the Manifeji Acids in fome other Properties, 
faificient to refer 'em to the fame Clafs. — Hence it appears 
that there are fome Characters of Acidity more general than 
that of the fharp Tafle ; tho 'tis that Tafle is chiefly regard- 
ed in the Denomination. 

The great and general Criterion, then, of Acids, is, that 
thev make a violent Effervefcence, when mix'd with ano- 
ther fort of Bodies, called Alkalies. See Effervescence. 

y/et is not this Property alone univerfally to be depended 
on. to determine a Body an Acid, without the joint Consi- 
deration of the Tafte, and the Changes of Colour produ- 
cible in other Bodies thereby. — To distinguish dubious 
Acids from Alcalies, mix 'em with a blue Tincture of Vio- 
lets : If they turn it red, they are of the Acid Tribe ; if 
green, Alkaline. See Alkaly. 

Acids are all of the Tribe of Salts ; and compofe a parti- 
cular Species thereof, called Acid Salts. See Salt. 



Add, that the Acid Salts are all found to be volatile ; by 
which they are diflinguifh'd from the red, which are either 
fix'd, or at leafl have a urinous, inff ead of an acid Tailc, 
See Volatile, Fix'd,. and Urinous. 

Some late Chymical rhiiofophers have even made it very 
probable, that 'tis the Acid is the faline Part or Principle in 
all Salts. — They consider it as a fubtile, penetrating Sub- 
ftance, diffufed thro' the feveral Parts of the Globe ; which, 
according to the differenr Matters it happens to be united 
withal, produces different Kinds of Bodies : If it meets a 
foffil Oil, it converts it into Sulphur ; if it be received into 
the Lapis Calcariits, it coagulates with it, and becomes 
Alumn ; with Iron it grows into green Vitriol ; with Cop- 
per, into blue Vitriol, &c. 

Of this Sentiment is Sir I. Ne'Xton. — ' In decompounding 
' Sulphur, fays that Author, we get an Acid Salt, of the 
' fame Nature with Oil of Sulphur per Campanam ; which 
( fame Acid abounding in the Bowels of the Earth, unites 
' fometimes with Earth, and thus makes Alumn 5 fometimes 
' with Earth and Metal, and makes Vitriol 5 and fometimes 
' with Earth and Bitumen, and thus compounds Sulphur.' 
Opticks. 

In effe&, all our native Salts, tho without any Mixture 
from Art, are yet found to be real Mixtures ; and their Com- 
pofition and Decomposition iseafily made. — * Asmanyasthey 
' are, they may be all reduced, according to M. Homlerg, 
' to three Kinds, to. Salt-petre, Sea-Salt, and Vitriol 5 
' each whereof has its feveral Species. Of the Combina- 
1 tion of thefe with different oily Matters, are all the other 
£ Salts produced. By the Analyfcs we have made of 'em, 
c they all appear to be compofed of an aqueous, an ear- 
c thy, a fulphurous, and an acid Part ; but the Acid we 
' hold the pure Salt : This makes our Chymical Principle 
' Salt, the common Balis of all Salts ; and which, antece- 
' dent to its Determination to any particular Species, appears 
c to be one Similar, uniform Matter, tho never found alone, 
t but always accompany'd with fome fulphureous Mixture or 
1 other ; which determines it to fome one of the three forts 
' of Foffil Salts abovemention'd.' Mem. de VAcad. R. del 
Sciences. An. 1708. See Principle. 

The Acid, accompany'd with its determining Sulphur, ne- 
ver becomes fenfible to us, except when lodg'd cither natu- 
rally in fome earthy Matter, or artificially in an aqueous 
one. — In the firfl Cafe, it appears under the Form of a cry- 
ftalliz'd Salt 5 as Salt-petre, Sea Salt, g?c. In the fecond, 
it appears in form of an Acid Spirit ; which, according to 
the Determination of the Sulphur accompanying it, is either 
Spirit of Nitre, or Spirit of Salt, or Spirit of Vitriol. 

What is here fpoke of the three fimple foffil Salts, may be 
equally applied to all the compound Salts of Vegetables 
and Animals, with this difference, that the latter have al- 
ways a larger Proportion of the earthy Matter than the fim- 
ple ones, when in form of a concrete Salt 5 and a larger 
Proportion of the aqueous Matter, when in form of an acid 
Spirit. — And hence we account for two important Phenome- 
na ; i°, That the acid Spirirs of Animal and Foffil Salts, 
are always weaker, and lefs penetrating, as well as lighter 
in Weighr, than thofe of the Foffil Salts : 2 , That after 
a vehement Diflillation, they leave a larger quantity of ear- 
thy Matter behind them than the Foffil do. 

The Salt naturally contain'd in Plants, may be confider'd 
as a Mixture of Earth, Oil, a little Water, and an acid 
Salt : This laft Ingredient being feparated from the Plant 
with a vehement Fire, fhoots into a new Salt, which fome- 
times retains an acid Tafle, as in the Tartar of Wine ; 
fometimes it affumes a Swectnefs, as in Sugar j fometimes 
is bitter, as in Quinquina ; and fometimes almoA infipid, as 
in Sage. This, M. Homberg calls the effential Salt of the 
Plant 5 which, by a gentle Diflillation, refolves into an infi- 
pid Water, an acid Liquor, and a ruddy fetid one 5 con- 
taining part of the acid Salt, and part of the fetid Oil of 
the Plant : of the Combination of which, is compofed a 
particular Kind of fetid Salt, fmelling like Urine, called 
the Volatile Salt or Volarile AJcaly Salr of the Plant : And 
the Caput Mortuum remaining, being redue'd into Afhes, is 
feparated by Lixiviation into one Part of fix'd Alcaly Salt, 
and another of infipid Alcaline Earth. — Add, that the ef- 
fential Salt always diffolves entirely in Water, even the ear- 
thy Part join'd with it. But if the fame Salt have been 
robb'd, by means of Fire, of a great part of its Acid; the ear- 
thy Part will not wholly diffolve, but a Sediment of infipid 
Eatth, indiffoluble in Water, will be found at bottom ; to 
which, if an acid Spirit be added, it then becomes entirely 
diffoluble in Water : Whence it may be fairly concluded, 
that the other Part of the Afhes, before diffolved in tho 
Water, and which after Evaporation appears in form of a 
fix'd lixivial Salt, was only diffolved by Virtue of the Acid 
it contain'd ; or as having retain'd enough of the Acid to ef- 
fect a Diffolution. 

Again, when the Earth of the Plant, fatiated with its 
Acid, becomes a cryftalliz'd Salt ; no more of the fame Acid 
can be iniroduc'd into it : whereas the lixivious Salt drawn 

irom 



A C I 



C>3) 



from the Allies, does not cryftallize, but ffill greedily i 
bibcs the Acid Spirits. 

Hence it may be probably concluded, that the LixivioU3, 
or fix'd Alcaly Salt, is no. other than the Earth of the 
Plant, which, notwithstanding the Violence of the Fire, 
has retain'd a little Portion of its acid Salt, fuflkient to 
diflblve it in Water ; ftill referving a fufficient Number of 
Zoculi or Pores, to lodge the firfl Acid that fhall offer it felf, 

in lieu of that driven out of it by the Fire. And as the 

Name Alcaly is only gi ven to a Salt, in refpecl of its im- 
bibing and retaining an Acid prcfented to it, in otder to the 
producing a cryftalliz'd Salt ; the Lixivious Salts of Plants 
may be fiid to be more or lefs Alcaline, as they abforb 
more or lefs of the Acid ; or, which amounts to the fame, 
as they contain more or fewer Vacuities to be fill'd with Acids. 
An Alcaly, after it has been fully fatiated with one fort 
of Acid, will yet Sometimes admit and retain part of ano- 
ther Acid : This is chiefly obferved where a Vegetable A- 
cid has been received firfl, and a Foflil one is offer'd after. 
And it terns owing to this, That the Vegetable Acid hav- 
ing undergone a greater degree of Fermentation in the Body 
of the Plant, is become rare and pervious, in refpect of the 
more folid and weighty Particles of the Mineral Acid; 
which therefore force a way in. 

The fame is always the Cafe, where an Acid appears an 
Alcaly with refpect to another Acid ; that is, where, of two 
Acid Spirits, one whereof has a Mixture of fome Alcaly ; 
the rarer of the two having poffefs'd the Pores of the Al- 

kaly, is comprefs'd by the other denfer Acid. Thus, a 

Pin-cufhion, tho ever fo full of Cotton, will admit a good 
dumber of Pins. 

Now, urinous Salts are Alkalies as well as the Lixivious 
Kind, i. e. they greedily imbibe Acids, retain 'em, and to- 
gether with 'em compofe Salts which cryflallize. — But their 
Volatility feems to make it plain, that they are not, like 
the former, a Compofition of a mere earthy Matter, with 
a little Acid ; in regard a mere Earth can never become Vo- 
latile by fuch Admixture. Yet is there a great deal of Rea- 
fon to imagine, that their Compofition is no other than a 
Part of the fame Matter, which would have produced the 
Lixivious Salt, intimately mix'd with a deal of the fetid 
Oil of the Plant ; and that the Oil is the fole Caufe of the 
Volatility of thefe Salts. 

M. Homlerg, in his, Effai dzi Sel frincife, makes three 
Claffes of Acid Salts, correfponding to the three Species of 
Sulphurs wherewith the primitive Acids may be combined. 

The firfl Oafs coniifls of fuch as contain an Animal, or 
a Vegetable Sulphur, which amount nearly to the fame. — 
To this Clafs belong all the diftill'd Acids of Plants, Fruits, 
Woods, t$c. which muff neceffarily retain part of the Oil 
of the Plant, which is their Sulphur. To this Clafs alfo be- 
longs Spirit of Nitre ; as being a Subftance procur'd from 
the Excrements of Animals, &c. 

The fecond Clafs is of thole which contain a bituminous 
Sulphur. — Such are Vitriol, common Sulphur, and Alumn ; 
which are all ufually procur'd from a Mineral Stone, where- 
in Bitumen is the prevailing Ingredient. 

The third is of fuch as contain a more fix'd Mineral Sul- 
phur, approaching the Nature of a metalline one. — Such 
are the Acids drawn from Sea Salts and Sal Gemma's ; the 
latter of which is chiefly found in Places near Mines of 
Metals, and the former probably arifes from Rocks, or Veins 
of Sal Gemma; running into the Sea, and there diffolved. 

From the peculiar Nature and Properties of the Sulphur 
thus accompanying the feveral Kinds of Acid Salts, their 
different Phenomena and Effects are to be accounted for. — 
See the Article Salt. 

! are doubtlefs chiefly derived from 
way of Food, and Nutrition ; and 
from thofe of Minerals. So that 
thcte Ihould feem to be but one Spring of Acidity : The 
Diverfities arife from what happens to 'em in pafling thro' 
the organiz'd Bodies of Plants and Animals. Hence it is, 
that Plants and Animals efpecially, yield a very volatile Al- 
kaly Salt ; whereas, the Salts of Minerals arc found altoge- 
ther acid, and much more fix'd and concrete ; tho 'tis the 
fame Matter in both Cafes, under different affumed Forms. 
Thus, the younger Lenicry argues, that as Animals feed 
on Plants, and reciprocally, in the Inftance of Salt-petre, 
'iSc. Plants feed on Animals ; inafmuch as their Vegetation 
is excited by Manure ; it happens, that what was real 
Salt-petre in Plants, becomes only a nitrous Sal Ammoniac 
in Animals, and vice verja. — The fame Author accounts for 
this double Metamorphofis, by fuppofing that the nitrous 
Principle remains the fame in both Cafes, and in both Cafes 
is attach'd to the fame Matrix, with this only difference, that 
the Matrix becomes more earthy in Plants, and by that 
means, fix'd ; and in Animals, lofes its earthy Parts, and 
aflumes other oily ones, which render it volatile. Mem. dc 
I Acad. An. 1717. 

As to the Marnier wherein Acids aft on Alcalies, the great 
Number of little Eiwhlcs produced during their Action, and 



A C I 



The Acids of Am ma 
Plants, in the ordinary 
thofe of Plants, again, 



the Heat anfing -thereupon M . Htmherg explains it 

tlvus,-Ihe Matter of Light, which he fuppofes to' be the 
chyrruca) .Principle, Sulphur, and to poffefs the whole Extent 
of the Univerfe ; is kept in a perpetual Motion by the con- 
tinual Impulfes which the Sun and Fix'd Stars »ive it • But 
this Motion, happening on fome Occafions to be flacken'd 
may be retnev'd again, and augmented by the near Approach 
of Flame, which that Author fuppofes the only Matter capa- 
ble of giving Morion lo Light.— This Motion of Light can- 
not proceed, without continually flriking againft the foiid 
Bodies, and even palling thro' all the potous ones, it meets 
in its way. See Sulphur, and Fire. 

Suppofe, now, Acids to be little, folid, pointed Bodies, 
fwimmmg at liberty in an aqueous Fluid, and kept in con- 
tinual Motion, by the repeated Impulfes of the Matter of 
Light ; and Alcalies, to be fpongious Bodies, whofe Pores 
have formerly been fill'd with the Points of Acids, and 
which flill retain the Dents or Impreffions thereof and are 
ready to receive the like Points when driven within 'em. 
'Tis eafy to conceive, that if fome of thofe porous Alcalies 
float in the fame Liquor wherein the folid Acids float ; thefe 
latter, being impell'd by the Matter of Light, will enter the 
Cavities of the former, which are framed as it were on pur- 
pofe for their Reception ; and that they will do it the more 
readily, if the Motion of the Matter of Light, wherewith 
they are impell'd, have been accelerated by external Heat. 

This Introduflion of Acids into the Body of Alcalies, is, 
in all appearance, effecfed with a great Velocity and a deal 
of Friction ; inafmuch as it produces fo confiderable a de- 
gree of Heat : And as the Pores of the Alcalies were before 
fill'd with an aerial Matter, which is now expell'd by the 
Points of the Acids ; that Air is put in Motion, and produces 
the Bubbles, which are fo much the more fenfible, as the 
Heat accompanying the Action is the greater. See Air, 
and Heat. 

Sir /. Newton accounts for the Effects of Acids in a diffe- 
rent manner, viz. from the great Principle of Attraction. 
See Attraction. 

' The Particles of Acids, he obferves, are of a fize 
' groffer than thofe of Water, and therefore lefs volatile ; 
' but much fmaller than thofe of Earth, and therefore much 
c lefs fix'd than they. — They are endu'd with a very great 
' attractive Force, wherein their Activity confifts ; it being 
' by this that they affea and flimulate the Organ of Tafle; 
' and by this alfo, that they get about the Particles of Bo- 
' dies, cither of a metalline or ftony Nature, and adhere 
' clofely to 'em on all fides ; fo as fcarce to be feparable 
from them by Diftillation or Sublimation : and when thus 
' gather'd about the Particles of Bodies, by the fame Power 
' they raife, disjoin, and fhake them one from another - 
' that is, diflblve 'em.' See Dissolution. 

' By their attractive Force, alfo, wherewith they rufh to- 
' wards the Particles of Bodies, they move fluid ones, and 
* excite Heat; ihaking afunder fome Particles, fo as to' turn 
' them into Air, and generate Bubbles : and hence all vio- 
' lent Fomentation ; there being in all Fermentation a la- 
' tent Acid, which coagulates in Precipitation.' See Fer- 
mentation. 

' Acids, alfo, by attrafling Water as much as they do the 
' Particles of other Bodies, occafion the diffolv'd Particles 
' readily to mingle with Water, or fwim or float in it • after 
' the manner of Salts : And as this Globe of Earth, 'by the 
' Force of Gravity, attracting Water more ftrongly' than it 
' does lighter Bodies, caufes thofe Bodies to afce'nd in Wa- 
' ter, and go upwards from the Earth ; fo, the Particles of 
' Salts, by attracting the Water, mutually avoid and recede 
' from one another as far as they can ; and are thus diffus'd 
' throughout the whole Water. 

' The Particles of Alcalies confifl of earthy and acid 
<■ Parts united together ; but thefe Acids have fo great an 
1 attraftive Force, that they can't be feparated therefrom bv 
' Fire ; and that they even precipitate the Particles of dif- 
' folv'd Metals, by attracting from them the acid Particles 
' which before had diffolv'd, and kept them in Solution.' See 
Precipitation. 

1 It thefe acid Particles be join'd with earthy ones, in a 
' fmall Qu an »'y j 'bey are fo clofely retain'd by the latter as 
' to be quite fupprefs'd and loft, as it were, in them • fo that 
' they neither flimulate the Organ of Senfe, nor attract Wa- 
' ter; but compofe Bodies which are not acid, i. e. fatty and 
' fweet Bodies ; as Mercurius Dulcis, Brimftone, Luna Cor- 
' nea, \Sc. — From the fame attractive Force in thefe acid. 
c Particles thus fupprefs'd, arifes that Property of fat Bodies 
' that they flick or adhere to almott all Bodies, and are ea- 
' fily inflammable. — Thus, the Acid that lies fupprefs'd in 
4 fulphureous Bodies,by more ftrongly attract ing the Particles 
' of other Bodies (earthy ones for inftance) than its own - 
' ptomotes a gentle Fermentation, produces and cheriifies 
' natural Heat, and carries it on fo far fomctimes, as to the 
' Putrefaction of the Compound; Purrcfacf ion arifina hence 
c that the acid Particles which have long kept up the Fer- 
' mentation, at length infinuate into the little Interftices that 

' lie 



A C I 



(H) 



A C O 



« lie between the Particles of the firft Competition 5 and 
« fo intimately uniting with thofe Particles, produce ««£ 
< Mixture or Compound, which cannot be return d into Its 
' original form.' See Putrefaction. 

• Water has no great diffolving Force, becaufe there s 
« but a fmall Quantity of Acid in it ; for whateve, -ft ongly 
' a.traas, and is ftrongly att^ed, maybe reputed an A- 
■ aid : But in fuch things as arc d.fTolved in Water, the M- 
« folution is (lowly perforni'd, and without any Effervefcence. 
See Water, and Menstruum. T „„„, lf . „. , n v 

« When thefe Adds are a ,PP h f d .° tIie , To , n f^'. p a «Z 
« excoriated Part of the Body; leaving the iubt.lt .Earth 
' wherewith they were before united, they rufh into he 
' Senfory, aft there as Menftruums, and disjoin its larts , 
' thus caufing a painful Senfation. . 

The luftriousVthor, it mull be own d, here carries the 
Notion of Acidity a great length: Diffolution, according o 
him, isoniy effefted by Attraaion and is proportional .0 
the degree of attraffive Power in the D.ffol vent ; but all 
Bodies 8 which attraa much are Acids, on his Principle , and 
consequently all powerful Menftruums muft belong to ha 
Clafs.-Ani yet Spirit of Urine, which readily diffolves 
Iron or Copper, even in the Cold, is allow d an Alcaly ; and 
accordingly makes a vehement Conflia with Aqua fortis. 
Boyle'i ImterfeEt. ofChym. DoB. of^ual. 

Some chymical Philofophers, in the laft Century endea- 
vour'd to derive rhe Qualities of Bodies, and the other Ihre- 
nomena of Nature, from the Consideration or Alcaly and 
Acid. See Alkaly. , „ £ 

It has been a Point much controverted among the fnyii- 
cians, whether or no there be any fincere Acid in human 
Blood ? The generality ftand for the Negative 5 and all 
Mr. Boyle's Experiments, in his Hiftory of Blood fern 

to give the thing on that fide. But the accurate M.Hom- 

berg has at laft turn'd the Scale the other way; and ihewn, 
by repeated Experiments, that an Acid, or what is com- 
monly call'd fo, and judg'd fuch by the Change of Colour it 
csufes in a Tinaure of Violets, may be drawn from the 
Blood of all Animals in genera), and human Blood in parti- 
cular. Mem. de I' Acad. Roy. des Sciences. An. 1712. 

Hence, and from the careful Analyfes that Author has 
made of the Flefh and Excrements of divers Animals par- 
ticularly Man ; he infers, that the Acid, or Sea Salt ot the 
Aliment taken into the Bodies of Animals ; is not dehroy a 
therein, but paffes into the Subftance of 'em : the fuperrlu- 
ous Portion being return'd unalter'd along with the incre- 
ments. See Blood, Digestion, (So. ■ . 

Acids are prefcrib'd in Medicine, as Coolers, Antiiebn- 
ficks, Antifcorbuticks, Diaphoreticks, Alcxipharmicks, &c. 
Sec Scurvy, Plague, iSc. 

' Acids,' Mr. Boyle obferves, ' not only dillurb the .body 
• while they continue fenfibly acid ; but in many Cafes cre- 
« ate Diftempers, whereof they fhould feem the Remedies. 

c Tho they be reputed to have an incifive and resolutive 

' Virtue, and jaccordingly are prefcribed to cut tough 
' Phlegm, and diffolve coagulated Blood : yet there are 
' feme Acids which muft evidently coagulate the animal 
' Fluids and produce Obllruaions, with all their Train of 
' Confequences.— Thus, it is known, that Milk readily cur- 
' dies with Spirit of Sea Salt, !£c' See Coagulation. 

Acid Salts. 7 See Acid.— See alfo Salt, and Sfi- 

Acjt> Spirits. 5 rit.— Sec alfo Principle. 

ACIDITY, Aciditas, Acor, the Quality which consti- 
tutes, or denominates, a Body, Acid ; or that Senfation of 
Sharpnefs and Acrimony which Acids excite upon theTafte. 
See Acm, Quality, Taste, igc. 

A little Vitriol leaves an agreeable Acidity in Water. — 
Vinegar and Verjuice have different forts of Acidity. 

The Predominancy of Acidities in the Body, and their ill 
Effeas, in coagulating the Blood, i3c. is prevented by ei- 
ther repelling and mortifying them with Lixivious or Uri- 
nous Salts ; or iheathing and abforbing 'cm, with Alcalious 
Bodies. — Thus, Minium deilroys the Acidity of Spirit of 
Vinegar ; Lapis Calaminaris that of Sea Salt, iSc. See 
Absorbent, gjjc. 

ACIDULjE, in Natural Hiftory, a Species of Mineral 
Waters, which difcover a degree of Acidity to the Tafte. 

See Water. ..,«., i 

Acidulu are native Waters, impregnated with l'articles ot 

fome acid Mineral ; as Vitriol, Alumn, Nitre, or Salt. See 

Water. ...... 

Sometimes there is alfo a vinous Flavour join d with the 
Acid ; by which they become peculiarly denominated Vi- 
nous Waters. See Vinous. 

The Clafs of Acidulte are ufually very cold ; whence fome 
Aurhors define AcidultS to be all fuch Mineral or Medicinal 
Waters as are not hot. See Bath, i$c. 

The Phyficians alfo frequently include Chalybeat or Fer- 
ruginous Waters, under the Clafs of AciduliH. See Chaly- 
beat, and Ferruginous. 



The Word is a Diminutive of Acidum ; which is form'd 
from the Greek ay.U, 'Point, Edge ; in regard the Points of 
acid Subftances prick and vellicate the Tongue. 

We fometimes alfo meet with Acidulated, q. d. fomething 
wherein acid Juices have been put, in order to give it a 
Coolnefs, and Briiknefs. 

ACINI, in Botany, fmall Grains, growing in Bunches ; 
after the manner of Grape-ftones. 

The Word is Latin, and literally fignifies Grape-ftone. 

Hence, Anatomifts have called fome Glands of a iimilar 
Formation, Acini Glanduloji. See Gland. 

ACINIFORMIS Tallica, the fame with the Tunica Uvea 
of the Eye. See Uvea. 

ACME, the Height, or Top of any thing. 

The Word is Greek, acta, 'Point, Tip ; of «(/<«>, vigeo, 
I flourifh. 

Acme is more efpecially us'd to denote the Height of a 
Diftemper ; which is divided into four Periods by fome In- 
ftirution- Writers. 

i°, The Arche, the Beginning, or firft Attack. — 2°, Ana- 
bafis, the Growth.— 3°, Acme, the Height.—And, 4 , <Pa- 
racme, which is the Declension of the Diftemper. See 
Disease. 

ACOEMETES, Acoemeti, a Name given to certain 
Monks in the antient Church, who flourifti'd particularly in 
the Eaft ; and who were thus called, becaufe they had Di- 
vine Service continually, and without Interruption, performed 
in their Churches. 

The Word is Greek, auiim®-, form'd of the Privative a, 
and YMf.Au, I lay down, or Jlcep in Bed. 

The Acoemetes divided themselves into three Bodies, each 
of which officiated in their Turn, and reliev'd the others : 
So that their Churches were never filent, Night nor Day. 

Niccfborus mentions one Marcellus as the Founder of the_ 
Acoemetes ; whom fome modern Writers call, Marcellus ot 
Apamea. — In Bollandus we have " the Life of St. Alexan- 
" der, Inftitutor of the Acoemetes, who were unknown before 
" him," fays the Author of the Life, a Difciple of St. Ale- 
xander. This Saint, according to Bollandus, lived about the 
Year 430. He was fucceeded by Marcellus. 

The Stylites were alfo called Acoemetes. See Stylites. 

There ate a kind of Acoemetes ftill fubfifting in the Ro- 
mijli Church ; the Religious of the Holy Sacrament, com- 
ing properly enough under that Denomination ; in regard 
they keep up a perpetual Adoration, fome or other of them 
praying before the Sacramenr, Day and Night. See Sacra- 
ment. 

ACOLYTHES, Acolythi, in Antiquity, a Term ap- 
plied to fuch Perfons as were fficady and immoveable in their 
Rcfolutions. 

For this Reafon, the Stoicks were called Acolythes ; in re- 
gard, nothing could lliake or alter their Refolves. See 
Stoick. 

Among Ecclefiaftical Writers, the Term Acolythes is pe- 
culiarly applied to thofe young People, who, in the primi- 
rive Times, afpir'd to the Miniftry ; and for that Purpofe, 
continually attended the Bifhops : Which Affiduity occafi- 
on'd their being called Acolythes. 

In the Romi]h Church, there are a fort of Acolythi yet 
in being ; but their Funaions are different from thofe of 
their firft Inftitution. They are fuch as have only receiv'd 
the firft of rhe four lefs Orders, whofe Bufinefs is to light 
the Tapets, carry the Candlefticks and the Incenfe-Pot, to 
prepare the Wine and Water, i$c. See Order, £?c. 

At Rome there were three Kinds of Acolythes, viz. Pa- 
latini, who waited on the Pope ; Stationarii, who ferved in 
Churches ; and Regionarii, who, together with the Dea- 
cons, officiated in other Parts of the City. See Stationa- 
rii, Deacons, &c. 

The Word is derived from the Greek «mas9ot, to follow. 

ACONITE, Aconitum, a Plant, famous among the 
Antients, both in quality of a Poifon, and a Remedy. See 
Poison. 

The antient Botanifts give the Name Aconite to feveral 
Plants of different Kinds.— One Species they called Lycoc- 
toiium, Avxuflirit, Wolfs-bane ; or KujpoctW, TSogs-bane ; 
from its Effeas : Of this they had likewife their Divifions; 
as the Napellus, thus called a Napo, becaufe its Root re- 
fembled the Turnip-Kind : another called Anthcra, Anti- 
Thora, q. d. good againft Diforders of the Tkora. 

The whole Clafs of Aconites is held extreamly cauftick 
and acrimonious, in Virtue whereof they produce mortal Con- 
vulfions, or Inflammations which end in Mortification ; with 
which the Antients were fo furprized, that they were afraid 
to touch 'em : And hence a thoufand fuperftitious Precau- 
tions about the manner of gathering them. — Their Roots are 
held of fervice in Malignant Fevers ; and accordingly make 
an Ingredient in fome Orvietans, and other Alexipharmic 
Compofitions. 

Aconite is faid to take its Name from Acona, a City in 
Bithynia, where it grows in great abundance : tho it is alfo 

found 



ACR 



0*0 



ACQ 



found in other Places, particularly the" Mountains about Acquittal is of two Kinds- in Law and in Fatl-— 
Trent. Some derive its Name from mthm, a Rock naked When two are appealed or indicted of Felony one as Prin- 

.W hare of Earth, whereon the Plant readily thrives. cipal the other as Acceflbry ; the Principal being difcharg'd 

'It was alio called //uwtrSr®- ; as killing Mice with its bare the Acceflbry is by Confequence alfo treed : In which Cafe' 
fmell, according to <Ptwy.—The Poets feign it to have arofe as the Acceflbry is acquitted by Law, fo is the Principal in 
from the Foam of (fee Dog Cer&erus, when Hercules drag'd FaB. See Accessory. 
him out of Hell. Acquittal is alfo ufed, where there \s a Lord Mefn, 

The Antients ufed this ilantagamft the Srmg of the Scorpi- and Tenant, and the Tenant holds Lands of the Mefn, and 
on, which is laid to be deaden d by the Touch of the Aconite, the Mefn holds over of the Lord Paramount : Here, the 

and reilor'd to its Vigour by that of Hellebore.- 'Tbco- Mefn ought to acquit the Tenant of all Services claimed by 

fhraftm relates, that they had a way of preparing it in thofe any other for the fame Lands ; the Tenant being to do Ser- 
Days, io as it Jhould only deftroy at the End of one or two vice to the Mefn only, and not to divers Lords tor one Par- 
Years.— Arrows dipt in its Juice prove mortal wherever they eel of Land. See Mesn, and Service. 
wound.— The Indians ufe Aconite, correflcd in Cows Urine, ACQUITTANCE, or Quittance," a Releafe, or Dif- 
with good fuccefs againft Fevers. Letr. Edif. & Cur. charge in Writing, of a Sum cf Money, or other Duty 

ACONTIAS, a Name ufed by fome Authors, for a fort which ought to be paid or done. See Receipt. 
of Comet, or Meteor, whofe Head appears round or oblong, The Verb Acquit, the Participle Ac 
and its Tail very long and flender, refcmbling a Javelin. 
See Comet, and Meteor. 

It takes its Denomination from a Serpent thus call'd, fre- 
quent in Calabria and Sicily ; where it is alfo named Saet- 
rene, by reafon of its flying at Paflengcrs like an Arrow ; in 
order to which, it winds it felf up a Tree, to fpring thence 
with the greater Violence. For the like Reafon, the Greeks 
call it Acontias, of axovrt% a 2)art, or Arrow. 

ACOPUM, a Fomentation, of warm and emollient things, 
to allay the Senfe of Wearinefs, occafion'd by too violent 
Labour or Exercife. See Fomentation, Bathing, &c. 

The Word is compounded of the Privative a, and koto?, 
labor. 

ACORN, Glaus. See Fruit, Seed, Sowing, &c. 

ACORUS, a Medicinal Plant, of the Rum. or Flag Kind ; 
frequently confounded by the Antients, and alfo by the mo- 
dern Apothecaries, with the Calamus Odoratus. See Ca- 
lamus. 

There are two Species ftf" Acerus; the Verus h or true, and Acra,'ufcd for Akena,\ Land-Meafure among the Antients, 
the faife.—- They are diiHnguifli'd by this, that from the containing io Feet. 



.-. ;iple Acquitted., and the Noun 
Acquittal, do alfo fignify a Difcharge from an Offence ob- 
jected. — In this Senfe, we meet with Acquitted by Procla- 
mation. See Acqjjittae. 

ACRASIA, ec'jtggwfo, is ufed by fome Writers in Phyfick, 
for the Excefs or Predominancy of one Quality above ano- 
ther 5 either in a Mixture, or in the ConLHtution of a hu- 
man Body. See Crasis, Temper a.ment, Constitu- 
tion, &c. 

ACRE, a Quantity cf Land, containing four fquare 
Roods, or 160 fquare Poles. See Measure $ Yee alfo Rood, 
and Perch. 

By a Statute of 31 Eliz. it is ordain'd, That if any Man 
erect a new Cottage, he fhall add four Acres of Land to it. 
See Cottage. 

To find the Quantity of Acres in a 'Eiece cf Ground, &c. 
See Surveying, 

The Word is form'd from the Saxon Acber, or Acker, 
Field ; of the Latin Ager. Tho Salmafius derives it from 



middle of fome of the Leaves of the' former, there arife; 
longifh Cutler of an Infinity of little Flowers, the Thick- 
nefs of the little Finger, and refcmbling Macropiper, or 
- Long Pepper.— The falfe Acorus is the common Sword- 
grafs. 

'Tis only the Root of the Acorus that is ufed in Phyfick 5 
and 'ris this we ufually call Acorus. — The true is brought 
from Lithuania and <Tartary .- It is knotty, reddi/h wich- 
our, and white within 5 as thick as the little Finger, and 
half a Foot long. 

It is fpicy and bitterifh ; and ufed in Cephalic and Sto- 
machic Competitions. — It is alfo an Ingredient in the T'ber't- 
aca Andrcmacbi. 

Some rank Galangals as a Species of Acorus. Sec Ga- 

LANGALS. 



ACOUSTICKS, Acoustica, 



The Kingdom of England contains by Computation 
39038500 Acres : The United Provinces 4382000, £5c. See 
Political Arithmetick. 

ACREME, a Term fometimes ufed in anticnt Law-Books, 
for ten Acres, See Acre. 

ACRIBEIA, a Term purely Greek, W#«*, literally de- 
noting an exquiflte or delicate Accuracy 5 fometimes ufed in 
our Language for want of a Word of equal Significancy. 

ACRIDOPHAGI, in the antient Geography, a Nation 
of People faid to feed on Locufts. — The Word is compound- 
ed of the Greek etxa^, Locujl, and ?><*>•«, I eat. 

The Acridophagi are reprefented as a People of Ethiopia^ 
inhabiting near the Defarts. — In the Spring they made Pro- 
viiion of a large kind of Locufts, which they Llted, and kept 
for their {landing Food all the Year : They lived to forty 



the Doctrine or Theory of Years of Age, then died of a fort of winged Worms gene- 
rated in their Bodies. See St. Jerom againft Jovinian, 



Sounds. See Sound, 

Acouflicks is what we otherwife call <Ebonicks. See L. II. and on St. John, C 
Phonicks. 

Acousticks, or Acoustica, or Acoustic Medicines, 
are Remedies againft the Imperfections and Diforders of 
the Ear 5 or of the Senfe of Hearing, See Ear, and Hear- 
ing. 

The Word is form'd of the Greek 'AW?, Hearing. 

Acoustic is particularly applied to Lijlrumenis ufed by 
thofo who are (low of Hearing $ to fupply that Defect 

Dr. Hook fays, it is by no means impoflible to hear the 
loweft Whifper that can be made, to the Diftance of a Fur- 



4; . iJiodor. SwuL L. III. c. 



and 29 5 and Strabo, L. XVI.— "Pliny alfo fpcaks of Acri- 
dophagi in 'Eartbia ; and St. Jerom in Libya. 

Tho the Circumftances of thefe People be fabulous ; yet 
may the Acridopbagia be true ; and to this Day they eat 
Locufts in fome Parts of the Eaft. — And hence, St. John the 
Baptift is faid to have lived on Locufts, aKei-Pa, and wild 
Honey, Matt. c. 3. v. 4. See Honey. 

Yet is the rendering of *x,eiAs by Lccujls, as the Englijh 
Tranllators have done, much controverted. — Ifid-ore of ( iV- 
lufiura, in his 133d Epirtle, [peaking of this Food of St. 



long ; and that he knows a way of hearing any Perfon fpeak John, ftys, They were not Animals, but the Tops of Herbs; 



thro' a Stone- Wall three Foot thick. See Whisper'ing- 
'Elace, and Echo. 

Acoustic Nerve. See Auditory Nerve. 

ACQUEST, or Acquist, is underftood, in a legal Senfe, 
of Goods, or Effitts, immoveable, not defcended or held 
by Inheritance 5 but acquired, either by Purchafe or Dona- 
tion. See Goods. 

The Word is French ; form'd of the Verb Acquerir, to 
acquire. — The French Laws make a deal of difference be- 
tween Acquefis, and hereditary Effects 
allows none. See Heir, Hereditary, £j?c. 

The Word is alfo popularly ufed for Conqueft, or Places 
acquired by the Sword. 

ACQUl'ETANDIS Elcgiis, a Writ lying for a Surety 
againft the Creditor that refufes to acquit him after the 
Debt is paid. See Surety. 

ACQUIETARE, in our antient Law-Books, fignifies to 
pay the Debts of a Perfon deceas'd ; as the Heir thofe of his 
Father, &c. 

ACQUISITION, properly fignifies an Acquefi. See Ac- 
quest 



and even charges thofe who underftood 'em otherwife of 
Ignorance : But Sr. Auguflin, Seda, Ludolpbus, and others, 
are of a different Sentiment. Accordingly, the Jefuits of 
Antwerp reje£t with Contempt the Opinion of the Ebionites* 
who for enters; put efxei^, a delicious 2)iet prepared of Ho- 
ney and Oil ; that of fome other Innovators, who read d%a- 
eiAi, or ^ae/^f, Sea-Crabs ; and that of %e-za, who reads 
«vt,©i'^, wild Eears. 

ACRIMONY, Afpcrity or Sharpncfs, expreffes a Qua- 
The Civil Law liry in Bodies, by which they corrode, deftroy, or diflblve 
others. See Corrosion, SS>c. 

Salts are only cauftick in Virtue of their Acrimony. See 

Salt, Caustic, &c. The Acrimony of the Bile is fup- 

pofed the Caufe of divers Diforders. See Bile. — -A Catarrh 
is a Defluxion of Acrimonious Humour. See Catarrh, 
Defluxion, Rhume, £5?c. 

ACROATICKS, a Name given to Arifiotlis Ledures 
in the more difficult and nice Parts of Philofophy ; to which 
none but Scholars and Friends were admitted. See Ari- 
stotelian, &c. 

ACROMION, Acromium, in Anatomy, the upper Pro- 



ACQUITTAL, a Difcharge, Deliverance, or fetting free cefs of the Omoplata, or Shoulder-Bone. See Omoplata. 

of a Perlon from the Guilt or Sufpicion of an Offence. ■ The Word is derived from a«f©-, fuwmus, and «fi©-, Hu- 

The like Difcharge in Civil Concerns, is called an Acquit- mertiSy q.d. the Extremity of theShoulder; and notfrom An- 
tance. See Ac qui trance. chor, on account of any refemblance in Figure which the Aero- 

H ffliotz 



ACT 



miott bears to an Anchor, as 1)ioms has imagin'd. 
Some have thought the Acromion to be of a Nature diffe- 
rent from that of other Bones ; in regard, during Infancy, 
it appears to be no more than a Cartilage, which oflifies by 
little and little, and about the Age of rwenty Years be- 
comes hard and firm, like a common Bone. See Bone, 
and Ossifying 



(26) 



ACT 



Acts, in the Plural, denote the publiclc Deliberations, 
and Resolutions of an Affembly, Senate, Council, Convo- 
cation, or the like ; enter'd in a Rcgifter. See Regis- 
ter, tic. 

ASs of Parliament arc particularly denominated Sta- 
tutes. See Parliament, and Statute. 

The ASs of the Royal Society are called TranfaSions 5 

n Natural Hiflory, tic. the fame with thofe of the Royal Academy of Sciences at Taris, Me- 

fee alfo Acrospireb. moires : Thole^ot _thc Societies of Scrim, Leipfic, &c. 



'Plumule. See Plumule -. 



limply Alls, ASa Eruditorum, Sic. See Society, Aca- 
demy, Transaction, Journal, tic. 

The A3s of the antient Councils were called Canons. See 
Canon. 

The EdiSs and Declarations of the Council of the Ro- 
man Emperors, were called Confiftory ASs, ASa Con- 



an Officer of the Navy. See 



ACROSPIRED, is ufed in refpea of Barley 5 which, 
in the Operation of making Malt, is apt, after coming, or 
fprouting at the lower, or Root-End, to become Acnfpirei, 
i.e. to fprout alfo at the upper, or Blade-End. See Malt. 
ACROSTiCK, a kind of Poetical Compofition, the Ver- 
fes whereof are difpofed in fuch manner, as that the initial 

Letters make up fome Perfon's Name, Title, or a particular M°™>- 

Motto. See Poem, and Poetry. Clerk of the Acts, 

The Word is derived from the Greek &?«, fummus, that Clerk, and Navy. . 
which is at one of the Extremes, and n'x®-, Verfus. Acts are alfo Matters of Faft tranfmitted to Poftenty in 
There are alfo Acrofiicks, where the Name or Title is in certain authentick Books, and Memoirs.— In this Senle, we 
the middle or fome other Part of the Verfe.— And others fay. 'be ASs oj the Afoftles, ASs of the Martyrs, &c. 
which go backwards ; beginning with the firft Letter of the The ASs of Pilate relating to Jefus, is a falfc and fup- 
laft Verfe, and proceeding upwards. pollutions Relation of our Saviour's Trial before Tilate ; 
Some Refiners in this trifling way, have even gone to tmpioufly fram'd by the Enemies of Chnflianity ; and fill'd 
•Pentacroflicks ; where the Name is to be repeated five with the bfeckeftBlafphcmy.—— The Emperor Mammm, 
times See Pentacrostick. by a folcmn Edict, order d it to be fent into all the Provinces 
The Name Acrofiicks is alfo applied by fome Authors to of the Empire ; and enjoin'd the Schoolmafters to teach and 
two antient Epigrams in the firft Book of the Anthology ; explain it to their Scholars, and make 'em learn it by heart, 
the one in honour of Sacchas, the other of Apollo I each The Piece was wrote with lo much Careleflnefs or Igno- 
confifls of 25 Verfes : the firft whereof is the Propofition ranee, thar our Saviours Death was therein referred to the 
or Argument of the whole, and the other 24 compofed of IVth Confulate of Tiberius, that is, to the VHth of his 
four Epithets, beginning each with the fame Letter ; and Empire ; which is eleven Years before our Saviour's Paflion, 
thus following in the Order of the 24 Verfes of the Greek and five before dilate was made Governor of Judea, See 
Alphabet : So that the firft of the 24 Letters comprehends Eufehus, L. IX. c. 4. and 6. R'iffin. L. I. c. 5, tic. 
four Epithets beginning with a 5 the fecond as many, with The true and genuine ASs of Tilate, were lent by him 
& ; and fo of rhe reft, to o ; which makes <j6 Epithets for to Tiberius, who reported 'em to the Senate ; but were re- 
each God. See Epigram. jeered by that Affembly, becaufe nor immediately addrefsd 



ACROTERIA, or Acroters, in Architecture, little 
Pedeftals, ufually without Bafes, placed at rhe Middle, and 
at the two Extremes of Frontifpicces, or Pediments; and fer- 
ving to fupport Statues. Sec Pedestal, and Statue. 



to them : as is teftified by Tertullian, in his Apol. C. 5, 
and 20, zi. Eufeb. Hifl. L. II. c. 2. juftin Martyr, Sic. 
There are alfo fpurious ASs of the Apcjlles compofed in 
Hebrew by one Abdias ; tranilated into Greek by his Difci- 



Thofe at the Extremes ought to be half the Height of pie E'ltropws ; and thence into Latin, by Julius Africa- 



the Tympanum ; and that in the Middle, according to Vi- 
trtivms, one eighth Part more. See Pediment, £0fc, 

Acroteria fometimes alfo fignify Figures, whether of 
Stone or Metal, placed as Ornaments, or Crownings, on 
the Tops of Temples, or other Buildings. See Crowning. 

Sometimes it alfo denotes thofe iharp Pinacles, or fpiry 
Battlements, which Hand in ranges about flat Buildings, with. 
Rails and Balluflers. See Pinnacle, and Battlement. 



nits. Woiffgang LaztUS publifh'd the Piece in 1551, from 
a Manulci'ipr near 700 Years old ; fuppofing it an authentick 
Work. — A Di lei pic of M&net^ named Leitcius, or Se!etictts> 
is alfo faid to have compofed ABs of the Apjlles, towards 
the Clofe of the Hid Century. 

There have formerly appear'd numerous other Pieces in 
this Way ; as, the Acts of St. Thomas, the ABs of St. An- 
drew, the ABs ofSt.Vani and Thecla, the Alls of St. Mat- 



The Word, in its original Greek, fisnifies the Extremity thew, ABs of St. Peter, ABs of St. John, Ails of St. Phi- 



of any Body ; as the Tip of a Rock, &c, 

ACT, Actus, in Pbyficks, an effective Exercife or Ap- 
plication of fome Power, or Faculty. See Action. 

In this Senfe, the Word AB t ftands oppofed to "Power, 
tPotentia, which is the Capacity of acting. See Power, 
and Potentia. 

Tho the Word AB\ properly and primarily, be only ap- 
plicable where the Power might exifl without being drawn 
forth into AB ; yet the Schoolmen extend it further ; defi- 
ning it by the Prefence of any Power or Perfection, even 
tho it could not be abfent. — In this Senfe, God himfeif is 
faid to be a mod pure AB 5 in regard his Perfections are 
always and neccffarily prefent. And thus, Form is call'd an 
JIB ; inafmuch as the Prefence hereof complcats the Power 
and Perfection of Matter. — Form, fay fome, is Matter re- 
duced into AB. See Matter, and Form. 

Even Exigence is termed an AB 5 by reafon when this 
is given a Being, nothing further is wanted. See Perfec- 
tion, and Existence. 

In this Senfe, the Greeks call AB, srfol^ttc, a Term de- 
noting an actual Poffeffion of Perfection, by the Latins ren- 
der'd 'PerfoBibabia. See Entelecheia. 

Metaphyficians give various Divisions of AB, viz. into 



lip; all which have been declared Apocryphal. — The laft 
were the Production of the Heretick \Pcuciiis : Thofe of St. 
thecla were the Work of a Prieft in Afia Minor ^ whom St. 
John degraded for his Offence. 

Act, in the Univerfities, is a Thcfis maintsin'd in pub- 
lick, by a Candidate for a Degree ; or, to /hew the Ca- 
pacity and Proficiency of a Student. See Thesis, De- 
gree, $3c. ' 

The Candidates for the Degree of Batchelor and Mafler 
of Arts, are to hold ^bilofophy ABs ; thofe for Batchelor 
of Divinity are to keep Divinity ABs, &c. See Univer- 
sity, Doctor, Batchelor, &c. 

At Oxford, the Time when the Maflcrs or Doctors com- 
pleat their Degrees, is alfo called the AB ; which is held 
with great Solemnity : At Cambridge they call it Commence- 
ment. See Commencement. 

Act of Faith, or Auto de Fe, is a folemn Day held by 
the Inquifition, for the Punifhment of Hereticks, and the 
Abfolution of the Innocent Accufed. See Inquisition. 

They ufually contrive the Auto to fall on fome great Fef- 
tival ; that the Execution may pafs with the more Awe and 
Regard. 

The Criminals are firft led to Church ; where their Sen- 
5 read to 'em, either of Condemnation or Abfolution. 



Infinite) as the AB of Creating 5 and Finite, as the AB of tence is i 

Roving. — 'Tranfient, or thofe exercis'd in other Beings, as — Thofe condemned to Death, are here furrender'd up by 



Heating 5 and frnmanent, which remain in their own Sub- 
ject, as Thinking. — Elicit, and Commanded, &c. See E- 
licit, &c. 

Act, in Logick, is particularly underftood of an Opera- 
tion of the Mind. See Operation. 

Thus, to Difcern and Examine, are ABs of the Under- 
ftanding : To Judge and Affirm, are ABs of the Will. See 
Understanding, Will, Liberty, Judgment, &c. 

There are Voluntary ABs, and Spontaneous ones which 
{eem produced without the Privity or Participation of the 
Soul. Sec Voluntary, and Spontaneous. 

Act, in a Legal Senfe, is an Inftrumenr, or other Mat- 



the Inquifitors to the Secular Power, with an earneft Intrea- 
ty that no Blood may be fhed. — If they perfiti: in their fup- 
pofed Errors, they are burnt alive. 

Acts, in Poetry, are certain Divifions, or principal Parts 
in a Dramatic Poem, contrived to give a Refpite or Breath- 
ing-time, both to the Actors and Spectators. See Drama, 
Tragedy, and Comedy. 

In the Interval between the ABs, the Theatre remains 
empty, and without any Action vifible to the Spectators 5 
tho 'tis fuppofedall the while there is onepaffing out of fight. 
See Action. 

Tis not however, purely for the fake of the Refpite, that 



ter in Writing j of ufe to declare or jaftify the Truth of a thefe ABs are obferv'd ; but to give Affairs a greater degree 

thing. i n tn i s Senfe, Records, Decrees, Sentences, Re- of Probability, and render rhe Intrigue more affecting. For 

ports, Certificates, &c. are call'd ABs.— Authentick ABs 5 the Spectator who fees the Action prepared that is to pafs 
Solemn ABs, &c. in the Interval, cannot forbear airing, in his Imagination, 

1 the 



ACT 



the Part of the abfent Aclors ; by which means, he is the 
more agreeably furprized, when a new AB coming upon the 
Stage, he fees the Effects of that Action, which before he 
could but guefs at. See Probability, i$c. 

To this it may be added, that Authors contrive to have 
the moil dry and difficult Parts of the Drama tranfafted 
between the ABs ; that the Sptftators may have no Notion 
of thefe, excepting what their Fancy prefents them with at 
a diftance 5 and that nothing may appear upon the Stage, but 
what is natural, probable, and entertaining. 

The ancient Greek Poets were unacquainred with this Di- 
vision of a Play into ABs ; tho their Epifodes or Chorus's 
ferv'd aim oft the fame Purpofe. See Episode, and Cho- 
rus. 

'Tis true, they confider'd their Pieces as confifting of cer- 
tain Parts or Divisions, which they called Trota/is, Epita- 
JIs, Catafla/zs, and Catajirophe : But there were no real Di- 
visions or Interruptions anfwering to 'em in the Reprefen- 
tation. See Protasis, Epitasis, &c. 

'Twas the Romans who firft introduced ABs into the 
Drama ; and in Horace's Time, the Five ABs were grown 
into a Law, as appears by the Verfe, 

Neu Irevior quinto, neu Jit prodaBior, aftu. 

This Law Sands unrcpeal'd to this Day $ tho it feems to 
draw its Force from the Authority of Horace, rather than 
that of Reafon or Nature.— All Piays are held irregular that 
have either more or fewer. See Farce. 

Some indeed have afterted, that every juft Action confifts 
of five diilincr. Parts j and have undertaken to mark out the 
prccife Share of the Action, which each of the five ABs 
ought to bear. 

The firft, fay they, is to propofe the Matter or Argument 
of the Fable, and to fhew the principal Characters. — The 
fecond to bring the Affair or Bufinefs upon the Carpet. — 
The third to furnifh Obstacles and Difficulties. — The fourth 
either points a Remedy for thofe Difficulties, or finds new 
in the Attempt. — The fifth puts an end to all by a DifcO- 
very. 

Be this as it will, 'tis certain, on the Principles of that 
great Matter of the Drama, Ariftotle, we may have a juft 
and regular Play, tho only divided into three ABs. 

The ABs are fubdivided into Scenes. See Scene. 

ACTIA, in Antiquity, Actian Games, Ludi Actiaci, 
folemn Games, inftituted, or according to fome only refto- 
red, by Augufius, in memory of the Victory over Anthony 
at ABiiim. See Game. 

S-me will have 'em held every third Year ; but the more 
common Opinion, is that they only return'd every fifth, 
and were celebrated in honour or Apollo. 

By the way, it ia a grofs Overfight in fome Authors, to 
imagine that Virgil insinuates 'em ro have been inftituted 
by JEneas j from that PafTage JEn. III. v. a8o. 

ABiaque Iliads celelramits littora Ludis. 

'Tis true, the Poet there alludes to the ABian Games ; 
but he only does it by way of Compliment to Augujliis, 
to attribute that to the Hero from whom he defcended, 
which was done by the Emperor himfelf ; As is obferved by 
Servius. 

Actian TearSy Anni Actiaci, were a Series of Tears, 
commrncing from the jEra of the Battle of ABium^ called 
the JEra of Align 'fins. See Year, and Epoch a. 

ACTION, Actio, in Phyficks, the Produaion of an AB } 
or the manner of an aBive Caufe. See Act, and Active. 

The Idea of ABion is fo familiar to us, that a Defini- 
tion may as eafily obfeure as explain it. Some Schoolmen, 

however, attempt to exprefs its Nature by " A Manifeita- 
" tion of the Power or Energy of a Subftance $ made either 

* c within, or without it." Thus, fay they, when the 

Mind aBs, what does it more, than perceive a vital Power 
exerting it felf 5 as, in reality, the Several ABions of the 
Mind, are no other than fo many Indications of its Vitality. 

'Tis a Point controverted among the Schoolmen, whether 
or no ABion, thus taken, be a thing diftinct both from the 
Agent, and the Term or EfTecr.. — The Modifts Stand for the 
Affirmative, and the Nominalifts aSTert the Negative. 

Thefe latter oblerve, that the ABion may be confider'd 
two ways, Entitatively and Connotatively. — ABion Entita- 
tively taken, is what we call a Caufe, or what may act: : 
ABion Connotatively confider'd, is the fame Caufe, only con- 
fider'd as acting, or connoting the Effect it produces. Now, 
fay they, a Caufe may be without an ABion, connotatively 
taken, /. e. may be confider'd as not producing an EffecY ; 
but cannot be without it entitatively, for that would be to 
be without it felf Hence they conclude, that the Caufe 
differs from the ABion connotatively, not entitatively taken; 
and the Agent is the Caufe of the ABion, confider'd conno- 
tatively, not entitatively. 

ABmis are divided, with refpecT. to their Principle, into 
Univocal, where the Effect is of the fame Kind wirh the 
Caufe $ as the Production of Man by Man : and Eqiuvocal y 



(27 ) 



ACT 



where it is different ; as the Production of Frogs by the 
Sun. See Univocal, and Equivocal ; fee alio Gene- 
ration, arc— And again, into Vital; as Nutrition, 
Refpiration, the ABum of the Heart, fifr. See Nutri- 
tion, Respiration, Heart, &c. And km Vital; as 

Heating. See Vital, Heat, l£c. 

With refpect to their Subject, ABions are divided into 
Immanent ; which are rcceiv'd within the Agent that pro- 
duced them : as are all vital Aflions, Cogitation, £i?c. See 

Thinking, Willing, f$c- And Trail/lent, which pafs 

into another. See Transient, (3c. 

In refpefl of Duration, ABions are again divided into 
Inftantaneous, where the whole Effea is produced in the 
fame Moment ; as the Creation of Light : And SucceJJive, 
where the Effect is produced by degrees ; as Corruption, 
Fermentation, Putrefaction, Diffolution, &c. See Fermen- 
tation, Putrefaction, Dissolution, i$c. 

The Cartejians refolve all Phyfical ABion into Metaphy- 
seal : Bodies, according to them, do not aB on one ano- 
ther ; the ABion all comes immediately from the Deity : 
The Motions of Bodies, which fcem to be the Caufe, being 
only the Occafions, thereof. See Occasional Caufe. 

'Tis one of the Laws of Nature, that ABion and Reac- 
tion are always equal, and contrary to each other. See Re- 
action, and Nature. 

For the ABions of ■Powers, &c. See Power, Weight, 
Motion, Resistance, Friction, igc. 

For the Laws of the ABion of Fluids, &c. See Fluid, 
Specific Gravity, &c. 

Action, in Ethicks, or Moral Action, is a Voluntary 
Motion, of a Creature capable of diflinguifliing Good and 
Evil ; whofe Effect, therefore, may be juflly imputed to 
the Agent. See Moral. 

A Moral ABion may be more fully defined to be whate- 
ver a Man, confider'd as endued with the Powers of Under- 
standing and Willing, and with refpect to the End he ought 
to aim at, and the Rule he is to regard in acting ; refolves, 
thinks, does, or even omits to do ; in fuch manner as to be- 
come accountable for what is thus done or omitted, and the 
Confcquences thereof. See Office. 

The Foundation, then, of the Morality of ABions, is, 
that they are done Knowingly and Voluntarily. See Un- 
derstanding, and Will, 

All Moral ABions may be divided, with refpect to the 
Rule, into Good and Evil. See Good, and Evil. 

Action, in Oratory, is an Accommodation of the Perfon 
of the Orator to his Subject ; or, a Management of the Voice 
and Gellure, fuited to the Matter Ipoken or deliver'd. See 
Oratory. 

ABion makes one of the great Branches or Divifions of 
Rherorick, as ufually taught. See Rhetorick. 

The Antients ufually call it 'Pronunciation. See Pronun- 
ciation. 

ABion is a collateral or fecondary Method of exprefiing 
our Ideas ; and is fufceptible of a kind of Eloquence as 
well as the primary. — It is an Addrefs to our external Senfes ; 
which it endeavours to move, and bring into its Party, by a 
well-concerted Motion and Modulation, at the fame time 
that the Reafon and Understanding are attack'd by force of 
Argument. Accordingly, Tully very pertinently calls it Ser- 
mo Corporis, the Difcourfe of rhe Body ; and Corporis Elo- 
quentia, the Eloquence of the Body. — The Roman Mimes 
and Pantomimes, we read, had fuch a Copia in this kind, 
fuch a Compafs even of mute ABion, that Voice and Lan- 
guage feem'd ufelefs to 'em : They could make themfelves 
understood ro People of all Nations ; and Rofcilts, the Co- 
median, is patticularly fam'd, as being able ro exprefs any 
Sentence by his Geftures, as fignificantly and varioully as 
Cicero with all his Oratory. See Mime, Pantomime, $$c. 

gnintilian gives us a System of the Rules at ABion ; ta- 
ken not only from the Writings of the antient Orators, but 
from the belt Examples 1 of the Forum. See his Injlitut. 
Orat. L. XI. c. 3. de Pronuntiatione. 

The Force and Effect of ABion, at lead as practis'd 
among the Antients, appears to be very great ; fcarce any 
thing was able ro withstand it. What we ufually attribute 
to Eloquence, was really the Effect of the ABion only, as 
fome of the greatest Matters in that way have frankly ac- 
knowledg'd, — ^Demojlhenes exprefly calls it, " the Begin- 
" ning, the Middle, and the End of the Orator's Office j" 
and Cicero profeffes, that " it does not fo much matter 
" what the Orator fays, as how he fays it." Neqtle tantum 
refert qualia flint qn<£ dicas, quant quomodo dicanmr. De 
Orat.— Hence, the great Greek Orator is reprefented as pracli- 
fing and adjufling his ABion in the Glafs : Demofthenes 
grande quoddam intitens ffcculum comfonerc ABionzmJblebat. 
J^tiintil. 

Every Part of the Body is by them lilted into the Service, 
and marmall'd in its ptoper Place : The Hand, the Eye, 
Head, Neck, Sides, Cheeks, Noftrils, Lips, Arms, Shoul- 
ders, (£c. 'Pr/eciptnm in ABione, Caput eft. Cum 

gcftti concordet, iS Lateribus ohfequatur. Oculi, Lachryma:, 

Super- 



ACT 



(4*0 



ACT 



Supercilium, Genac, Rubor. — Nou Mantis folam fed ci> Nu- 
tus. — Dominetur mitcm maxime Vultus. — §>mn £y in Vtrftu 
Pallor. — Nates, Labia — Dentes, Cervix, Humeri, Bracbia. 

■ Manus vero,fine quibus trunca ejfet ABio. — Quintil. ubi 

fv.pra. 

The Hand is Matter of a whole Language, or fet of 
Signs, it felf. — Even every Finger is laid down by the An- 
tients as having its dittinct Office ; and hence the different 
Names they {till bear, To/lex, Index, &c. See Finger, £5?c. 
By fuch a Multitude of Rules and Obfervances, 'tis no 
wonder fome of the Orators of thofe, as of our Days, were 
perverted more than profited. — Rules only tend to perfect 
the ABion, which mutt have its Origin from another 
Source, viz. Nature, and good Senfe : Where thofe are de- 
ficient, Rules will fooner make an Ape than an Aclor. E- 
loquentig, fays Cicero, Jicut gff rel'tquarimi return funda- 
?nentwn, fapientia.< — And hence we find the great Matters 
abovemention'd continually foftning, and even unfaying, and 
calling People off from the intemperate die of their own 
Rules. — Nullde arguti<s Digitorum, Non ad numerum Ar- 
ticulum Cadens. Cicero even afTures us, he was a whole 
Year in learning to keep his Hand within his Gown. 'Pro 
CkL — The fame Author, recommending a Motion of the 
whole Body, fays, the Orator ffiould make more ufe of his 
Trunk than of his Hand ; Irunco magh toto fe ipfe raode- 
rans, ££ virili latcrum fexione. Brut. 

Walking, inceffus, is fome times recommended as highly de- 
ferving to be cultivated ; but Cicero will fcarce allow it ro be 
ufed at all. Itfeems, fome of the active Orators of that Time 
had render'd it ridiculous ; one of whom was p'eafantly afk'd 
by Flavins Virginias, How many Miles be had declamed ? 
CaJJius Severus, when he perceiv'd an Orator given to 
walking, ufed to cry out for a Line to be drawn round 
him, to keep him within Bounds. — The Orator T'ltyus im- 
proved Walking into a fort of Dancing 5 and 'tis hence, 
as we are told by ^tiintilian, that the Dance Tityus took 

its Name. Junius rallied his Father Curio's inceffant 

Libration, or toiling from one fide to another, by afking 
who that was, haranguing in a Ferry-boat ? And to 
the like Effect was that of C. Sicinius, when Curio 
having fpoke with his u&al Buflle near OBavittSi who by 
reafon of his Infirmities, had divers Liniments and Plaif- 
ters on his Limbs ; Ton can never be enough thankful, Oc- 
tavius, to your good Collegue, who has faved you this Day 
from being eaten by the Flies. Demojibenes, being na- 
turally apt to be too bufy, and efpecially with his Shoulders, 
is faid to have reform 'd himfelf by fpeaking in a narrow 
Pulpitum, and hanging a Spear pointed jutt over his Shoul- 
ders ; that if in the Heat of his Difcourfe he iliould forget 
himfelf, the Puncture might remind him. 

After all, 'tis a Point will bear being controverted, Whe- 
ther Allien ought to be pra&is'd and encourag'd at all ? 
A thing that has fo much command over Mankind, 'tis 
certain, mutt be very dangerous ; fince it is as capable of 
being turn'd to our Difadvantage, as our Advantage. J Tis 
putting a Weapon in the Hands of another, which, if he 
pleafes, he may make ufe of to fubdue and enilave us : 
And accordingly, Hiftory is full of the pernicious Ufes made 
thereof.' — For this Reafon, Eloquence and ABion are gene- 
rally difcourag'd in the modern Policy ; and both the Bar 
and the Pulpit, are brought to a more frigid way of De- 
livery. 

Perhaps the Foundation of all ABion may be vicious, and 
immoral.— Voice and Gctture, we know, will affect. Brutes ; 
not as they have Reafon, but as they have Paffions : So 
far as thefe are ufed in a Difcourfe, therefore, it does not re- 
gard an Affembly of Men, more than it would a Herd of 
Quadrupeds : That is, their whole Effort is fpent not on the 
Rational Faculties, which are out of theQueition, but on the 
Animal ones, which alone they endeavour to poffefs and actu- 
ate, independent of Reafon. — Nay more, our Reafon and 
Judgment it felf is intended to be byafs'd and inclined by 
them; ABion being only ufed as an indirectway of coming at 
the Reafon, where a direct and immediate one was wanting, 
i. e. where the Judgment cannot be taken by the proper 
means, Argument ; it is to be taken indirectly, by Circui- 
tion, and Stratagem. 

The natural Order of things, then, is here inverted : Our 
Reafon, which mould go before, and direct our Paffions is 
drag'd after 'em : Inflead of coolly confidering, and taking 
cognizance of things 5 and according to what we perceive 
therein, raiiing our felves to the Paffions of Grief, Indigna- 
tion, or the like : We are attack'd the other way : the Im- 
preffion is to be carried backwards, by Virtue of the natural 
Connexion there is between the Reafon and the Paffions : 
And thus the Helm, the Principle of our Anions, is taken 
out of our own Hand, and given to another. 

The Cafe is much the fame here, as in Senfation and 
Imagination : The natural and regular way of arriving at 
the Knowledge of Objects, is by Senfe ; an Impreffion be- 
gun there is propagated forward to the Imagination, wherean 
Jmage is produced, fimiJar to that which tint ttruck on the 



Organ.— -Bur the Procefs is fometimes inverted ; in Hypo* 
chondriack, Lunatick, and other delirious Cafes 5 the Image 
is firfl excited in the Imagination; and the Impreffion there- 
of communicated back to the Organs of Senfe : By which 
means, Objefts are feeri, which have no Exigence. See 
Imagination. 

To fay no more, ABion does not tend to give the Mind 
any Information about the Cafe in hand ; is not pretended 
to convey any Arguments or Ideas which the fimple Ufe of 
Language would not convey. But is it not that we Iliould 
form our Judgments upon ? And can any think help us to 
make a jutt Judgment, befide what fome way enlarges our 
Under flan ding ? When Cicero made Cafar tremble, turn 
pale, and let fall his Papers ; he did not apprize him of 
any new Guilt which CcSfarmA not know of: The Effect 
had no Dependance on C<efar's Underllanding ; nor was it 
any thing more than might have been produced by the un- 
meaning Sounds of a mufical Inttrument duly applied. Logs 
of Timber and Stone have often trembled on the like Oc- 
cafions. See Passion, Musicx, &c. 

Action, in Poetry, is an Event, cither real or imaginary, 
which makes the Subject of an Epick or Dramatick Poem. 
See Epic, Tragedy, ££c. 

The ABion of a Poem coincides with the Fable thereof; 
it being the ufual Practice, not to take any real Tranfaclion 
of Hiilory, but ro feign or invent one ; or at lcaft, to alter 
the Hiftorical Fa£t, fo as to render it in good mealure fic- 
titious. See Fable. 

F, Soffit has two Chapters, Of Real ABion, the Re- 
citals whereof are Fables : and of Fc/gn'd ABion the Re- 
citals whereof are Hiitorical. 

The Criticks lay down four Qualifications, as neceffary 
to the Epick and the Tragick ABion : The firit, Unity 5 
the fecond, Integrity ; the third, Importance ; and the 
fourth, Duration. 

For the Unity of the Epic ABion. See Unity, $$c. 
This Unity is not only to exitt in the firtt Draught, or 
Model of the Fable, but in the whole epifodiz'd ABion. See 
Episode. 

In order to the Integrity of the ABion, 'tis neceffary, ac- 
cording to AriJlorle,th.<it it have a Beginning, Middle,and End. 
— If the three Parts of a Whole, feem too generally denoted 
by the Words, Beginning, Middle, and End ; Soffit interprets 
'em more exprefiy, thus ; The Caufes and Defigns of a Man's 
doing an Action, are the Seginning ; the Effects of thefe 
Caufes, and the Difficulties met withal in the Execution of 
thofe Defigns, are the Middle of it ; and the unravelling and 
extricating of thofe Difficulties, the End of the ABion. 

The Poet, fays Scffu, fhould fo begin his ABion, that, 
on one hand, nothing ihould be farther\vanting for the Un- 
derltanding of what he afterwards delivers ; and, on the 
other, that what thus begins require after it a neceffary Con- 
iequence. The End is to be conducied after the like man- 
ner, only with the two Conditions tranfpos'd ; fo that no- 
thing be expected after it, and that what ends the Poem be 
a neceffary Confequcnce of fomething that went belbre it. 
Laflly, the Beginning is to be join'd to the End by a Mid- 
dle ; which is the Effect of fomething that went before it, 
and the Caufe of what follows. 

In the Caufes of an ABion, one may obferve two oppoHts 
Defigns ; the firit, and principal, is that of-' the Hero : The 
fecond comprehends all their Defigns, who oppofe the Pre- 
tentions of the Hero. Thefe oppciitc Caufes do alio produce 
oppofite Effects, viz. the Endeavours of the Hero to accom- 
plifh. his Deiign, and the Endeavours of thofe who are 
againft it. — As the Caufes and Defigns are the Beginning of 
the ABion ; fo thofe contrary endeavours are the Mid'dle 
of it, and form a Difficulty, Plot, or Intrigue, which makes 
the greateft Part of the Poem. See Intrigue, Knot, 
Plot, &c. 

The Solution or clearing up of this Difficulty, makes the 
Unravelling. See Unravelling. 

The Unravelling of the Plot or Intrigue, may happen two 
ways; either with a Difcovery, or without. See Discovery. 
The^fevera] Effects which the Unravelling produces, and 
the different States to which it reduces the Perlbns, divides 
the ABion into fo many Kinds. — If it change the Fortune of 
the principal Perfon ; it is laid to be with a 'Peripetia ; and 
the ABion is denominated Implex, or Afix'd : If there be- 
no Peripetia, but the Unravelling be a mere paffing from 
Trouble to Repofe; the ABion is Simple. See Peripetiaj 
fee alfo Catastrophe, 

For the Duration of the Epic ABion, Arijlotlc obferves, 
it is not fo limited as that of the Tragic ABion ; the latter 
is confined to a natural Day ; but the Epopea, according tu 
that Critick, has no fix'd Time. — In effect, Tragedy being 
full of Paffions, and confequently of Violence, which cannot 
be fuppofed to latt long, requires a ffiorter time : and the 
Epic Poem, being for the Habits which proceed more flowly, 
requires a longer time either for 'em to take hold, or to he 
rooted up : And hence the Difference between the Epic and 
Dramatic ABiou % in point of Duration. 



ACT 



( 2G ) 



ACT 



'Soffu lays it down as a Rule, that the more vehement 
the Manners of the principal Perfonages are, the lefs Time 
ought the ABion to laft : Accordingly, the ABion of the 
Iliad, containing the Anger and Paffion of Achilles, &c. 
holds but 47 Days; whereas that of the Odyjfce, where 
Prudence is the reigning Quality, lafts eight Years and a 
half : and that of the Mneid, where the prevailing Charac- 
ter of the Hero is Piety and Mildnefs, nearly feven Years. 
See Iliad, jEneid, and Odvssee - y fee alfo Manners, 
Passions, £<?£. 

As to the Importance of the Epic ABion, there are two 
ways of providing for it : The firft, by the Dignity and Im- 
portance of the Perfons. This way alone Homer makes 
ufe of j there being, otherwife, nothing great and important 
in his Models, but what might have happen'd to ordinary 
Perfons. The fecond, by the Importance of the ABion it 
felf ; fuch as the Eftabli/hmenr, orDownfal of a Religion, or 
a State 5 which is Virgil's ABion, and in which he has 
much the Advantage of Homer, 

Boffii mentions a third way of making the ABion impor- 
tant, viz. by giving a higher Idea of the Perfonages, than what 
the Readers conceive of all that is great among Men. — > 
This is done by comparing the Men of the Poem with the 
Men of the prefent Time. See Hero 5 fee alfo Charac- 
ter, \3c. 

Action is alfo ufed in Painting and Sculpture, for the 
Pofture of a Figure 5 or the ABion it is fuppofed to be in - 
exprefs'd by the Difpofition of its Parts, or the Paffion ap- 
pearing in its Face. See Attitude, Expression, $£c. 

In the Manage, the Action of the Mouth, denotes the 
Agitation of the Horfe's Tongue and Mandible, or his 
Champing on the Bit 4 difcoverable by a white ropy Foam 

thereon. This, with the Matters, paffes for a Sign of 

Health, Vigour, and Mettle. 

Action, in Law, is defined a Right of demanding, and 
purfuing in a Court of Judicature, what is any Man's due. 
See Right, Court, Justice, i$c. 

Or, ABion is any kind of Procefs which a Perfon enters 
for the Recovery of his Right. See Cause, and Process. 

ABions are divided, by Juftinian, into two general Kinds ; 
Real, or thofe againft the Thing ; and Perfonal, or thofe 
againft the 'Perfon.— For whoever brings an ABion, either 
does it againit one obnoxious to him, in refpecl: either of 
Contract, or of Offence : in which Cafe arife ABions a- 
gainft the Perfon, which require the Party to do, or give 
fomcthing : Or, he does it againft one not obnoxious, yet 
with whom a Controverfy is rifen touching fome Matter 5 as, 
if Cains hold a Field, which Julius claims as his Property, 
and brings his ABion for the fame. See the Inflit. L. IV. 
Tit. 4. where the principal ABions introduc'd by the Roman 
Law, are fummariiy explain'd. 

In Common Law, from the two Gaffes of Real and Per- 
gonal ABions, arifes a third, called a Mix'd ABion 5 which 
regards both the Perfon and Thing. 

Perfonal Action, is that which one Man hath againft 
another, on account of a Contract for Money or Goods $ or 
of an Offence done by him, or fome other Perfon, for whofe 
FacT: he is anfwerable. See Personal. 

Real Action, is that whereby the Demandant claims 
Title to Lands or Tenements, Rents or Commons, in Fee- 
fimple, Fee-tail, or for Life. See Real. 

Real ABions are fubdivided into Poffeffory, which lie for 
Lands, &c> of his own Poffeflion, or Seifin 5 and Ancc-Jlrel, 
of the Seifin or Poffeffion of his Anceftor. See Ancestrel. 

But Real ABions, formerly fo numerous and considerable, 
as Writs of Rights, of Entry, &c. with their Appendixes, 
as Grand Cape, Petit Cape, Receipt, View, Aid-Prayer, 
Voucher, Counter-plea of Voucher, Counter-plea of War- 
ranty, and Recovery of Value, are now much out of ufe 5 
by rcafon of the ufual Admixture of perfonal Matters there- 
with, which change 'em into Alix'd ABions. 

Mixed Action, is that laid indifferently for the Thing 
detained, or againft the Perfon of the Detainer 5 being thus 
called, becaufe it has a mixed Refpecl, both to the Thing, 
and to the Perfon. See Mix'd. 

Others better define it, a Suit given by Law to recover 
the Thing demanded, and Damages for the Wrong done. 

Such is Aflize of Novel Diffeifin, which, if theDiSei- 
for make a Feoffment to another, the Diffeifee fhall have 
againit the Diffeifor, and the Feoffee, or other Ter-tenant 5 
to recover not only the Land, but Damages alfo. — And the 
like in ABion of Wafte, §>uare impedit, &c. See As- 
size, £f?c. 

Actions are alfo divided Into Civil and 'Penal. — Civil Ac- 
tion, is that which only tends to the Recovery of what, by 
reafon of a Contract, or other like Caufe, is a Man's due. — 
As, if a Man by ABion feek to recover a Sum of Money 
formerly lent, $$c. See Civil. 

'Penal ABion, aims at fome Penalty upon the Party ftied; 
either corporal or pecuniary. See Punishment, Mulct, 

fffCt 



Such is the ABion of Zegis ActiiU, in the Civil taw j 
And with us the next Friends of a Man felonioufly (lain, 
or wounded, fhall purfue the Law againit the Offender, and 
Bring him to condign Punifhment. See Appeal 

Action is alfo diftinguifti'd, as it lies for the' Recovery 
either of the Ample Value of the Thing challenged • or of 
the double, triple, quadruple, ££fc. 

Thus, a Secies tantum lies againft Embracers 5 and a- 
gainit Jurors that take Money for their Verdifl, of either 
or both Parties. See Decies tantum, Embracers, & c . 

To this Clafs alfo belong all ABions on a Statute, that pu- 
mfhcs an Offence by Restitution, or Fine proportionable to 
the Tranfgreflion. 

Action, again, is divided into Prejudicial, called alfo 
Preparatory ; and Principal. 

Prejudicial ABion, is that which arifes from fome Quef- 
tion, or doubtful Point in the Principal one. 

As, if a Man fue his younger Brother, for Land defend- 
ed from his Father ; and it be objefted, he is a Baflard : 
This Point of Baftardy mill be tried, before the Caufe can 
proceed : Whence the ABion is termed Prejudicialis, quia 
prius judicanda. 

Action, again, is either Auceflrel, or Perfonal.— Ance- 
ftrel ABion, is that which we have by fome Right defcend- 
ing from our Anceftor.— Perfonal ABion, in this Senfe, is 
that which has its Beginning in and from our felves. 

There is alfo ABion Anceflrel droitural, and ABion An' 
cefirel Poffeffory. Coke's Inft. 

Action upon the Cafe, ABio fuper Cafum, is a general 
AJ1011, given for the Redrefs of a Wrong done any Man 
without force, and not efpecially provided for by Law. See 
Case. 

This, of all others, is now tnoft in ufe. — Where there ari- 
fes an Occafion of Suit, that neither has a fit Name, nor 
certain Form already prefcrib'd ; the Clerks of the Chance- 
ry, anciently, conceived a proper Form of ABion for the 
thing in queftion ; which the Civilians call ABionem in 
faBum, and we, ABion upon the Cafe. 

Action upon the Statute, AB10 fuper Statutum, is an 
ABion brought againft a Man, upon an Offence againft a 
Statute whereby an ABion is given that did not lay before. 
See Statute. 

Thus, where one commits Perjury to the Prejudice of ano- 
ther, he who is damaged fhall have a Writ upon the Statute, 
and a Caufe accordingly. 

Action 'Popular, only differs from an ABion upon the 
Statute, in that, where the Statute gives the Suit or ABion 
to the Party griev'd, or otherwife to one fingle Perfon cer- 
tain, it is called ABion upon the Statute ; and where the 
Authority is given by the Statute to every one that will fo 
fue, it is an ABion Popular. See Accusation. 

Action is alfo divided into Perpetual and Temporal. 

Perpetual ABion, is that whofe Force is not determin'd 
by any Period of Time. 

Of this Kind were all Civil ABions among the antient 
Romans, viz. fuch as arofe from Laws, Decrees of the Se- 
nate, and Conftitutions of ihe Emperors ; whereas ABions 
granted by the Praetor died within the Year. 

We have alfo Perpetual and 'temporary ABions in Eng- 
land ; all being perpetual, which are not exprefly limited. 

So alfo divers Statutes give ABions, on Condition they 
be purfued within the Time prefcribed.— Thus, the Statute 
of 1 Edw. VI. gives ABion. for three Years after the Offences 
committed, and no longer ; and the Statute of ; Hen. VIII. 
c. 3. does the like for four Years ; and that of 31 Eli*, c. 5. 
for one Year, and no more. 

But, as by the Civil Law no ABions wete fo perpetual, 
but that by Time they might be prefcrib'd againft ; fo, in 
our Law, tho ABions be called Perpetual, in Comparifun of 
thofe that are exprefly limited by Statute; yet is there a 
Means to prefcribe againft Real ABions, after five Years, by 
a Fine levied, or a Recovery fuffer'd. See Prescription j 
fee alfo Fine, Recovery, and Limitation of Affile. 

Action of a Writ, is when a Perfon pleads fome Matter, 
whereby he fhews, that the Plaintiff had no juft Caufe to 
have the Writ he brought, tho it be poflible he might have 
another Writ or ABion for the fame Matter. — Such Plea 
is called, a Plea to the ABion of the Writ. 

When by the Plea it appears, that the Plaintiff has no 
Caufe of any ABion for the thing demanded 5 it is called, 
a Plea to the ABion. 

Action, in Affairs of Commerce, or Action of a Com- 
pany, is a Part or Share in the Company's Stock, or Capi- 
tal, which confifts of a Number of fuch ABions. See Com- 
pany, and Capital. 

Thus, the Capital of a Company, which has three hun- 
dred ABions of a thoufand Livres each ; confifts of three 
hundred thoufand Livres. 

Hence, a Perfon is laid to have four or fix ABions in fuch 
Company, if he have contributed to the Capital, and be in- 
terested therein, for four or fix thoufand Livres. 

I ABions, 



ACT 



(30) 



A C U 



Actions, in France and Holland, amount to the fame with 
Shares, or Subfcriptions in England. See Subscription, 
Bubble, £S?c. 

Action is alfo an Obligation or Inflrument, which the 
Directors of fuch Companies deliver to thofe who pay Mo- 
ney into their Stock. See Actionary, Bank, &c. 

The Actions are always rifing, and falling ; according as 
the Company's Credit gains or iofes. The fmalleit Whifper 
of an approaching War or Peace, true or falls, fhall fre- 
quently occaiion a confiderable Alteration therein. In the Year 
1719, the French Company of the Weft, fince called the In- 
dia Company, arrived at fuch an immenfe degree of Credit 5 
that in fix Months time, its Anions rofe to eighteen hun- 
dred per Cent, a pitch no other Company ever came near. 

In 1*71, the Actions of the Dutch Eajl-India Company 
were at fix hundred and fifty per Cent, which was the high- 
eft they were ever known at.— But the War with France 
then coming on ; they fell 150 per Cent, in a few Months. 
After the Peace of Nititegtieni they rofe again 5 and in 17 iS 
were a] moil tfoo per Cent. 

The French have three Kinds of Actions. — Simple, which 
are entitled to a Share in all, both the Profits and LoiTes of 
the Company. — Rentieres, entitled only to a Profit of two 
per Cent, furej for which the King is Security. — And Into- 
refled Actions, which claim the two per Cent, fecur'd by the 
King ; and are alfo to ihare the Excefs of the Dividend 
with the fimple Actions. 

There were feveral other Kinds of Actions introduced by 
the Brokers, in the buly Days of the Rue ghiinqucmpoix, 
which have fince dropt into Oblivion; as Mother Actions, 
^Daughters, Grand-mothers, Grand- daughters, &c. 

To Melt or Liquidate an Action, is to fell, or turn it into 
Money, &c. 

ACTIONARY, or Actionist, a Term frequent in our 
News-Papers ; denoting ihe Proprietor of an Action, or Share 
in a Companies Stock. See Action. 

ACTIVE, Activus, foraething that communicates Mo- 
tion, or Action to another. See Action. 

In this Senfe, the Word ftands oppofed to Pajfive, See 
Passive. 

Thus, we fay, an Active Caufe, Active Principles, &,c. 
See Cause. 

The Quantity of Motion in the World, Sir /. Newton 
fhews, mult be always decreafing, in "Virtue of the Vis Iner- 
tice, &c. So that there is a neceffity for certain Active Prin- 
ciples to recruit it : Such he takes the Caufe of Gravity to 
be, and the Caufe of fermentation. Adding, that we fee 
but little Motion in the Univerfe, except what is owing to 
thek active Principles. See Motion, Gravitation, Fer- 
mentation, &c. 

Active 'Principles, in Chymiftry, are thofe which are 
fuppofed to act of themfelves, and do not need to be put 
in action by others. See Principle. 

Salt, Sulphur, and Mercury, are ufually confider'd by the 
Chymifts as Active Principles $ and Phlegm and Earth, as 
Patfive ones. See Salt, £5c. 

M. Homberg, and fome late Chymifts after him, only 
make one Active Principle, viz. Sulphur, or Fire; which 
they take to be the Source or Principle of all the Motion and 
Action of the Univerfe. See Sulphur, and Fire. 

The Term Active Principles, fays Dr. §>nincy, has been 
ufed to exprefs fome Divilions of Matter, that are, by fome 
particular Modifications, comparatively active, in refpect of 
others j as, Spirit, Oil, and Salt, whofe Parts are better fit- 
ted for Motion, than thofe of Earth and Water ; but with 
how much Impropriety, will eafily appear. 

For, in a ftrict Senfe, all Motion in Matter is rather Paf- 
fion ; and there is no Active Principle, unlefs we call fo that 
known Property of Gravitation, on which the Newtonian 
Philofophy is rounded ; which is a mutual Inclination of Bo- 
dies towards one another, in proportion to the Quantity of 
Matter, in all Bodies : fo that let them exift under what 
Modifications foever, there can be no Alteration made of 
this universal Property. — Hence, the Divifion of Matter into 
what, for Diltinction-fake, may be called Spirit, does not 
give it any Properties inconfiftent with this general Law. See 
Matter, Motion, &c. 

Active, in Grammar, is fbmewhat that has an active 
Signification, and ferves to explain, or denote an Action. 
A Verb Active, a Conjugation Active, &c. an Active Par- 
ticiple, &c. See Participle, Conjugation, &c. 

Verbs Active, are fuch as do not only iignify Doing or 
Acting, but have alfo Nouns following 'em, to be the Sub- 
ject of the Action or Impreflton. See Verb. 

Thus, to love, to teach, are Verbs Active ; becaufe we 
can fay, to love a thing, to teach a Man. 

Verbs Neuter alfo fignify an Action ; but are diftinguifh'd 
from Verbs Active, in that they cannot have a Noun follow- 
ing 'em, — Such are, tojleep, to go, Sec. See Neuter. 

Some Grammarians, however, make three Kinds of Verbs 
Active ; The Tranjitive, where the Action paffes into a 



Subject different from the Agent ; Reflected, where the Ac- 
tion returns upon the Agent ; and Reciprocal, where the 
Action returns mutually upon the two Agents who produced 
it. See Transitive, &c. 

ACTIVITY, the Power of Acting, or the Active Faculty. 
See Faculty, $$c. 

The Activity of Fire exceeds all Imagination. — The Ac- 
tivity of an Acid, a Poifon, &c. — Bodies, according to Sir 
/. Ne-wton, derive their Activity from the Principle of At- 
traction. 

The Sphere^ of Activity of a Body, is the Space which 
furrounds it, lo far as its Eiticacy or Virtue extends to pro- 
duce any fenfible Effect. See Sphere, Effluvia, &c. 

ACTOR, in Dramatic Poetry, one who reprefents fome 
Peribn or Character upon the Theatre. See Person, and 
Character, 

Tragedy, in its Original, only confifted of a fimple Cho- 
rus, who fung Hymns in honour of Sacchus. See Tragedy, 
and Chorus. 

Thefpis was the iirft who took upon him to introduce a 
Perfona, or Actor $ who was to eale the Chorus, by reciting 
the Adventures of fome of their Heroes. 

JEfchylus finding a tingle Perfon tirefome, thought to en- 
tertain the Audience more agreeably by the Introduction of 
a fecond Perfon, who mould converfe and make Dialogue 
with the firft. He Iikewife drefs'd his Actors a little more 
decently than they had been before 5 and put them on the 
Bullin. See Buskin. 

Sophocles finding the two Perfons of JEfchylus too few for 
the Variety of Incidents, added a third $ and here the 
Greeks Itopp'd ; at leaft, we don't find in any of their Tra- 
gedies, above three Perfons in the fame Scene : tho in their 
Comedies, they took a further Liberty. 

The Moderns have brought a much greater Number of 
Actors upon the Stage — This heightens the Trouble, and 
Diftrefs that mould reign there ; and makes a Diverfity, in 
which the Spectator is fure to be interefted. 

Horace fpeaks of a kind of fecondary Actors in his Time, 
whofe Bufinefs was to imitate the firft ; and leffen them- 
felves, to become better foils to their Principals. We have 
little Notion how thefe fubaltern Actors behaved. See 
Mime, Pantomime, &c. 

ACTUAL, fomething real, and effective ; or that exifts 
truly and absolutely. See Real, Existence, ££>£• 

In Philofophy, we fay, Actual Heat , or Cold ; in opposi- 
tion to Virtual or Potential. See Potential, i$c. 

Actual Heat, confider'd actively, is the Act of producing 
Heat : Paltively taken, it is the Quality whereby a Body 
is denominated Hot. — Virtual or Potential Heat, actively ta- 
ken, is the Power or Faculty of producing Heat ; paffively 
taken, it fhould be the Power or Faculty of being heated, 
or of receiving Actual Heat. See Heat, Cold, $$c. 

In Theology, we fay, Actual Grace j in op £ ofition to 
Habitual Grace. See Habitual. 

Actual Grace, is that which God gives us, to make or 
enable us to act, to do fome Action. — Habitual Grace is fanc- 
tifying Grace, a Habit of Charity, or a Habit inherent in 
the Soul, which renders us agreeable to God, and Objects of 
eternal Recompence. See Grace. 

So, Actual Sin is ufed in Oppoiition to Original Sin. See 
Sin. 

Actual Sin is that committed knowingly, by a Perfon ar- 
rived at Years of Difcretion. Original Sin is that we con- 
tract by Defcent, as being Children of Adam. See Origi- 
nal. 

ACTUATE, to bring into Act ; or put a thing in Ac- 
tion. See Act, aad Action. 

Thus, an Agent is laid by the Schoolmen to actuate a 
Power, when it produces an Act in a Subject. — And thus the 
Mind may be faid to actuate the Body. 

ACUTE, Sharp, fomething that terminates in a Point, 
or an Edge; difpofed either for piercing, or cutting. See 
Point, Edge, £yc. 

In this Senfe, the Word ufually ftands oppofed to Obtufe. 
See Obtuse. 

Acute Angle, is that which is lefs than a right Angle ; 
or which does not fubtend yo Degrees. See Angle. 

Such is the Angle AEC, (Tab. Geometry, Fig. 8d.) 

Acute- Angle Triangle, is that whofe three Angles are ail 
acute, called alfo an Oxygonous "Triangle. SeeTRiANCLE. 

Such is the Triangle A C B, (Tab. Geometry, Fig. tf8.) 

Acute- Angular Section, of a Cone, was ufed by, the an- 
tient Geometricians for the Ellipfis. See Ellipsis, and 
Cone. 

Acute, in Mufick, is underftood of a Sound, or Tone 
which is fharp, or uirill, or high, in refpect of fome other. 
See Sound. 

In this Senfe, the Word ftands oppofed to Grave. See 
Grave. 

Sounds confider'd as Acute and Grave, that is, in the Re- 
lation of Gravity and Acutenefs, conftitute what we call 

Tme-, 



ADA 



( 3 i ) 



ADD 



JTttne, the Foundation of all Harmony. Sec Tone, Con 

cord, and Harmony. 

Acute Accent, in Grammar, is that which denotes a 
Syllable to be pronounced with a high or acute Tone of 
Voice. See Accent. 

The Acute Accent, is a little Line, or Virgula, placed 
over the Vowel, a little floping or inclined in its Defcent 
from right to left ; as, '. — It is not ufed either in Englijh or 
Latin : the French indeed retain it ; but 'tis only to mark 
the Clofe or Mafculine S. 

In the antient Greek Manufcripts, the Acute Accent 
fioops a great deal more, than in the modern Writings or 
Editions. 

Acute 2)ifeafe, is that which terminates, or comes to 
its Period, in a few Days ; or, as the Phyficians exprefs it, 
cito £J? cum periculo terminatur. See Disease. 

In this Senfe, the Word Hands oppofed to Chronical. 

All Difeafes which hold above forty Days, are reputed 
Chronical. See Chronical. 

Dr. Qiiincy thinks ah Acute IDifeafe may be defined, that 
which is attended with an increafed Velocity of Biood. See 
Blood, Circulation, Heart, Pulse, &c. 

Acute 'Difeafes are the more dangerous, in that, befide 
the Violence of the Symptoms, if there be not time to 
empty the "Prima Vid?, 'tis very difficult to flop their Pro- 
grefs, and fave the Patient. T'rev. 

Acute 1)ifeafes are ufually divided into thofe properly cal- 
led Acute 5 and thofe, which by rcafon of the Vehemence 
of the Symptoms, are called Mo{l Acute. 

ACUTENESS, in Mufick, &C. that which confutes or 
denominates a Sound, &c. acute. See Acute. 

There is no fuch thing as Acutenefs and Gravity, abfolute- 
ly fo called $ they are only Relations ; fo that the fame 
Sound may be either Acute or Grave, according to that 
other Sound they refer or are compared to. See Relation. 
The Degrees of Gravity and Acutenefs, make lb many 
Tones, or Tunes of a Voice, or Sound. See Tone, Tune, 
Voice, £5?c. 

For the Caufe and Meafure of Gravity and Acutenefs, 
fee Gravity, Interval, £*jc. 

ADAGE, Adagium, a Proverb, or popular Saying. See 
Proverb, &c. 

Erafmus has made a large and valuable Collection of 
Greek and Roman Adages, from their Poets, Orators, Phi- 
lolbphers, &c. 

Adage, Proverb, and Parcemia are the firae thing 5 but 
differ from Gnomes, Sentences, and Apothegms. See Gnome, 
Sentence, Apothegm, &c. 

The Word is compounded of ad, and agor, according to 
Scaliger, £htod agatur ad aliud figmficanduin, becaufemade 
to fignify fome other thing. 

ADAGIO, in Mufick," one of the Words ufed by the 
Italians, to denote a Degree or Diftincrjon of Time. See 
Time. 

The Adagio expreffes a flow Time 5 the flowed: of any, 
except Grave. See Allegro. 

The Triple \ is ordinarily Adagio. See Triple. 
ADALLDES, in the Spamfy Policy, are Officers of Juf- 
tice, for Matters touching the Military Forces. 

In the Laws of King Alphonfm, the Adalides are fpoke 
of, as Officers appointed ro guide and direct the Marching 
of the Forces in time of War**— Lope%> reprclents 'em as 
a fort of Judges, who take Cognizance of the Differences 
arifing upon Excurfions, the Diftribution of the Plunder, g#e. 
ADAMANT, Adamas, in Natural Hiftory, &c. an an- 
tient Name for a Precious Stone, by us called a 1)iamond. 
See Diamond. 

ADAMI Tomum, Adam's Apple, in Anatomy, a little 
Prominence in the middic of the Cartilago Scutiformis. See 
Pomum Adami. 

ADAMITES, Adamitje, a Seft of antient Heretkks, 
who took upon them, to imitate the Nakednefs of Adam 5 as 
if Man had been reinftated in his original Innocence. 

They aflifted in the Temples naked, and had to do with 
Women in publick. 

'Prodicus was their Author, according to the Account gi- 
ven by I'beodoret. — They were, in reality, a Branch fprung 
out of the Carpocratians and Safilidians. See Carpocra- 
tian, and Basilidian. 

This Sect is faid to have flarted up a-frefh in the XVth 
Century, under c Picard, their Leader ^ who pretended to 
re-eftablifh rhe Laws of Nature, which, according to him, 
confifted in two things, viz,. Community of Women, and 
Nakednefs. — Thefe laft walked naked in the publick Place;-; 
whereas the former only put off their Clothes in their Aflem- 
blies. — Jovet fpeaks of Adamites in England. 
c Pr<s Adamites. See pRffi Adamites. 
The Criticks explain the Name Adam, tT-"1N f rom 
whence thefe Terms arife, varioufly 5 fome by Earth, 

others by Red, others by Acptiejcence. Some of the 

Greek Interpreters explain it Cabaliflically ; According to 
them, tne A fignifies <eW<*d, Eajl 5 2), JWw, Weft 5 A, 



d gyr&i North ; and M, ymp&ete, South t as being King 
of the four Quarters of the World : or, in that he was to 
people it ; or that he was a little World, (unawtiuf. 
ADAPTING. See Accommodation. 
We fay, to adapt, or fit a Recipient to the Capital, e£c, 
See Recipient, Alembic, £?e. 

ADDER- Stung, is ufed in refpeel of Cattel, when flung 
with any kind of venomous Reptiles 3 as Adders, Scorpions', 
&c. or bit by a Hedg-hog, or Shrew. 

ADDICE, or Adze, a /harp Tool, of the Ax-kind, but 
different from the common Ax. — It is made crooked, and by 
that means more convenient for cutting the hollow fide of 
any Board, or Timber ; being what the Coopers generally 
make ufe of for that Purpofe. 

ADDICTIO, Addiction, in the Roman Law, a Tranf- 
ferring, or paffing over Goods to another 5 whether by Sen- 
tence of a Court, or in the way of Sale, to him that bids 
molt for 'em. See Alienation. 

The Word ftands oppofed to AbdiBio, or Abdication. 
See Abdication, &c. 

It is form'd of Addico, one of the ftated Words ufed by 
the Roman Judges, when they allow'd the Delivery of the 
Thing or Perfbn on whom Judgment had pafs'd. 

Hence, Goods thus adjudg'd by the Pra;tor, to the right 
Owner, were called Sam addifia ; and Debtors deliver'd 
up in like manner to rheir Creditors, to work out their Debt, 
were called, Servi Additli. 

Addictio in fDtem, denoted the adjudging of a thing to 
a Perfon for a certain Price - 7 unlefs by fuch a Day the 
Owner, or fome other Perfon gave more for it. 

The Word is alio ufed for taking an Adminiftration, and 
paying the Debts of the Deceafed- See Administration. 
ADDITAMENT, Additamentum, a thing added to 
another. See Addition. 

Addtfame/its, in Phyfick and Chymiftry, are Things fuper- 
added to che ordinary Ingredients of any Compofition. 

ADDITION, the Act of joining one thing to another 5 
or of augmenting a thing, by the Acceflion of others there- 
to. See Augmentation, and Accession. 

In Matters of Holy Scripture, 'tis forbid to make any Ad- 
dition to the Text, tor fear of corrupting and altering the 
Senfe. — In Phyficks, we fay, that Natural Bodies are form'd 
by the Addition or Aggregation of Parts. See Aggrega- 
tion, Accretion, &c. 

Addition, is alio ufed for the Additament, or the thing 
added it felf. — In the new Editions of Books, Authors ufe 
to make Additions 5 they frequently make needlefs Addi- 
tions, in lieu of retrenching Superfluities and Impertinencies. 
'Tis an Axiom, that if to equal Quantities you add une- 
qual ones ; the Excefs of the Wholes, will be the fame as 
the Excefs of the additional Parts. 

Addition, in Arithmetick, is the firft of the four funda- 
mental Rules, or Operations of that Art. See Rule, and 
Arithmetics. 

Addition confifls in finding the Amount of feveral Num- 
bers, or Quantities feverally added one to another. Or, 

Addition is the Invention of a Number, from two or more 
homogeneous ones given, which is equal to the given 
Numbers taken jointly or together. See Number. 

This Number, thus found, is called the Sum, or Ap<*re- 
gate of the Numbers given. See Sum. 

The Character of Addition is -|-, which we ufually ex- 
prefs by <Pltts, Thus ;-|-4 denotes the Sum of 3 and 4 * 
and is read 3 plus 4. See Character. 

2"o add any given Numbers together. 

The Addition of fimple Numbers is eafy. Thus it is 
readily perceiv'd that 7 and 9, or 7-f-o make 16, and 11+15 
make 26. 

In longer, or compounded Numbers, the Bufinefs is per- 
form 'd by writing the given Numbers in a Row, downwards j 
Homogeneous under Homogeneous, i.e. Units under Units, 
Tens under Tens, &c. and fingly collecting the Sums of the 
relpective Columns. 

To do this, we begin at the bottom of the outmoft Row 
or Column, to the right ; and if the Amount of this Column 
do not exceed 9, we write it down at the Foot of the fame 
Column : If it do exceed 9, the Excefs is only to be wrote 
down, and the reft refer v'd to be carried to the next Row, 
and added thereto ; as being of the fame Kind, or Deno- 
mination. 

Suppofe, e. g. the Numbers 1357 and 1 72, were given to 
be added 5 write either of them, v. gr. 172, under the 
other, 1357 5 fo, as the Units of the one, viz. 2, 
ftand under the Units of the other, vis. 7, and the 
other Numbers of the one, under the correfpondent 
ones of the other, viz. the Place of Tens under Tens, 
as 7 under 5 ; and that of Hundreds, viz. 1, under 
the Place of Hundreds of the other, 3. — Then, be- 
ginning, fay, 2 and 7 make 9 ■> which write underneath 5 
aifo 7 and 5 make 12 5 the laft of which two Numbers, 



1357 
172 



1529 



ADD 



(V) 



ADD 



vie. i. is to be written, and the other i, referred in _your 
Mind to he added to the next Row, i and ; : then lay, I 
and i makes i, which added to 3 make 5 i this write un- 
derneath, and there will remain only 1, the firft Figure ot 
the upper Row of Numbers, which alfo muft be writ under- 
neath ; and thus you have the whole Sum, viz. 1519' , 

So, to add the Kumbers 87899+1 3A03+88 5+19*0 »nt° 
ene Sum, write them one under another, fo as all the Units 
make one Column, the Tens another, the Hundreds a 
third, and the Places of Thoufands a fourth, and io on.— 
Then fay, 5 and 3 make 8, and 8+9 make 17 j wrI,6 J 
underneath, and the 1 add to the next Rank ; faying .and 
8 make 9, 9+* make 11, and 1 1+9 make 20 ; and hav- 
ing writ the ounderneaih, fay again, 2 and 8 make IO, and 
10+9 make 19, and 19+4 make «, and 23+8 make 31 ; 
then, referving 5, write down r as before, and lay 
again, 5+1 make 4, 4+3 make 7, and ,7+7 make 87899 
14, wherefore write 4 underneath ; and laftly, fay I34°3 
1+1 make *, and 2+8 make .0, which m the 1920 

laft Place write down, and you will have the Sum »»_? 

of them all. 104107 

Audition of Numbers of different denominations, for 
inftance, of Pounds, Shillings, and Pence, is perform d by 
adding or fumming up each Denomination by it lelf, always 
beginning with the lowed ; and if after the Addition, there 
be enough to make one of the next higher Denomination, 
for inftance, Pence enough to make one or more Shillings ; 
they muft be added to the Figures of that Denomination, 
that is, to the Shillings ; only referving the odd remaining 
Pence to be put down in the Place of Pence.— And the lame 
Rule is to be obferv'd in Shillings, with regard to Pounds. 

For an inftance, 5 Pence and 9 Pence make 14 Pence ; 
now in 14 there is once 12, or a Shilling, and two re- 
maining Pence ; the Pence, fet down ; and referve 1 Shil- 
ling to be added to the next Column, which ; f ^ 
confilts of Shillings. Then 1 and 8 and 2 ^ Q j p 
and 5 make 16 : the 6 put down, and carry 6J rJ ? 
the 1 to the Column of Tens ; 1 and 1 and „ 8 o 

1 make three Tens of Shillings, or 30 Shil- r , 

lings; in 30 Shillings there is once 20 Shil- l6 z 

lings, or a Pound, and 10 over : write one 
in the Column of Tens of Shillings, and carry 1 to the Co- 
lumn of Pounds; and continue the Addition of Pounds, ac- 
cording to the former Rules. 

Addition of 'Decimals, is perform'd after the latne 
manner as that of Whole Numbers ; as may be feen in the 
following Example. See alfo Decimal. 

630.953 

51.0807 
305.27 



987.3037 

Addition of Vulgar Fractions, fee under the Article 
Fraction. . 

Addition, in Algebra, or the Addition of Species, is 
nerform'd by connecting the Quantities to be added by 
their proper Signs ; and alfo by uniring into one Sum, thole 
that can be fo united. See Quantity, Species, &c. 

Thus, a and b make a-\-b ; a and — b make a— b ; —a 
a „a — I make — a— b ; -a and 9a make 7«+9« ; — aV ac 
and b^/ac make— a^/ac+b^ae, or b^/ ac— a-/ac ; for it 
is all one in whatever Order they be written. 

But, particularly, 1°, Affirmative Quantities of the fame 
Species or Kind, are united by adding the prefix d Num- 
bers whereby the Species are multiplied. See Positive. 

Thus, Ta+9a make 16a. And nbc-\-i^bc make z6bc. 
Alfo 5 i+5- make 8 - ; and i^ac+T/ac make 91/ac; 
6^ab—xx-\-T/ab—xx make \%t/ ab— xx. And in like 
manner 6/3+7/3 make 13/3- A g ain > a/ac+b^ac 
make a+bV<» c i b y adding together a and b, as Numbers 
mulriplying/rfc. And fo za+^c</jfxx— x' +ja^/^axx— x> 
a-\-a a-\-x 

make iHW 3***—*' r,nce zll +' c and 3 " make 
a-\-x 

' 1° Affirmative Fractions, which have the fame Denomi- 
nator, are added together by adding their Numerators. 



tax $ax 
Thus, {+-s make *, and -j- +-%- 



Say^.JTpt™ mak e 




b "f * 



; and thus 
hx 



-+7^, and -7+7 make 



See Fraction. 



, u Negative Quantities are added after the fame manner 
as Affirmative."*^™^- ^ 

Thus, -2 and -3 make -5 i — J <""> y make 



__—^— - — a^ax and — b>/ax make — a — b\/ax. 

When a Negative Quantity is to be added to an affirmative 

one ; the Affirmative muft be diminifh'd by a Negative one. 

nax 4ax jaz 

Thus, 3 and — 2 make 1 ; -j— and — ~j make -r- 

— a<Jac and b^ac make b — a>/ac. 

And note, that when the negative Quantity is greater 
than the Affirmative, the Aggregate or Sum will be Nega- 

x\ax $ax 

tive. Thus, 2 and — 3 make — 13 — ~J~ and -j- make 

lax 
— —7- ; and 2</ac and — f/ac make — 5/flC. 

Addition of Irrational Quantities. — If they be of dif- 
ferent Denominations, reduce 'em to the fame Denomina- 
tion ; and if they be then commenfurable, add the Ratio- 
nal Quantities without the Vinculum ; and to their Sum pre- 
fix the Radical Sign.— The reft as in the Addition of Ra- 
tional. 

Thus, we lhallfind 1 /8+/i8=2/+3 /2=5/2=5o. 
On the contrary, / 7 and / 5 being incommenfurable, their 
Sum will be •/7+V / 5- 

Addition, in Law, is that Name, or Title which is 
given to a Man, over and above his proper Name and Sir- 
name ; to fliew of what Eftate, Degree, or Myftery he is ; 
and of what Town, Village, or Country. 

Additions of Eftate, or Quality, are Yeoman, Gentle- 
man, Efquire, and fuch like. See Yeoman, Gentleman, 
Esojiire, &c. . 

Additions of Degree, are thofe we call Names of Digniry ; 
as, Knight, Lord, Earl, Marauifs, and Duke. See Knight, 
Lord, Duke, gjjc. 

Additions of Myftery, are fuch as Scrivener, 'Painter, 
Mafon, &c. 

Additions of 'Place, are, of Thorp, of Dale, of Wood- 
ftock.— Where a Man hath Houftiold in two Places, he Ihall 
be faid to dwell in both ; fo that his Addition in either may 
fuffice. . 

Knave was antiently a regular Addition. See Knave. 

By Stat. 1 Hen. V. it was ordained, that in Suits or Acti- 
ons where Procefs of Outlawry lies ; fuch Additions mould 
be made to the Name of the Defendant, to fhew his Eftate, 
Myftery, and Place where he dwells ; and that the Writs, not 
having fuch Additions, lhall abate, if the Defendant take 
Exception thereto ; but not by the Office of the Court.— 
The Reafon of this Ordinance was, that one Man might 
not be troubled by the Outlawry of another ; but by rea- 
fon of the certain Addition, every Perfon may bear his 
own Burden. See Cud-Church. 

ADDOUBORS, in Law. See Redubbors. 

ADDUCENT Mufcles, or Adductors, are thofe which 
bring forward, clofe, or draw together, the Parts of the Bo- 
dy whereto they are annexed. See Muscle. 

The Word is compounded of ad, to, and duco, I draw, or 
bring to. 

Adducents, or Adductors, Hand oppofed to Abducents or 
Abdutlors. See Abducent, and Abductor. 

ADDUCTION, in Anatomy, the Motion or Action of 
the Adducent Mufcles. See Adducent, and Adductor. 

ADDUCTOR Oculi, a Mufcle of the Eye ; fo called, 
becaufe it inclines its Pupil toward the Nofe. See Eve. 

It is alfo called Bibitorius ; becaufe it directs the Eye to- 
ward the Cup in drinking. See Bibitory. 

Adductor Pollicis, is a Mufcle of the Thumb, which 
arifes tendinous, and afcends obliquely towards a broad Ter- 
mination, at the fuperior Part of the firft Bone of the Thumb. 
— Its Office is to bring the Thumb near the Fore-finger. See 
Finger. 

Adductor Pollicis Pedis, called alfo Antithenar, is a 
Mufcle of the great Toe, which arifes from the inferior Part 
of the Os Cuneiforms tertium, and is inferted into the in- 
ternal Part of the OJfa Seffamoidea of the great Toe ; which 
it draws nearer rhe reft. 

Adductor Jndicis, is a Mufcle of the Fore-finger, ari- 
fing from the infide of the Bone of the Thumb, and inferted 
into the firft Bone of the Fore-finger, which it draws to- 
wards the Thumb. 

Adductor minimi digiti Pedis. See Transversalis 
•Pedis. 

ADELING, or Ethling, from the Saxon JEdelan, q.d. 
Nobilis i a Title of Honour among the Englijb Saxons, pro- 
perly belonging to the Succeffor, or Heir Apparent of the 
Crown. See Prince,^. 

King Edward the Confeflor being without Iflue, and in- 
tending to make Edgar, to whom he was great Uncle by 
the Mother's fide, his Heir ; firft called him his Adeling. 

Now, Antiquaries obferve, that it was ufual for the Saxons 
to join the Word Ling to the Chriftian Name, which fignify'd 
a Son, or the Younger ; as Edmundling for the Son of Ed- 
mund: fo that Adeling fignify'd the Son of a King. See 

KlNG " ADEMP- 



A D E 



C 33 ) 



ADEMPTION", Ademptio, in the Civil Law, the Re- 
vocation of a Grant, Donation, or the like. 

The Ademption of a Legacy, may be either Exprejs ; as 
when the Teftator declares in form, that he revokes what 
he had bequeathed : Or Tacit, as when he only revokes 
it indirectly, or implicitly. 

ADEPS, in Anatomy, a Species of Fat, found in the Ca- 
vities of the Abdomen. See Fat. 

The Adeps differs from the common Fat, called ^Pingue- 
do ; in that it is thicker, harder, and of a more earthy Sub- 
Jtance. See. Pinguedo. 

The Adeps is much the fame with what we call Scvzim, 
Suet, or Leaf. See Sevum. 

Adeps is alfo ufed by the Phyflcians, as a general Name 
for Fat of either Kind. 

The Adeps Anjeris, Goofe's Fat ; Adept Canis, Fat of a 
Dog ; Adeps Hominis, Fat of a Man ; Adeps Vipers, Vi- 
pers Far ; and Adeps Urfi, Bears Fat, are all ufed in Medi- 
cine, in quality of Ripeners, or Drawers ; as being of a pe- 
netrating Nature, and thereby fuited to diffolvc and rarity 
the Tumors, and bring 'em as it were to Maturity. See 

RlPENER. 

The fpecific Virtues afcribed to certain of 'em, do not 
feern well warranted. Sec Fat, Viper, £$c. 

ADEPTS, Adepti, a Denomination given to the Profi- 
cients in Alchymy ; particularly thofe who pretend to the 
Secrets of the Philolbpher's Stone, and the Univerfal Medi- 
cine. See Alchymy, Philosopher's Stone, Transmuta- 
tion, Elixir, &c. 

Ripley, Lully, Varacelfus, Helmont, Hollandus, Centivoglio, 
&c. are the Principal among the Adept?. See Chymistry. 

The Word is Latin, Adeptus, form'd of the Verb a'dipif- 
cor, I obtain. 

'Tis a fort of Tradition among the Akhymift?, that there 
are alwa\s twelve Adepti ; and that their Places are imme- 
diately fupplied by others, whenever it pleafes any of the 
Fraternity ro die, or transmigrate into fome other Place, 
where he may make ufe of his Gold ; for that in this wick- 
ed World it will fcarce purchafe 'em a Shirt. -Harris. 

ADEQUATE, Adjequatum, fomething equal to, or co- 
■extended with, another ; and filling the whole Meafure 
and Capacity thereof See Equality. 

In this S^nfe, the Word Hands oppofed to Inadequate. 
See Inadequate. 

Adequate Ideas, or Notions, are fuch Images or Con- 
ceptions of an Object, as perfectly reprefent it, or anfwer 
the Parts and Properties of it. See Idea. 



ADJ 

anijls hold. 



ner different from what the Romanijls hold. See EucnA- 

RIST, &G. 

The Adejjenarii, call'd alfo Impanatores, are divided in- 
to four different Opinions touching the Point. — 'Some hold 
that the Body of Jjfus Chrift is in the Bread ; others, that 
it is about the Bread ; others, that it is with the Bread y 
and lailly, others, that it is under the Bread. See Impana- 
tion. 

The Name Adejjenarii was firft framed by c FrateoluSi 
from the Latin Verb adejje, to be prefent. 
ADFECTED Equation. See Equation. 
ADHESION, Adherence, in Phyficks, the State of 
two Bodies which are join'd or faften'd to each other, either 
by the mutual Interpcfition of their own Parts; or the Com- 
preffion of external Bodies. See Cohesion, and Nexus. 

The Word is compounded of the Latin ad y and hcereo t I 
flick or cleave to. 

Anaromifls lometlmes obferve Adbejions of the Lungs to 
the Sides of the Thorax, the Pleura, and Diaphragms, 
which give occafion to various Diforders. See Lungs, Pleu- 
ra, Pleurisy, Phthisis, Peripneumony, &c. 

The Adbejion of two polifiYd Planes, or two Hemifpheres, 
is a Phenomenon urg'd in behalf of the Weight and Pref- 
fure of the Atmofphcre. See Atmosphere. 

The Schoolmen diltinguifh two Kinds of Certitude : the 
one of Speculation, which arifes from the Evidence of the 
Thing 5 and the other of Adbejion, which has nothing 
to do with Evidence, but arifes putely from the Importance 
of the Matter, and the Intereit we have in its Truth. See 
Certitude, Testimony, Truth, Evidence, £j?c 

ADJACENT, or Adjoining, fomething contiguous, or 
fituate near another. See Contiguous. 

The Word is compounded of ad, to, and jacere, to lie. 
Adjacent Angle. See Angle. 

AD1APHORISTS, Adiaphoristje, Adiaphorites, 
a Name given in the XVIth Century to the moderate 
Lutherans, who adher'd to the Sentiments of MelanBon ; 
and afterwards to thole who fubferib'd the Interim of 
Charles V. See Lutheran. 

The fame Name might alfo be applied to thofe now called. 
Indifferentijis. See Indifferentist. 

The Word is originally Greek, etJ^c?©-, indifferent. 
ADIAPHOROUS, Adiaphorus, q. d. Indifferent, or 
Neutral ; a Name given by Mr. Boyle to a Kind of Spi- 
rit difliti'd from Tartar and fome other Vegetable Bodies ; 
and which is neither Acid, Vinous, nor Urinous ; but iii 
many refpects different from any other fort of Spirit. See 



M. Leibnitz defines an Adequate Notion, to be that of Spirit 5 fee alfo Neutral. 
whofe feveral Characters we have diflinct Ideas. — Thus, a Cir- 
cle being defined a Figure bounded by a Curve Line which re- 
turns inro it felf, and whole Points are all equally diflant from 
a certain intermediate Point therein : Our Notion of a Circle is 
adequate, if we have diflinct Ideas of all thefe Circumlfan- 
ccs, viz. a Curve returning upon it felf, a middle Point, an 
Equality of Diflance, &c. See Notion, Definition, &c. 
All Simple Ideas are adequate and perfect ; and the Fa- 
culty, be it what it will, that excites them, reprefents them 
entire. See Simple Idea. 

The Ideas of Modes are Hkewife adequate, or perfect ; 
except of thofe Modes which occafionally become Subitan- 
ces : for when we fpeak of Modes feparately exifting, we 
only confider them feparate from the Subirance by way of 
Abltr-action. See Mode, Accident, &c. 

All Abflract Ideas are alfo adequate and perfect ; fince 
they reprefent all that Part of the Subject which we then 
confider. — Thus, the Idea of Roundncfs is perfect, or ade- 
quate, becaufe it offers to the Mind all that is in Roundncfs, 
in general. See Abstract. 

Of the fame Kind are all Ideas, of which we know no 
Original or external Object really exifting out of them; by 

occafion of which they were excited in us, and of which we Object it felt" whereof we fpe 
think them the Images. — Thus, when a Dog is before us, it 
is the external Object without us which raifes the Idea in 
our Mind ; but the Idea of an Animal in genera], has no 
external Object to excite it: 'tis created by the Mind it felf, 
and mult of Necefiity be adequate, or perfect. See Ab- 
straction. 

On the contrary, the Ideas of all Subftances are inadequate 
and imperfect, which are not form'd at the Pleafure of the 
Mind, but gather'd from certain Properties, which Experi- 
ence difcovers in them. See Suiistance. 

This is evident, in regard our Knowledge of Subftances is 
very defective ; and that we are only acquainted with fome 
of their Properties : Thus, we know that Silver is white, 
that it is malleable, that it melts, Hfc. but we do not know 
what further Properties it may have ; and are wholly igno- 
rant of the inward Texture of the Particles whereof it con- 
iiih. — Our Idea of Silver therefore, not reprefenting to the 
Mind all the Properties of Silver, is inadequate "and im- 
perfect. 

ADESSENARII, a Sefl in Religion, who hold that Je- 
'". really prefent in the Eucharitt ; but in a man- 



fus Chriit i 



ADJECTIVE, Noun Adjective, or Adnoun, in Gram- 
mar, a Kind of Noun joined with a Noun Subfrantive ei- 
ther exprefs'd or understood, to itiew its manner of be- 
ing, that is, its Qualities or Accidents. Sec Noun, ££fc. 

The Word is form'd of the Latin adjicere, to add to; as 
being to be added to a SuhAantive, without which it has no 
precife Signification at all. 

Father Buffier defines Adjcfflve in a new manner, and 
fets it in a Light different from that cf other Grammari- 
ans. Nouns, according to him, are Subflantives, when 

the Objects which they reprefent are confider'd limply, and 
in themfelves, without any regard to their Qualities : On 
the contraty, they are Adjectives, when they exprefs the 
Quality of an Object. See Quality. 

Thus, when I fay finiply, a Heart ; the Word Heart is a 
Subitantive, becaufe none of its Qualities are exprefs'd ; 
but when 1 fay a generous Heart, the Word generous is an 
AdjeBive ; becaufe it adds a Quality or Attribute to the 
Heart. 

Adjc&hes, then, feem to be nothing elfe but Modifica- 
tives. — In effect, the End of an Adjebltve being only to ex- 
prefs the Qualities of an Object ; if that Quality be the 
k, it becomes a Subflantive 5 
e.g. If I fay, this Book is good ; good, here, is an Adjeffive : 
But if I fay, Good is always to be chojen, 'tis evident Good 
is the Subject I fpeak of; and confequently, Good there is a 
Subitantive. 

On the contrary, it often happens in other Languages, 
and fometimes in our own, that a Subitantive becomes an 
Adjetlive ; as for inftance, in thefe Words, the King, Hero 
as he is, remembers he is a Man : Where the Word Hero, 
tho ordinarily a Subflantive, is yet apparently an Adjetlive. 

From this new Idea of an AdjeBive, it appears that many 
of the Nouns which, in the common Grammars, are ac- 
counted Subflantives are really AdjeBives, and vice verfa ; 
Grammar, in this and a thoufmd other Inltances depending 
upon Cuflom. See Substantive. 

AD Inquirendum, a. Writ Judicial, commanding Inquiry 
to be made of any thing touching a Caufe depending in the 
King's Court, for the better Execution of Juftice ; as of Ba- 
ftardy, and fuch like. See Writ. 

ADJOINING, Adjunctio, in Philofophy, gfe Se* 
Adjunct, and Adjunctio. 

K Ap- 



A D J 



Adjoining is particularly us'd for the Aftbciating of a 
F/erfon to another - y or appointing him a Collegue, or Ad- 
junB. See Adjunct, &c. 

ADJOURNMENT, the putting off a Court, or Meet- 
ing j and appointing it to I?e kept at another Time, or Place. 
See Court, &c. 

In this Senfe, we meet with the Phrafe Adjournment in 
Eyre, for an Appointment of a Day when the Juftices in 
Eyre intend to fit again. See Justice, Eyre, £»c. 

Adjournments of Parliament differ from Prorogations. See 
Prorogation. 

Each Houfe has the Privilege of adjourning it felf. See 
Parliament. 

The Word is form'd of the Latin ad, to, and the Trench 
pur, Day $ q. d. to another 0ay. 

ADIPOSA, or Adefosa Memhrana, in Anatomy, is a 
Membrane inverting the Body, immediately under the Cu- 
tis ; fuppofed to be*' the Bafis of the Fat, which is lodg'd in 
the Spaces between its Fibres, and in peculiar Cells form'd 
herein. See Fat, Cutis, Cell, l$c. 

Anatomills are divided as to the Reality of this Mem- 
brane 5 molt of the later Writers taking it to be no other 
than the exterior Membrane of the Memhrana Camofa, or 
Mufculorum Communis. See Membrane, Carnosa, £5c. 

Vafa Adiposa, Fat-Vejjels, make a Part of the Subitance 
of the Omentum, or Caul. See Omentum. 

ADIPOSE Cells, CeUuUe Adiposje, or Loculi Adifosi. 
See Cellule Adipofe. 

Adipose 2)u£is, 1)u&m Adiposi. See Ductus Adi- 
pofi. 

Malpighi (tarts a Doubt whether the Adipofe 2)u£fs may 
not be propagated from the Fibres which abound in the 

Spleen $ or thofe Fibres from them ?• As alfo, whether 

there be not a yet undifcover'd Communication between the 
Omentum and the Memhrana Adipcfa. 

ADIT, Aditus, the Shaft, or Entrance into a Mine, 
Quarry, or the like. See Mine, Quarry, ££Jc. 

ADJUDGE, in Law. — When a determinate Sentence is 
pafs'd in the Behalf of any one, the Cafe is faid to be ad- 
judged for him. See Sentence. 

We have various Collections of Decrees, Reports, Ad- 
judged Cafes, &c. See Common Law. 

ADJUDICATION, the Aft of adjudging; or of giving 
any thing by Sentence, Decree, or Judgment. See Ad- 
judged, and Judcment. 

The Word is particularly ufed for the Addiction or Con- 
figning a thing fold by Cant, Auction, or the like, to the 
highert Bidder. See Addictio. 

ADJUNCTIO, a mere external joining, or adding of one 
thing to another. See Addition. 

All AdjunBion implies a Subordination. — The AdjunB is 
for the fake of the Thing it is join'd to, not contrarywile ; 
as, the Clothes for the Man 5 not the Man for the Clothes.— 
Whatever is a Part of a thing, cannot be called an Ad- 
junct of it. See Adjuncts. 

There are various Species of AdjunBion $ viz. Adhefion, 
Appofition, Adjacency, Accubation, Incubation, Impofltion, 
AJJijJion, &lc. See Adhesion, Apposition, £f?c. 

ADJUNCT, Adjunctum, in Philofbphy, fomething ad- 
ded to a Being from without. See Adjunctio. 

Or, an AdjunB is an Additament or Acceffion to a thing, 
not eflentiaily belonging to it, but only accidental thereto. 
See Accident. 

There are two Kinds of AdjanBs ; the one, a Subftancc 
(whether Spirit or Body) accidentally fuperadded to ano- 
ther, as its Subject. — Such is Water in a Spunge, or VefTel, 
and the Soul in the Body. See Substance. 

The fecond an Attribute, or Mode, accidentally likewife 
fuperadded to a Subflance ; whether Body or Spirit. — Such 
is Figure in a Body, Knowledge in the Mind, ££c. See 
Mode, 

Some divide Adjtinfts into Ahfolute $ which agree to the 
whole thing, without any Limitation : Thus, Pafitons are 
Ahfolute AdjmiBs of a Man. — And Limited ; which only 
agree to their Subject, in relpect-of fome certain Part there- 
of: Thus, Man only thinks, confider'd as to his Mind j only 
grows, as to his Body, &c. 

In Ethicks, we ufually reckon feven Adjuncts, popularly 
ealfd Circumfbances ; £>jiis, quid, ubi, quibus auxitiis, cur, 
quomodo, quando. See Circumstance. 



(34) 



ADM 



Mini (try, to mare the Functions thereof, or even hav e an 
Eye to his Actions. See Collegue. 

AD Jura Regis, is a Writ that lies for the King's Clerk 
againft him that fought to eject him, to the Prejudice of'ihe 
King's Title in right of his Crown. See Writ. 

ADJURATION, a Part of Exorcifm, wherein the De- 
vil is commanded, in the Name of God, to depart out of 
the Body of the Poffetfed, or to declare fomething, g ee 
Exorcism, Possession, £5?c. 

The Word is Latin, form'd of adjurare, to adjure ; of 
ad, and juro, I fwear. See Conjuration. 

ADJUTANT, an Officer in the Army, whofe Bufincfs 
is to aid or affift the Major. See Major. 

Adjutant is the fame that we orhetwife call Aid Major. 
See Aid Major. 

The Term is fometimes alfo ufed for an Aid de'Caifcf. 
See Aid dc Camp. 

The Word is form'd of the Latin adjutare, to help, affift. 

ADJUTORIUM, in Anatomy, a Bone of the Arm 5 f u 
called, as being ufeful in lifting it up. See Bone, and 
Arm. 

ADMEASUREMENT, Admensuratio, a Writ which 
lies for the bringing thofe to Reafon, or Mediocrity, that 
ufurp more than their Share. See Writ. 

This Writ lies in two Cafes ; the one termed Admeafure- 
ment of "Dower, Admenfuratio 2)ctis, where the Widow of 
the Deccafed holds more from the Heir or his Guardian, 
on account of her Dower, than of right belongs to her. See 
Dower. 

The other Admeafurement of'Paflure, Admenfuratio'Paf- 
turce, which lies between thofe who have common of Failure 
appendant to their Freehold, or common by Vicinage, in 
cafe any of them furcharge the Common with more Cattle 
than they ought. See Common. 

ADMINICLE, Adminicule, Adminiculum, a Term 
ufed in fome antient Statutes, tor Aid, Help, or Support. 
See Aid, &c. 

- In the Civil Jurifprudence, Admiuicuhan fignifies the 
Beginning of a Proof 5 an imperfect Proof 5 a Circumftance 
or Conjecture, tending to form or fortify a Proof. 

Among Antiquaries, the Term Admmicules is applied to 
the Attributes, or Ornamenrs wherewith Juno is reprefented 
on Medals. See Attribute. 

ADMINISTRATION, the Government, or Direaion 
of Affairs ; particularly the Exercife of diftributive Juftice. 
See Government, and Justice. 

Indolent Princes confide the Adminiflration of publick Af- 
fairs to their Minilters. See Minister. 

Civil Wars are ufually rais'd on Pretence of Male-Admi- 
niflration $ or of Abufes committed in the Exercife ot Juf- 
tice. See War. 

Administration, in Law, fignifies the difpofing of a 
Man's Goods, or Eftate, that died inteftate, or without any 
Will ; with an Intent to give an Account thereof. See Ad- 
ministrator, Intestate, &c. 

Inffruments, or Powers of Adminiflraticn, are taken out 
in the Prerogative Court. See Prerogative. 

Administration is fometimes alfo ufed for the Direc- 
tion of the Affairs of a Minor, a Pupil, a Lunatick, or the 
like. See Minor, Pupil, Tutor, &c. fee alfo Guar- 
dian. 

Administration is alfo ufed in refpect of Ecclefiaftical 
Functions. — The Parfon has the Administration of the Sacra- 
ments in his Parifh. See Parson, Parish, &c. — The Ad- 
minifiration of the Sacrament is prohibited to Perfons ex- 
communicate. See Excommunication. 

In Beneficiary Matters, they diftinguifh. two Kinds of 
Adminiflration $ "Temporal, which relates to the Temporal- 
ties of a Benefice, Diocefe, &c. and Spiritual^ to which 
belong the Power of excommunicating, &c. See Tempo- 
ralty, ££c. 

ADMINISTRATOR, in Law, he to whom the Ordi- 
nary commits the Adminiflration of the Goods of a dead 
Man, in default of an Executor. See Administration, 
Wile, Executor, ^c. 

An Action lies for or againfl an Adminiflrator, as for an 
Executor $ and he Jliall be accountable to the Value of the 

Goods of the Deceas'd, and no further. Unlefs there be 

Wafte or other Abufe chargeable on him. 

If the Adminiflrator die, his Executors are not Admini- 



Adjuncts, inRhetorick and Grammar, are certain Words (Iratcrs ; but the Court is to orant 



or Things added to others ; to amplify the Difcourfe 
augment its Force. See Amplification, &c. 

Such are Adjectives, Attributes, and Epithets, which are 
added to Subftantives, Subjects, 2?c, to exprels their Nature 
Qualities, Accidents, gfa See Adjective, Attribute 
Epithet, &c. 

Arguments drawn from AdjunBs, are Supplements or In- 



Adn 



minmration.- 



fotcements of the Proof anting from the Orcumflances of ficer, who commands the Naval Forces of a Kingdom or 



If a Stranger, who is neither Mminifirator nor Executor, 
take the Goods of the Deceafed, and adminifter ; he /hall 
be charged and fued as an Executor, not as an Admini- 
flrator. 

If a Woman have Goods thus committed to her Charge, 
or Adminiflration, fhe is called Adminiftrstrix. 

ADMIRAL, Admiralius, Aemirallos, a great Of- 



the Fact. See Circumstance, &c 

Adjunct, is alfo ufed in Civil Concerns, for a Collegue, 
or Fellow-OrHcer, aflociatcd to another, to affift him in his' 

3 



State ; and before whom all Caufcs are cognizable," relating 
to the Sea. See Navv, Sea, &c t 

Authors 



ADM 



(35) 



ADO 



Authors are divided about the Origin and Denomina- 
tion of this important Officer, whom we find ertablifli'd, 
with Tome Variation, in molt Kingdoms that border on the 

Sea. Some borrow it from the Greeks ; the Captain of 

the Seas, under the Emperors of Conftanrwople, being 
called Amtralim or AlntiraltSi of«A/w?@-, Saline 5 or oa^h, 
Salt Water., and *fx©"» frincep ; in regard his Jurifdiclion 
lay on the Sea, which the Latins call Sahrm. — But it is to 
be obferv'd, that this Officer had not the fupreme Admini- 
ftration of Naval Affairs ; that immediately beiong'd to the 
2)ux Magnus, or grand General 5 to whom the Amiralius 
was fubordinate, in Quality of Protocomes, firft Count, or 
Affociate. See Comes. 

Others derive the Name from the Arabic Amir or Emir, 
Lord ; and the Greek csaw, Marine : and accordingly, we 
frequently find Emir in TuOfiaras, Ccdrenus, Nicetas, and 
other Greeks of that Time, ufed in the Senfe of a Com- 
mander. — Add, that in the Life of St. 'Peter 'Thomafitis, we 
meet with Admiratus Jerusalem, for the Governor of Je- 
rusalem, under the Soldan of Egypt. A nd hence, fome will 
have both the Name and the Dignity of Oriental, and even 
Sara-zen Extraction : As, in effect, there are no Inftances of 
Admirals in this Part of Europe, before the Year 12845 
when 'Philip of France, who had attended St. Louis to the 
Wars agairift the Sarazens, created an Admiral. 

To fay no more, 2)« Cange affures us, that the Sicilians 
were the firft, and the Genoefe the next after 'em, who gave 
the Denomination Admiral to the Commanders of their 
Naval Armaments ; and that they took it from thcSarazenor 
Arabic Amir, a general Name for any commanding Officer. 
— The Rr'A Admiral we read of in our Engltjh Affairs, was 
under Ed-ward I. 

The Lord High Admiral of England, in fome antient 
Records called Capitaneus Marimorum, is Judge or Presi- 
dent of the Court of Admiralty. See Apmiral's Court. 

He takes Cognizance, by hitnfcUi his Lieutenant, or De- 
puties, of all Crimes committed on the Sea, or the Coafts 
thereof; and all the Civil and Marine Transitions relating 
thereto : As alfo of what is done in all great Ships, riding 
in any great River, beneath the Bridges thereof next the 
Sea. 

Antiently, the Admiral had alfo Jurifdiclion in all Caufes 
of Merchants and Mariners ; not oniy on the Sea, but in all 

foreign Parts. -We have had no High Admiral for fome 

Years ; the Office being pur in Commiffion, or under the 
Administration of the Lords Cotmmfjioners of 'the Admiralty. 
See Commission. 

Admiral is alfo ufed for the Commander in Chief of a 
finglc Fleet, or Squadron. See Fleet. 

Thus, we fay, the Admiral of the Red; Admiral of the 
White ; and Admiral of the Blue. See Squadron, Na- 
vy, &c. 

The Term is alfo applied to all Flag-Officers : In which 
Scnfe it includes Vice-Admirals and Rear -Admirals. See 
'S'LLG-Officer. 

Rear- Admiral.? « SRear- Admiral. 
K/w- Admiral. S cV 'ice- Admiral. 

Vice- Admiral, is alfo an Officer appointed by the Lord 
High Admiral, in divers Parts of the Kingdom, with Judges 
and Mar/hals fubordinate to him; for the exercifing of Ju- 
rifdiftion in Maritime Affairs, within their refpeftive Limits. 
There are upwards of twenty Vice- Admirals. — From their 
Decifions and Sentences, Appeal lies to the Court of Admi- 
ralty in London. 

There are alfo Admirals of the Galleys. See Galley. 
Monjlre/et makes mention of an Admiral of the Archers, 
cr Crofs-bo-zv-Men. 

Admiral, is likewife the Name of the principal Veffel 
of a Fleet, which carries the Admiral on board. See Fleet, 
Navy, SSfc. 

When two Ships of War, bearing the fame Colours, meet 
in the fame Port ; thar which arrived firit, has the Title 
aad Prerogative of Admiral ; and^hc other, tho of greater 
Strength and Rate, fhall only be accounted Vice- Admiral. — 
'Tis pretty much the fame with the Veffels that go to 
Newfoundland: : that which arrives there the firll, taking 
the Title and Quality of Admiral, which it retains during 
the whole fifhing Seafon. See Fishery. 

Admiral's Court, or the High Court of Admiralty, is 
a Court held by the High Admiral ; to which belongs the 
Decifion of all Maritime Controvcrfies, Trials of Malefac- 
tors, and the like. See Court, and Admiral. 

The Proceedings in this Court, in all Civil Matters, are 
according to the Civil Law ; becaufe the Sea is without the 
Limits of the Common Law, and under the Admiral's Ju- 
rifdiclion. See Civil Law. 

In Criminal Affairs, which ordinarily relate to Piracy, the 
Proceedings in this Court were antiently likewife by Infor- 
mation and Accufarion, according to the Civil Law ; but 
that being found inconvenient, in regard no Perfon could be 
convifted without either their own Confeffion, or an Eye- 
witnefs of the Faft, fo that the greateft Offenders often 



efcap'd with Impunity : there were two Statutes made by 
Henry VIII. enacting, That Criminals Ihould henceforth be 
here tried by Wirneffcs and a Jury ; and this by fpecial 
Commiffiun from the King to the Lord Admiral : wherein 
fome or the Judges of the Realm are always to be Com- 
miffioners; and the Trial according to the Laws q{ England % 
directed by rhofe Statutes. , See Jury, Trial, &c. 

The Court of AdmiraPty, is faid to have been firlt erect- 
ed in 1357, by King Edward III. To the Civil Law, 

firlt inrrodue'd by the Founder, were afterwards added, by 
his Succeffots, particularly Richard I. the Laws of Oleron ; 
and the Marine Ufcs and Conflitutions of leveral People 5 
as thofe of Genoa, Tifa, Marfeiiles, Mefjina, &e. See Q- 
leron, and Uses. 

Under this Court is alfo a Court-Merchant, or Court of 
Equity ; wherein all Differences between Merchants are de- 
cided, according to the Rules of the Civil Law. See Mer- 
chant. 

Between the Courts of Admiralty and Common Law, 
there fcems to be divifnm imperium ; for in the Sea, fo 
far as the Low- Water Mark, is accounted infra corpus co~ 
mitatus adjaceiitis ; and the Caufes thence arifing are de- 
terminable by the Common Law : yet when the Sea is full, 
the Admiral has Jurisdiction there alfo fo long as the Sea 
flows, over Matters done between the Low- Water Mark and 
the Shore. See Common-Za-iw. 

ADMIRALTY.— —Court of Admiralty, Commiffio- 
ners of the Admiralty, &c. See Admiral, Admiral's 
Court, &C. 

Among the Hollanders, rhe Five Admiralties, are fo ma- 
ny Chambers, compofed of the Deputies of the Nobles, the 
Provinces, and the Towns ; to whom belong the equipping 
out of Fleets, and the lurni/hing Provifions tor 'cm. 

ADMIRATION, in Grammar, a P( int or Character, in- ' 
timating fomething worthy to be admired cr wonder'd at. — 
It is cxpreffed thus ( !). See Character. 

ADMISSION, Admissio, in the Ecclefiaftical Law, the 
Aft whereby the Bifliop, upon Examination, admits or al- 
lows a Clerk to be able, or competently qualify M for the 
Office ; which is done by the Formula Admitto te habdem. 
See Presentation, Induction, Institution,^- 

ADMITTENDO Cierico, is a Writ granted to him who 
hath recovet'd his Right of Prefenraiion ag.inft the Bifliop 
in the Common Pleas. See Patron. 

Admittendo in Socium, is a Writ for the Affociation of 
certain Pcrfons to Jultices of Affize formerly appointed. See 
Justice, and Assize. 

ADNATA, in Anatomy, a pretty thick white Membrane, 
invetling the Ball of the Eye; called alfo Conyimtliva. See 
Tunic, and Conjunctiva. 

The Adnata makes what we commonly call the White of 
the Eye -j whence it is alfo called the Albtigifiea. SeeEYE,g£e. 
AD Oblo, q. d. to the. eighth Number ; a Term ufed by 
fome antient Philofophers, to denote the higheft or fuperla- 
tive Degree ; becaufe in their way of diftinguifhing Quali- 
ties, they rcckon'd no Degree above the Eighth. See De- 
gree, Humour, Quality, £J?g. 

ADOLESCENCE, Adolescenti a, theState of Youth; 
or that Period of a Perfon 's Age commencing from his In- 
fancy, and terminating at his full Growth. See Age. 

The State of Adolefcence laits fo long as the Fibres conti- 
nue to grow, either in Magnitude or Firmnefs. See Fibre, 
Nutrition, G?g. 

It is commonly computed to be between 15 and 25, or 
even 50 Years of Age ; tho, in different Constitutions its 
Terms are very different.— The Romans ufually reckon d it 
from 12 to 25 in Boys ; and to 21 in Girls. See Puberty, 
tfc. — And yet, among their Writers, Juvenis and Adolefcens 
are frequently ufed indifferently, for any Perfon under 45 
Years. 

The Word is form'd of the Latin adolefco, I grow. 

The Fibres being arrived at the degree of Firmnefs, and 
Tenfion fufficientto fuftain the Parts, nolongeryield and give 
way to the Efforts of the Nutritious Matter, to extend 'em : So 
that their farther Accretion is flopp'd from the very Law of 
their Nutrition. See Solid, Death, &c. 

ADONIA, or Adonic Feajis, were antient Feafts, infii- 
tuted in honour of Adonis ; and obferved with great Solem- 
nity among the Greeks, Egyptians, &c. See Feast. 

They were begun by the Women ; who imitated the 
Cries and Lamentations of Venus, for the Death of her Pa- 
ramour.— When they were well weary of this, they changed 
their Notes, and fung his Praifes ; and made Rejoicings, as 
if he were ra'ifed to Life again: or rather, according to 
Meitr/ius, thefe two Offices made two diftinft Feafts, which 
were held at different times of the Year, the one fix Months 
after the other 5 Adonis being fuppofed to pals half the 

Year with Proferpine, and half with Venus. 1 he Feaft 

was alfo called Sa lamb on. 

ADONIC, in the antient Poetry, was a lort ot Ihort 
Verfe, confifting of a Daftyl and a Spondee 5 as, Raraju- 
ventus. See Verse. 



ADO 



(30 



A D V 



It is ufually placed at the End of each Stanza of Sapphic 
Verfes ; and is fo called from Adonis, in whofe Praiie it was 
firft made. See Sapphic. 

ADOPTION, Adoptio, an Act by which any one takes 
another into his Family, owns him tor his Son, and appoints 
him his Heir. See Father, Son, £<?c. 

The Word is derived from adoptare ; whence came ado- 
hare, to make a Knight : whence alio Miles adotrattts, a 
a Knight newly made or dubb'd ; he who knighted him, 
being laid in fome Senfe to adopt him. See Knight. 

The Cuftom of adopting was very familiar among the 
antient Romans, who had an exprefs Formula for it. — -They 
firft learnt it from the Greeks, among whom it was called 
Pi»i«f, Filiation. See Adoptive. 

As Adoption was a fort of Imitation of Nature, intend- 
ed for the Comfort of thofe who had no Children $ Eu- 
nuchs were not allowed to adopt 5 as being under an actual 
Impotency of begetting Children. See Eunuch. 

Neither was it lawful for a young Man to adopt an elder; 
becaufe that had been contrary to the Order of Nature : but 
it was even requir'd, that the Perfon who adopted, mould 
be eighteen Years elder than his adoptive Son; that there 
might at leaft appear a Probability of his being the natural 
Father. 

The Romans had two Forms of Adoption 5 the one be- 
fore the Prrctor = the other at an Affeaibly of the People, 
in the Times of the Commonwealth, and afterwards by a 
Refcript of the Emperor. 

In the firft, the Natural Father addrefs'd himfdf to the 
Prcetor, declaring, that he emancipated his Son, rcfign'd all 
his Authority over him, and confented he fhould be tran- 
ilated into the Family of the Adopter. See Emancipa- 
tion. 

The latter manner o£ Adoption was practis'd, where the 
Party to be adopted was already free ; and was called 
Adrogation. See Adrogation. 

The Perfon adopted cfrang'd all his Names 5 affirming 
the Prename, Name, and Sirname of the Petfon who adopt- 
ed him. See Name. 

They had likewife their "Tejlamentary Adoptions, where- 
in Perfons were adopted by the Laft Will of the Deceas'd 5 
but thefe were never efteem'd valid, till they had been con- 
firm'd by the People. See Testament. 

Of late Years, another Form of Adoption has taken 
place ; and this is, by cutting off the Flair of a Perfon, and 
delivering it to the Father that is to adopt him. See FIair, 
and Tonsure. 

'Twas this way that Pope JdviVlll. adopted Sofun King 
of Aries 5 which perhaps is the only I nf lance in Hiftory of 
Adoption in the Order of Ecclefiailicks ; a Law that pro- 
fefTes to imitate Nature, not daring to give Children to thofe 
in whom it would be thought a Crime to beget any. 

M. Soujfac, in his NotJes Theclcgicte, gives us divers mo- 
dern Forms of Adoption ; fome perform'd at Baptifm 5 o- 
thers by the Sword, &c. See Baptism. 

ADOPTIVE, Adoptivus, or Adoptitius, a Perfon a- 
dop ted by another. See Adoption. 

The Emperor Adrian preferr'd Adoptive Children to Na- 
tural ones ; by reafon wc chufe the former, but are oblig'd 
to take the latter at random. — Adoptive Children, anions 
the Rvmans, were on the fame Footing with Natural ones - 
for which Reafon, they were cither to be inftituted Heirs, 
or exprefty disinherited 5 otherwife the Teftament was null. 

M. Menage has publifli'd a Book of Eloges, or Verfes 
addrefs'd to him 5 which he calls Liber Adoptivus, an Adop- 
tive Book ; and adds it to his other Works.— Hcinjius and 
Furjiemberg of Afunjier, have likewife publifhed Adoptive 
Books. 

ADOPTIVI, or Adoptiani, was an antient Seel in Re- 
ligion ; thus called, from the manner wherein they conceived 
our Saviour to be the Son of God. 

They took their Rife from Felix of Urgel, and EUpand 
of "Toledo ; the latter of whom writing to the former for 
an Account of his Faith in that Point j was anfwer'd that 
according to the Ufe of the Language which obtains in refpect 
of Human Nature, Jefus was not the Natural, but only the 
Adoptive Son of God. 

This Opinion they both afterwards propagated, towards 
the' Clofe of the Vlllth Century. — And Wh were convicted 
and condemn'd • and both abjur'd their Error. 

ADORATION, the Aft of rendering divine Worfhip 
or Honours, to a Being. See God, and Worship. 

The Adoration of Idols is called Idolatry. See Idolatry. 
The Ro?nanifis profels a fubordinate Adoration to -Saints, 
Images, Relicks, the Crofs, &c. See Saint, Image, Re- 
lick, Cross, $£!c. 

The Word literally fignifies, to apply the Hand to the 
Mouth i Manim ad Os admovere, q. d, to kifs the Hand j 
this being, in the Eaftern Countries, one of the great Marks 
of Refpect and Submiffton. 

The Election of Popes is performed two ways, by Ado- 
ration and by Scrutiny. — In the Ele&ion by Adoration, the 



Cardinals rufh haftily, as if agitated by fome Spirit, arid 
fall without more ado to the Adoration of fume one among 
them, and proclaim him Pope. See Cardinal, Pope, t£c. 

In the Election by Scrutiny, Adoration is the laft thing, 
and follows the Election 5 as in the other it is the EL.cr.ion 
it felf, or rather fuperfedes the Election. See Election, 
and Scrutiny. 

AD Poudus Omnium, the Weight of the Whole ; an 
Abbreviation among Phyiicians, &cl fignifying, that the laft 
prelcrib'd Ingredient is to weigh as much as all the others 
before. Sec Abbreviature. 

AD ghtcd •Damnum, a Writdirected to the SheriR-", com- 
manding him to inquire what hurt may befal the King by 
granting a Fair or Market in any Town, or Place. See 
Fair, Market, ci?r. 

The fame Writ alfo iffues for an Inquiry to be made of 
what the King or other Perfon may iuSrr, by granting 
Lands in F^e-fimple to a Convent, Chapter, or other Body 
Politick ; by reafon fuch Land falls into Mortmain, or a 
dead hand : that is, into luch Condition, that the chief 
Lord lofes all Hope of Heriots, Service of Court, and Ef- 
cheats, upon any traiterous or felonious Offence committed 
by the Tenant : For that a Body Politick dies not, nor can 
perform peifonal Service to the King, or their Mefn Lords j 
as fingle Pcrlons may do. See Mortmain. 

ADRAGANT, or Tragacanth, a fort of Gum. See 
Tragacanth. 

ADRESS, or Address, a Difcourfe prefented to the 
King, in the Name of a confiderable Body of his People ; 
to exprefs, or notify their Sentiments of Joy, Satisfaction, or 
the like, on fome extraordinary Occafion. 

Thus, we lay, the Lords Adrejs, the Commons Adrefs. — 
Adrejjes were firft fet on foot under the Administration of 
Oliver Orommel. 

The Word is French, AdrcJJb, form'd of the Verb Adref- 
fer, to fend or direct any thing to a Perfon.— At 'Paris, their 
Office of Intelligence is called 'Bureau d'AdreJJe. 

Adress, is alfo ufed for Dexterity. See Dexterity. 

ADROGATION, among the Romans, was a kind of 
Adoption, only differing from it in this ; That the Perfon 
here adopted was free, and confented to be adopted by 
another ; and that it was done at the Affembly of the Peo- 
ple, while the Commonwealth fubiifted ; and afterwards by 
a Refcript of the Emperors. See Adoption. 

AD Terminum qui pnetertit, is a Writ of Entry, which 
lies where a Man, having leafed Lands or Tenements for 
term of Life, or Years, is, after the Term expir'd, held 
from them by the Tenant, or other Stranger who enjoys 
the fame, and deforceth the Leffor. — The fame Writ alio 
lies for the LefTor's Heir. 

ADVANCE-i^, or Ditch, is a Ditch of Water round 
the Efplanade, or Glacis of a Place 5 to prevent its being 
furprized by the Befiegers. See Fosse, and Glacis. 

At>v AKCK-Guard, or YAN-Guard, is the firft Line or Di- 
vifion of an Army ranged or marching in Battle-array ; or 
that Part which is next the Enemy, or which marches 
firft toward them. See Line, 

The whole Body of an Army is divided into Advance- 
Guard, Arrear-Guard, and Main Body. See Army, Z$c, 

The Word is fometimes alfo applied to a fmall Pany of 
Horfe, as 15 or 2.0, commanded by a Lieutenant, beyond 
and in fight of, the Main Guard. 

ADVANCER, among Hunters, is one of the Starts, or 
Branches of a Buck's Attire, between the back Antler and 
the Palm. See Attire, Head, &c. 

ADVENT, Adventus, in the Calendar, the Time im- 
mediately preceding Chriftmas ; antiently employ'd in pious 
Preparation for the Adventus, or coming on, of the Feaft of 
the Nativity. See Nativity, $$c. 

Advent includes four Sundays, or Weeks 5 commencing 
either from the Sunday which -fills on St. Andrew's Day, 
or that next after it. — B^t, it is to be noted, this Rule has 
not always obtain'd. In the Ambrojian Office, there are 
fix Weeks mark'd for Advent ; and St. Gregory, in his Sa- 
cramentary, allows five. 

The firft Week of Advejit, in our way of reckoning, is 
that wherein it begins ; but it was antiently otherwife," the 
Week next Chriftmas being reputed the firft j and the Nu- 
meration carried backwards. 

Great Aufterity was practis'd in the antient Church during 
this Seafon. — At firft they fatted three Days a-week 5 but 
were afterwards obliged to faft every Day : Whence the 
Sealon is frequently called in antient Writers, Lent, and 
ghiadragefima. See Lent, and Fast. 

The Courts of Juftice were all fliur. — Under King John, 
it was exprefly declared, that in Adventu Domini' nulls* 
Ajjifci cap i debet : But this was afterwards alter'd ; and it 
was made lawful, in refpect of Juftice and Charity which 
ought at all Times to be regarded, to take Aftizes of Novel 
Difteifin, Mort dAncefter, and Darrein Prefentment, in the 
Time of Advent, Septuagefima, and Lent. See Assize. 

This \ 






A D U 



(37 ) 



A D U 



This is alfo one of the Times, from the Beginning where- 
of, to the End of the Octaves of the Epiphany, the folem- 
nizing of Marriage is forbid, without exprefs Licence. See 
Marriage; fee aifo Rogation. 

ADVENTITIOUS, fomething accruing, or befalling a 
Perfon or Thing, from without. See Accession, £5c. 

Thus, Adventitious Matter, is fuch Matter as doth not 
properly belong to any Body, but is cafually joined to it. 
See Accretion, Adjunctio, t£c. 

Adventitious, in the Civil Law, is applied to fuch 
Goods as fall to a Man, either by mere Fortune, or by the 
Liberality of a Stranger, or by Collateral Succeffion. See 
Goons. 

The Word is ufed in opposition to ProfcBitiotis ; by 
which arc Signified fuch Goods as defcend in a direct Line, 
from Father to Son. See Profectitious. 

AD Ventrem inf[nciendum, in Law. See Ventre infpi- 
ciendo. 

ADVENTURE, an extraordinary, and furprizing Enter- 
prize, or Accident, either real or fictitious. See Fable. 

Novels, Romances, £^C. are chiefly taken up in relating 
the Adventures of Cavaliers, Lovers, &c. See Novel, 
and Romance. 

The Word is French, and literally denotes an Event, or 
Accident. 

Company of Merchant Adventurers, was an antient 
Denomination of the Hamburgh Company. See Hamburgh 
Company. 

ADVERB, Adverbium, in Grammar, a Particle join'd 
to a Verb, Adjective, or Participle, to explain their man- 
ner of acting or fuffering - 7 or to mark fome Circumitance or 
Quality Signified by them. See Particle, Verb, £5?c. 

The Word is formed from the Prcpofition ad, and ver- 
btim 5 and Signifies literally a Diction join'd to a Verb, to 
ihow how, or when, or where, one is, does, or fuffers ■. As, 
the Boy paints neatly, writes ill; the Book is there, &c. 

Not that the Adverb is confin'd purely to Verbs ; but 
becaufe that is its moft ordinary ufe. — We frequently find 
it join'd to Adjectives, and lome times even to-SubUantives, 
particularly where thofe Subitanrives fignify an Attribute, 
or Quality of the Thing fpoken of, v. g. He is very fick 5 
he acts prudently ; he is truly King. 

An Adverb is likewife join'd, fometlmes to another Ad- 
verb, to modify its meaning, v.g. very devoutly, &c. Whence 
fome Grammarians chufe radier to call them Modificatives 5 
comprizing under this one general Term, both Adverbs, 
Conjunctions, Prepofitioiis, and even Adjectives, See Mo- 

DIFICATIVE. ■ 

Adverbs are very numerous, but may be reduced under 
the general CUffes of Adverbs of lime., of 'Place, of Or- 
der, of Quantity, of Quality, of Manner, of Affirmation, 
of 'Doubting, and of ComParifon. 

ADVERSARIA, among the Antients, was ufed for a 
Book of Accounts, like our Journal or Day-Book ; thus 
called, quod adverfa parte etiam fcri^tis impleretur, be- 
caufe wrote even on the Back fide. 

Hence, Adverfaria is fametimes alfo ufed among us for a 
Common- place-S 00k. Sec Common -'Place. 

ADVERSARY. See Antagonist, Opponent, Com- 
bat, Duel, £#c. 

The Word is form'd of the Latin Prepofltion Adverfus, 
againft ; from ad, and verto, I turn to. 

ADVERSATIVE, in Grammar.— A "Particle, or Con- 
junction Adverfative, is that which expteffes fome Diffe- 
rence, or Opposition between what goes before, and what 
follows. See Conjunction. 

Thus, or is an Adverfative, v. g. Tes, or no. 

ADVERTISEMENT, an Intelligence, or Information, 
given to Perfons interested in an Affair. 

The Word is form'd of the French Avert! ffement, from 
the Latin Advertere, to advert, confider, regard. 

ADULT, Adultus, one who is come to Years of Dif- 
cretion ; who is enter'd upon Manhood, or the Age of Ado- 
Icfcence 5 and is old and big enough to have Understand- 
ing, and Difcernment. See Age. 

The Word is formed from the Participle of the Verb ado- 
lefco, I grow up. Sec Adolescence. 

The Anabaptists confer the Sacrament of Baptifm upon 
none but Adults. See Baptism, and Anabaptist. 

There is a notable Difference between the Proportions of 
Infants and Adults.- -A Man, M. 2)odart obferves, form'd 
like a Fcetus, would be a Monftcr, and wou'd fcarce be ac- 
knowledged for one of the Species. See Foetus, and Em- 
bryo. 

ADULTERATION, Adulteratio, the Act of deba- 
sing a Medicine or other thing, with bad Ingredients; or the 
putting one thing for, and into another. See Sophistica- 
tion. 

To adulterate the current Coin, is a Capital Crime in all 
Nations. See Money, and Coin. 

The Word is Latin - form'd of the Verb Adulterate^ to 
corrupt by mingling fomething foreign to any Subftance. 



ADULTERINE, in the Civil Law, a Child iffued from 
an adulterous Amour, or Commerce. Sec Adultery. 

Adulterine Children are more odious than the ill pi • re 
Offspring of Single Perfons.— The Reman Law even 
em the Title of Natural Children 5 as if Nature diibwri'd 
'em. See Bastard. 

ADULTERY, Adulterium, in our antient Law Books 
call'd Advowtry, a Crime committed by married Per- 
fons, againit the Faith pledged to each other in M.irriage; 
by having carnal Commerce with fome other : or LVtn by a 
Perfon not married ; by having to do with another that is. 
See Fornication, Marriage, &c. 

The antient Romans had no formal Law againft Adulte- 
ry ; but both Accufation and Punifliment were arbitrary. — ■ 
The Emperor Auguftus was the firit who brought them into 
a Law ; which he had the Misfortune to fee executed in 

the Perfons of his own Children.- -This was the Julian 

Law. 

But, tho this Law left the Accufation of Adultery open 
to every body, yet 'tis certain, Adultery has been always 
look'd upon as a private and domeitick Crime, rather than 
a publick one ; fo that Strangers were feldom fuffer'd to 
profecute, efpecially where the Marriage was peaceable, and 
the Husband made no Complaint. 

Some of the fucceeding Emperors abrogated this Law, 
which left the Accufation of Adultery open to Strangers 5 
in regard fuch an Accufation could no"t be enter'd, without 
fetting the Husband and Wife at Variance, throwing the 
Children into a State of Uncertainty, and bringing Contempt 
and DcriSion upon the Husband ; for as the Husband is the 
nearlieft interested in the Matter, 'tis fuppofed he will exa- 
mine the Wife's Actions with more Circumvention than any 
other : So that where he is Silent, 'tis not fair any body elfe 
Should fpeak for him. See Accusation. 

For this reafon, the Law, in fome Cafes, has made the 
Husband both Judge and Executioner in his own Caufe ; 
and has allow'd him to revenge himfelf of the Injury, by 
taking away the Lives of the Adulterers whom he Should 
apprehend in the Ail. — Tis true, where the Husband made 
a Trade of his Wife's Infamy, or where having feen her 
Shame with his own Eyes, he jet fuffer'd patiently, and 
diifcmbled the Affront ; in thefe Cafes, Adultery became a 
Crime of publick Concern : and the Julian Law provides 
Punishments for fuch Husbands, as well as their Wives. 

In moft European Countries, at this Day, Adultery is not 
a publick Crime ; and none but the Husband is Suffered to 
intermeddle, excepting where the Scandal is very notorious. 
— Even the King's Advocates, Attorney, or the like, may 
not intermeddle. 

Add, that tho the Husband who violates the Conjugal 
Bond be guilty of Adultery as well as the Wife ; yet is 
not the Wife ailow'd to accufe, or profecute him for the fame. 
See Wife, Husband, &g. 

Socrates relates, L. V. c. 8. that under the Emperor 7%eo~ 
dofius, in the Year 380, Women convicted of Adultery were 
punifh'd by a publick Conitupration. 

Lycurgns punifh'd the Adulterer as a Parricide.— The 
Lccrians tore out his Eyes ; and moft of the Orientals pu- 
nifh him very Severely. 

The Saxons formerly burnt the Adulterefs, and over her 
Afhes erected a Gibbet, whereon the Adulterer was hang'd. 
— In England, King Edmond punifh'd Adultery as Homi- 
cide ; but Canutus ordained the Man to be banim'd, and 

the Woman to have her Nofe and Ears cut off. ghti uxo- 

ratus faciei Adulterium, habet Rex vel dominus juperio- 
rem ; Epifcopus inferiorem. I,. Flen. I. c. 12. De Adul- 
ttnoper totam Client, habet Rex hominem, Epifcopus mulie- 
rcm. Domefday, tit. Ceflre Civir. 

In Spain, they punifh'd Adultery by cutting off that Part 
which had been the Instrument of the Crime. — In <Poland % 
before Christianity was eflablifh'd, they punifh'd 4d->ltery 
and Fornication in a very particular manner : The Criminal 
they carried into the Markct-Place, and there falten'd him 
by the Teiticles with a Nail 5 laying a Razor within his 
reach, and leaving him under a Neccffity, either of doing 
Juitice upon himfelf, or of perifhing in that Condition. 

At prelenr, the Laws are much more favourable : — To 
Divorce, and Strip the Adulterefs of her Dower, is all her 
PuniShment among us: In the Romiflo Countries, they alfo 
Shut 'em up in Nunneries. 

The Lacedemonians, inStcad of punifhing Adultery, per- 
mitted it, or at leait tolerated it ; as wc are told by Plu- 
tarch, See Concubine. 

According to fome of the Papal Decisions, Adultery ren- 
ders Marriage between the two Criminals unlawful ; this 
making what the Schools call Impedimentnm Criminis. 

The Greeks, and other Christians throughout the Eaft, ad- 
here to the Opinion that Adultery dissolves the Band of 
Marriage : So that the Husband, without more ado, may 
marry another. — The Council of Trent condemns that Opi- 
nion ; and even in fome meafure anathematizes thole who 
hold it. Sejf.XXlY. Can. 7. 

If AdU£- 



A D V 



(38) 



A D V 



Adultery is alfo ufed by fome fanciful Afironomers and Advocate of a City, or Town, is a Magiftrate eflablifh- 

Aftrologers, for an Eclipfe of the Sun, or Moon ; happening ed in feveral Places of Germany, for the Admimrtration of 

in an urmfual, and as they fuppofe, irregular manner : as in Juftice in that City, in the Emperor's Name. See Advowee; 

the Cafe of horizontal Ecliples ; where, tho the Sun and Advocate of a Church, or Ecclefiaflical Advocate, a 

Moon be diametrically oppofite, yet they appear as if above Ferfon to whom it antiently beiong'd, to defend the Rights 

the Horizon, by reafon of the Refradion. See Eclipse, and Interefls of a Church, boih in a Legal and a Military 

Refraction £5?c. Capacity, more ufually called Advouee, qt Avowee. See 

ADVOCATE, Advocatus, among the Romans, a Per- Advowee. ^ 

fon fkill'd in their Law, and who undertook the Defence of The Word Advocatus or Advowee is ftill retained, for 



Caufes at the Bar. See Law. 

The Word is compounded 0$ ad, and voce, q. d. I call to 
my aid, or defence. 

The Roman Advocates anfwer'd to one Part of the Office 
of a Lawyer among us, viz. the Pleading Part; for as to 
the giving Counfel, they never meddled with it : that be- 
ing the Bufinefs of the Juris-confulti. See Jurisconsultus. 



what we ufually call the c Patron, or he who has the Ad- 
vowfon, or Right of Prefentation in his own Name, See 
Patron, Advowson, Presentation, tS>c. 

The Monafleries had alfo their Advocates, or Advowees. 
See Momastery, £5?c. 

ADVOCATIONE Decimarum, a Writ which lies for 
the Claim of the fourth Parr, or upward, of the Tithes that 



The Romans, in the firft Ages of their State, held the belong to any Church. See Tithe. 

Profeffion of an Advocate in gteat honour; and the Seats of ADVOW, or Avow, Advocare, in Law, to juflify or 

their Bar were crouded with Senators and Confuls ; they, maintain an A£t formerly done. 

whofe Voices commanded the People, thinking it an Ho- Thus, if one take a Diftrefs for Rent, or other things and 

nour to be employ'd in defending them. he that is diftrained fues a Replevin ; the Diftraincr, jufti- 

They were ityled Comites, Honorati, Clariffimi, and even fying or maintaining the Acl, is faid to avow. See Dis- 

'Patroni ; as if their Clients were not lefs oblig'd to them, tress, Replevy, &c. 

than Freedmen to their Matters. See Patron, and Client. SSraffon ufes the Latin Term Advocare, in the fame Sig- 

But the Bar was not then venal. — Thole who afpired to nification ; as, Advocatio diffeijine, L. IV. c. %6. And in 

Honours and Offices, took this way of gaining an Intereft in CaJJaneus de Confuet. 'Bur. Advocare is ufed in the like 

the People, and always pleaded gratis. Senfe. The Author iaft cited does alfo ufe the Subitantive 

But no fooner was Luxury and Corruption brought into ^Defavoha?nentum, for a Difavowing, or refufing to avow. 
the Commonwealth, than the Bar became a Sharer in them. The original Ufe of the Word was this. — When ftoln 
1 — Then it was that the Senators let out their Voices for Goods were bought by one, and fold ro another, it was law- 
pay, and Zeal and Eloquence were fold to the highefl Bid- fill for the right Owner to take them wherever they were 

Jer.- To put a Stop to this Abufe, the Tribune Cincius found 5 and he in whofe Poffeffion they were found, was 

procured a Law to be palled, called from him, Lex Cincia ; bound, Advocare, i. e. to produce the Seller to juftify the 

where the Advocates were forbid to take any Money of Sale, and fo on till they found the Thief, 

their Clients. — Fred. Bnimmerus has publifh'd an ample Afterwards, the Term was applied to any thing which 

Comment upon this Law. a Man acknowledg'd to be his own, or done by him ; 



It had before been prohibited the Advocates to take any 
Prefents or Gratuities for their Pleading. — The Emperor 
Auguflus added a Penalty to it : notwithstanding which, 
the Advocates play'd their Parts fo well, that the Emperor 
Claudius thought he did a great thing, when he oblig'd 'era 
not to take above eight great Sefterces, which are equiva- 
lent to 3 5 Pounds Sterling, for pleading each Caufe. 

Advocate is ftill ufed in Countries where the Civil 
Law obtains, for thofe who plead and defend the Caufes of tion, &c- 
Clients trufled to them. See Civil Law. vowson. 

In Scotland they have a College, or Faculty of Advocates, There were alfo Advowees -for Cathedrals, Abbics, Mo- 
180 in number; appointed to plead in all Actions before nafleries, &c. — Thus, Charlemaign had the Title of Advocate 
the Lords of Sefllon. They have a Dean, Treafurer, of St. ^Peter's ; King Hugh* of St. Riquier ; and Sollandus 



which Senfc, it is mentioned in Fleta, L. I. pars 4. Si vir 
ipfum in domo fua fujeejwit, nutrierit £5? advocaverit fili- 
um fintm. 

ADVOWEE, or Avowee, or Advocate of a Church, 
was heretofore the Patron, or Defender of the Rights there- 
of See Advocate, Patron, &c. 

The Word is French, Advoue, or Avov.e, of the Verb 
Avouer, to avow, own, acknowledge Dependence, Subjec- 
■Whence alfo Advowfon. See Avow, and Ad- 



Clerks, Examinators, and a Curator of their Library. 

By the Articles of the Union, none are to be named or- 
dinary Lords of Seffion, except thofc who have been Advo- 
cates, or principal Clerks of Seffion for five Years, £*jc. 

In Doctors Commons, the Advocates are ufually called 
'Proclors, or 'Procurators. See Proctor, and Procurator. 

In France, they have two Kinds of Advocates, /viz. 'Plead- 
ing Advocates, Avocats Plaid-ants j and Counfel Advocates, 
Avocats Confultants. 

This Dittin&ion was form'd with a View to the two 
Branches among the Romans, Advocati, and yurifconfulti. 
—Yet there is this difference, that the Function of the Ju- 
rifconfulti, who only gave their bare Advice, was of a dif- 
ferent Kind from that of the Advocati ; being a fort of pri- 
vate and perpetual Magiftrature, principally under the firft 
Emperors ; as, on the other hand, the Advocati never be- 
came furifconfulti. Whereas in France, after the Advo- 



mentions fome Letters of Pope Nicholas, by which he con- 
flicted King Edward the Confeffbr, and his Succeflbrs, 
Advocates of the Monaflery at Weftminfter, and of all the 
Churches in England. 

Thefe Advowees were the Guardians, Protectors, and, 
as it were, Adminillrators of the temporal Concerns of the 
Churches, l$c. and under their Authority, were pafs'd all 
Contracts which related thereto. See Guardian, &c. 

It appears alfo, from the moft anticnt Charters, that the 
Donations made to Churches, were conferr'd on the Perfons 
of the Advowees.' — They always pleaded the Caufes of the 
Churches in Court, and diftributed Juftice for them, in the 

Places under their Jurifdi&ion. They alfo commanded 

the Forces furnifh'd by their Monasteries, &c. for the 
War 3 and even were their Champions, and flood Duels for 
them. See Combat, Duel, ana Champion. 

This Ofrice is faid to have been firft introdue'd in the 



cates have attain'd to Reputation and Experience enough at IVth Century, in the Time of Stilico ; tho the Benedic- 

the Bar, they quit fo bufy a Province, and become as it tines don't fix its Origin before the VTIIth Century. Aci. 

were Chamber Council. Santl. Benedifi. S. III. P. 1. Prief. p. 91, &c. 

They have alfo their Advocate General, and King's Ad- By degrees, Men of the firfl Rank were brought into it, 

vacate, Avocat du Roy. as it was found neceflary, either to defend with Arms, or to 

Lord Advocate, in Scotland, is one of the Officers of protect with Power and Authority.- In fome Monafleries 

State, whofe Bufinefs is to give his Advice about the mak- they were called Conservators ; but thefe, without the Name, 



ing and executing of Laws ; to defend the King's Right, 
and Intereft in all publick Meetings ; to profecute all Capi- 
tal Crimes before the Jufticiary ; and concur in all Purfuits 
before Sovereign Courts for Breaches of the Peace; and al- 
fo in all Matters wherein the King, or his Donator, has In- 
tereft. — He intents no Procefies of Treafon, except by War- 
rant of Privy Council. 

The Lord Advocate is fometimes an ordinary Lord of Sef- 



had all the fame Functions with Advowees. See Conser- 
vator. 

There were alfo fometimes feveral Sub-Advowees, or Sub- 
Advocates in each Monaflery, who officiated inflead of the 
Advowees themfelves ; which, however, proved the Ruin 
of Monafleries 5 thofe inferior Officers running into great 
Abufes. 

Hence, Husbands, Tutors, and every Perfon in general, 



fion ; in which Cafe, he only pleads in the King's Caufes : who took upon him the Defence of another, were alfo called 

othcrwife, he is at liberty to plead in all Caufes. Advowees, or Advocates. — Hence feveral Cities, alfo, had 

Fifcal Advocate, Fifci Advocatus, was an Officer in- their Advowees ; which were eftablifh'd long after the Ec- 

flituted by the Emperor Adrian, to defend the Caufe, and clefiaflical ones, and doubtlefs from their Example. — Thus, 

Interefls of the Fifcus, or private Treafury; in the feveral we read in Hiflory of the Advowees of Augsburg* of Ar- 

Tribunals where that might be concem'd. See Fiscus. res, &c. 

Co?ijiftcrial Advocate, is an Officer of the Court of The Vidames aflumed the Quality of Advowees ; and 

Rome, whofe Office is to plead upon the Oppofitions made hence it is, that feveral Hiftorians of the VIII th Century, 

to the Provifions of Benefices in that Court. See Provi- confound the two Functions together. See Vidame. 

siON, They are ten in number. 

And 



A D Y 



And hence alio it is, that feveral Secular Lords in Ger- 
many bear Mitres for their ' Crefts ; as having antiently 
been Advocates of the great Churches. See Mitre, and 
'Crest. 

Spelman diflinguifties two Kinds of Ecciefiaftical Ad- 
vowees. — The one, of Caufes, or Proceffes, Advocati Cau- 
faritm : the other, of Territory, or Lands, Advocati Soli. 

The former were nominated by the King, and were 
ufually Lawyers, who undertook to plead the Caufes of the 
Monasteries. 

The other, which flill fubfift, and are fometimes called 
by their primitive Name, Advowees, tho more ufually •pa- 
trons, were hereditary ; as being the Founders and Endow- 
ers of Churches, (gc. or their Heirs. See Patron. 

In this Senfe, Women were fometimes Advocateffes, Ad- 
vccatiffce. — And, in efi'efl, the Canon Law mentions fome 
who had this Title, and who had the fame Right of Pre- 
sentation, g?c. in their Churches, which the Advowe es them- 
ielves had. 

In a Stat. 25 Ed-w. III. we meet with Advowee Para- 
mount, for the Higheft Patron ; that is, the King. See Pa- 
ramount. 

There were alfo Advowees of Countries, and 'Provinces. 
—In a Charter of the Year 1187, Hertbcld Duke of Zering- 
Ixn, is called Advowee of •Thureg ; and in the Noti'ia of 
the Selgic Churches, publifh'd by Minus, the Count of 

Lovam is filled Count and Advowee of Brabant. In the 

Xlth and Xllth Centuries, we alfo meet with the Ad- 
vowees of Alfatia, of Suahia, &c. 

Raymond, de Agiles relates, that after the Recovery of 
Jerujalem from the Saracens, it being propofed to elcft a 
King thereof; the Biftiops pleaded, Nou debere ibi eligi 
Regem, ubi 'Heus paffus S? coronatus eft, &c. That " they 
" ought by no means to appoint a King, in a Place where 
" God had fuffer'd and been crown'd ; but mould content 
" themfelves with elefling an Advowee, or Advocate of the 

" City, to take Care of the Garrifon, iSc." In effefl, 

2>odecbin, a German Abbot, who wrote a Voyage to the 
Holy Land in the Xllth Century, calls Godfrey of Sulloign, 
Advowee of the Holy Sepulchre. 

ADVOWSON, or Advowzen, Advouerie, Advocatia, 
or Advocatia, the Quality, or Office of an Advowee, or Ad- 
vocate, iSc. See Advowee, £j?c. 

Advowson, or Advouzen, in Common Law, fignifies a 
Right to prefent to a Benefice. See Presentation 



( 39 ) 



A E N 



Aut.iors a,e by no means agreed as to the Ufe of the 
#.— Some, oat of regard to Etymology, infill on its bein „ 
retain d in a» Words, particularly Technical ones, borrowed 
from thofe Languages ; while others, from a Confiderarion 
that it u no proper Dipthong in our Language, its Sound 
being no other than that of the fimple e ; contend that it 
Ought to be entirely difufed, except in Words which retain 
their Latin and Greek form in every thing elfe. 

For our own parr, till the Point is a little better fettled 
we muft be contented to fleer a kind of middle, or neutral 
Courie ; conforming our lelves to Cuftora as nearly as may be, 
—Such Articles, therefore, as are omitted under JE, the 
Reader will rind under E. 

JEfCEA, in Antiquity, folemn Feafts and Combats, ce- 
lebrated in JEgtna, in honour of JEactis ; who had been 
their King, an d who, on account of his Angular Juftice upon 
Earth, was fuppofed to have a Commiffion given him, to 
be one of the Judges in Hell. See Feast, f$c. 

-ECHMALOTARCHA, in Antiquity, a Greek Term, 
fignitying, Chief or Leader of the Captives. 

The Jews who refilled to follow Zonbbalcl, and return 
with him to Jerufalem, after the Sabvlonijb Captivity ; 
created an JEchmalotarcha, to govern them.— Not that the 
Jews themfelves call'd him by this Name, as fome Authors 
have afferted ; for rhat People fpoke Hebrew, or Cbaldee, 
not Greek. But Origen, and others, who wrote in the Greek. 
Tongue, render'd the Hebrew Name ni^J K>K"I Rofcb 
galtith, q. d. Chief of the Captivity, by a Greek Name of 
the like import, iUxfaKOTs-sx', fotm'd from ar/jMt^xTos, of 
amia, a Point or Pike, and apjyi, Command. 

However, the Jews mufl have had Officers of this kind 
before the Return from Sabylou : Wittiefs the Hiftory of 
Sufannab ; the two Elders who condemn'd her, being JEch- 
malotarcha that Year.— The Jewiflj Writers affure us, that 
the JEchmalotarcha were only to be chofen out of the Tribe 
of Judab. 

jEDES, in Antiquity, an inferior kind of Temple, diflin- 
guifhed by this, that it was not confecrated by the Augurs. 
See Temple, Augur, £j?c. 

Such was the JErarium, or Treafury ; called JEdes Sa- 
turni. See jErarhim. 

JEDIL1S, Edile, in Antiquity. See Edile. 

jEGILOPS, a Tumor, or rather Ulcer, in the great Can- 
thus or Angle of the Eye, by the Root of the Nofe ; ei- 



fn this Senfe, the Word imports a~s much as" Jmjatrona- f^V^' With ° Ut "" laflamma,ion - See E ™> T ™°*. 

The Word, in its original Greek, *VW, fignifies a Goat's 
Eye ; in regard, Goats are fuppofed extremely liable to 
this Difiemper. 

If the JEgilops be neglefled, it burfts, and degenerates '"- 
to a Fiftula, which eats into the Bone. 



tits 

The Reafon of the Name Advowfon, Advocatio, is, that 
antiently. thofe who had a Right to prefent to a Church, 
were Maintainers of it, or great Benefactors to it ; and were 
fometimes called Patroni, and fometimes Advocati, or Ad- 
vowees. See Advocate, ££?c. 

In the general, an Advowfon is where a Biftlop, Dean, 
or Chapter, and their Succeffors, or any Lay Patron, have a 
Right to prefent whom they plcafe to any fpiritual Benefice, 
when it becomes void. See Vacancy and Benefice, &c. 

This Advowfon is of two Kinds. — Advowfon in grofs, 
that is, not immediately reflrained, or adhering to any Ma- 
nor, as Parcel thereof. 

And Advowfon appendant, which depends on a Manor, as 
appurtenant to it : This Kitchin calls an Incident, which 
may be feparated from its Subjefl. 

Add, that as the Builders and Endowers of a Church were 
the Patrons of it ; fo thofe who founded any Religious 
Houfe, had the Advowfon or Patronage of it. 

Som'edmes the Patron had the fole Nomination of the 
Prelate, Abbot, or Prior ; either by Inveftiture, (or Delivery 
of a Paftoral Staff) or by direft Prefentation to the Dioce- 
fan : And if a free Elcflion was left to the Religious, yet a 
Conge d'Elire, or Licence of Elcflion, was firft to be ob- 
tain'd of the Patron, and the Perfon eiefled was confirm 'd 
by him. 

If the Founder's Family was extinfl, the Patronage of 
the Convent went to the Lord of rhe Manor 

ADVOWTRY. See Adultery. 

ADUST, Adustus, is applied, among Phyficians, Sgc. to 
fuch Humours, as by long Heat become of a hot and fiery 
Nature. See Humour. 

Such is Choler fuppofed to be.— Melancholy is ufually 
confidcr'd as black and aduft Bile. See Choler, Melan- 
choly, ££?£. * 

Aduft Blood, fays Slanchard, is, when by reafon of ex- 
traordinary Heat, its more fubtile Parts are all evaporated, 
leaving the grofl'er, with all the Impurities therein, half tor- 
rify d, as it were. See Blood. 

The Word is form'd of the Latin aduro, I burn. 

ADYTUM, AA/rw, a fecret or retit'd Place in the Pagan 
1 emples where Oracles were given, and into which none 
but the Pnefts were admitted. See Temple, Oracle, &c 

.v..r °? m " f P'P ,hon S. °' double Vowel, borrow'd from 
the. GieeksznA Latins. See Dip thong. 



. See Fistula. 

Authors frequently ufe JEgylops, Anchylops, and Fiftula 
Lachrymalis promifcuoufly : But the more accurate, after 
JEgineta, make a difference.— The Tumor, ere it becomes 
ulcerous, is properly called Anchylops ; and after it has ren- 
der'd the Os Lachrymale carious, Fiftula Lachrymalis. See 
Anchylops, ££?c. 

If the JEgilops be accompanied with an Inflammation; it 
takes its Rife from the Abundance of Blood, which the too 
great Plenitude difcharges upon the Corner of the Eye. — If 
it be without an Inflammation, it is fuppofed to proceed 
from a vifcous pituitous Humour, thrown upon this Part. 

.EGIPAN, in Antiquity, a Denomination given to 'Pan, 
and the Panes. See Panes. 

The Word is compounded of aif, tuym, Goat ; as be- 
ing reprefented with the Horns, Legs, Feet, ££?c. of that 
Animal. 

The Antients alfo gave the Name JEgipans to a fort of 
Monftcrs mention'd by 'Pliny, Solmns, and Porn. Mela, 
L. I. c. 8. — Salmafius, in his Notes on Solium, takes JEgi- 
pan to have fignified the fame in Lybia with Sylvanus 
among the Romans. See Sylvan. 

Vojjius rejefls the Opinion, and fliews, that the JE.gipans 
had not Faces like Men, as the Sylvans had ; but like 
Goats. In effefl, the whole upper Part of the Body refem- 
bled that Animal ; and as to the lower, they painted it with 
a Fifties Tail. The Monflc'r reprefented on fome Medals of 
Auguftus, by Antiquaries called Capricomus ; appears to be 
the true Mgipan. 

JEGYPTIACUM, in Pharmacy, a kind of deterfive Un- 
guenr ; fo called from its dulky Hue or Colour, which re- 
fcmbles the fwarthy Complexion of the Egyptians. See 
Detersive, and Unguent. 

It is compofed of Verdigreafe, Vinegar, and Honey, boil'd 
to a Confluence. 

The Prefcription is Mefue's. — It is chiefly ufed for eating 
off rotten Flcfh, and cleanfing foul Ulcers ; particularly Ve- 
nereal ones in the Throat, ifc. It alfo defiroys thofe cance- 
rous Erofions apt to grow in Childrens Mouths. 

./ENIGMA. See Enigma. 

jEOLIC, 



a e a 



(4°) 



A E R 



EOLIC, or Eolian, in Grammar, the Name of one 
of the five Dialefts of the Greek Tongue. See Greek, 
and Dialect. , . ,. 

It was firft ufed in Bteotia ; whence it pals d into Molia, 
and was that which Sap/bo and Ale f us wrote in. 

The JEolic Dialea throws out all the Iharp, harlh Ac- 
cents 5 and agrees in lb many things with the Done Dialect, 
that the two are ufually confounded together. See Doric. 

Eolic, or Eolian Mode, in Mufick. See Mode. 



The generality of Writers agree, that the JT.ra was ori- 
ginally ufed in refpeci of the manner of reckoning Time 
among the Spaniards ; whofe JEra was thirty eight Years 

older than the Christian Epocha, or Year of Grace . 

Peter the foutth King of Arragon, was the firft who abo- 
lifh'd the Spanifl] JEra in his States, in the Year 1350 : Aj 
did John I. King of 'Portugal, in 1451. 

The Origin of the Word is fomewhat obfeute. — Favyn 
fays, that in Cicero and Lticil'ms, the Word JEra is plural, 
and iignifies the fame thing with Commentaria, Leaves of a 



. ^OLIPILE, totLi, ^f^^ Book of Accounts, or a Merchant's Journal, 
ting of a hollow metalline Ball, w „ , 



Pip"e arifing from the fame ; which being filled with Water, 
and thus expos'd to the Fire, produces a vehement Blaft 
of Wind. See Wini>. ' jr. 

This Inflrument, Des Cartes and others have made : ule 
of, to account for the natural Caufc and Generation of Wind. 
—And hence its Name, JEolifila, q. d. pila JEoli, JEolm s 
Ball ; JEolm being reputed the God of the Winds, oee 

Sometimes the Neck is made to fcrew into the_ Ball, 
which is the moll commodious way, becaufe then the Ca- 
vity may the more readily be filled with Water : If there 
be no Screw, it may be fill'd thus.— Heat the Ball red hot 
and throw it into a Veffel of Water ; the Water will 
run in at a fmall Hole, and fill about two thirds of the Ca- 



Others, according to the fame Author, are of opinion, 
that JEra was ufed inftead of Hera, for Herns, Mafter, 
Lord ; and that it fignify'd the Dominions of a Prince. 

Others, according to Ifidore, derive it from JEs, JEris ; 
on account of the Tax of a Piece of Silver, impos'd by An- 
guflus on the Heads of all the Subjects of his Empire. 

Others fay, that the Wotd is form'd from the initial Let- 
ters of the three firft Words in the publick Afls, Annus 
ER«( Aitgnfti ; but thefe thtee lall Etymologies are reject- 
ed with good Reafon. 

ERARIUM, the publick Treafury of a State or People. 
See Treasury. 

The Temple of Saturn at Rome, being the great Trea- 
fury of the State, was firft called JErarium ; from JEs, 
Brafs ; that being the only Money in ufe .before the 



JEris- 
""It after this the JEoliiile be laid on, or before, the Year of Rome 485. JPliW, L..HL_c, 33--?ee Money 
Fire; fo that the WateTand Veffel become very much heat- 



ed ; the Water being rarified into a kind of momentary Air, 
will be forced out with very great Noife and Violence ; 
but it will be by Fits, and not with a conftant and unifotm 
Blaft, 



The JErarium MMtare was a Fund of Money, deflin'd 
for the Maintenance of feveral Companies of Soldiers, to be 
in readinefs for-fhe better Defence of the City. — It was firft 
erected under Augustus, and maintained by a yeatly volun- 
tary Contribution ; but that proving infufficient, the twen- 



Thefe Pha-nomena, the Reader will be eafily enabled to tieth Part of all Legacies and Inheritances, except of fuch. 
folve from what is Ihewn under the Articles, Air, Wa- as fell .0 the next of kin or the Poor, were confign d to this 

T.realury. 



* E Thfto « V™? iffu'ng out of the JEolipile, is found ~ For die Cuftody hereof, three of his Lifeguard were con- 

- Auiar** fiituted <PY<gjctti Mrariu See Prjefectus. 

AERIAL, Aerius, fomething that confifts of Air, or has 
a relation or refemblance to Air. See Air. 



fenfibly hot nj the Orifice , but at a farther ,diftance, ^^T^i^.T^Z^lZTa, 



^old ■ ' like what we obferve of our own Breath : The 
Caufc of which is controverted.— The Corpufcularians ac- 
count for it hence, that the Fire contain'd in the rarified 
Vanour tho Efficient to be felt near the Orifice, difenga- 



apour, 



ges 



fell i 



n the Progrefs of the Strean 
■ ,1 . . ., _ T >„ n-j 



and becomes in- 
fenfible ere arriv'd at "the Journey's End. See Fire. — The 
mechanical Philofophers, on the other hand, hold that the 
Vapour, at its Exit from the Ball, is endued with that pe- 
culiar Species of circular Motion, which conllitutes the Quali- 
ty Heat; and that the further it recedes therefrom, the more 



The Effeni, the moil refined and rational Sect among 
the Jews, held that the human Soul confilled of an Ae- 
rial Matter. See Esseni. 

Angels or Spirits, whether Good or Evil, faid fametimes 
to appear, are fuppofed to affume an aerial Body, in order 
to come fenfibly. See Angel. 

porphyry and Janiblicus admit a fort of Demons or 
aerial Spirits, to which they give various Names. See De- 



Is' this Motion deiiroy'd, by the Reaaion of the contiguous mon Genius, pc. \ 

■"nfible. See Heat. The Roficrucians, and other Vifionanes, fill the Atmo- 
fphere with aerial Inhabitants. See Rosicrucian, Sylph, 



Air ; till the Heat at length becomes itrie 

Chauvin fuggefts fome further Ufes of the JEolipile.- 
1° He thinks it might be applied inftead of Bellows to blow : 
the Fire where a very intenfe heat is requir'd. *», If a Aerial PerfpcSive is that which represents Bodies 
Trumpet Horn or other fonorous Inflrument were fitted to weaken'd and.diminifh d,in proportion to their diftance from 
its Neck it might be made to yield Mufick. 3 , If the the Eye. See Perspective. 
Neck we're turn'd perpendicularly upwards, and prolong'd Aerial PerfpeSive. 



chiefly to do with the Colours of 
takes off more or lefs, 



,e or hollow Cylinder fitted to it, and a hollow Ball Objefls whofe force and luftre it 
laid on the Orifice of the Tube ; the Ball would be blown to make 'em appear as if more or lels remote. See Co- 

- lour, and Clair-obscure. 

It is founded on this, that the longer Column of Air an 
Obje& is feen thro' ; the weaker do the vifual Rajs emit- 
ted from it afteft the Eye. . See Vision. 

AERIANS, Aeriani, in Antiquity, a Scfl in Religion, 
denominated from Aerius ; a Perfon alive in the Time of 
St. Epipbanius. 

The Aerians had much the fame Sentiments, in refpeflof 
the Trinity, as the Arians ; befide>hkh, they had fome 
Dogmas of their own, and particularly this : That there is 
hem diftinft from God, and" to have been pro- no "difference between P, lefts and Bifhops ; but that the 
duced by hrm, fome Male, others Female. See Idea, and Priefthood and Epifcopate are absolutely one and the fame 
ou ' ' Order, or Dignity : An Opinion fince ftrenuoufly aliened by 

"hefe Ideas they call JEons; of an Affemblage wheteof many modem Divines. See B.shop.Pr.est.Presbyter,^. 
they compos'd the Deity, calling it ^s»f«, a Greek Word, Aerius bu.lt his Doftrine chiefly on fonie Paffages m Sr. 
J. '. c" * F 1 c f 'Paul ; and, among others, that in the firft Epiftle to Timo- 

iimon Malus\ faid to have been the fitft Inventor of Ay, Ch. IV. v. 14. where that Apoftle exhorts him not to 
thefe JEons -which were afterwards brought to Petfeaion neglefl the Gift be bad reoeiiidh) the lay <mg on of the Haaih 
hyFalentmus, who acknowledg'd thirty of 'em. See Gnos- 



p, and kept fluftuating or playing up and down : As in the 

Stream of a Fountain. See Fountain. And, 5 , it 

might ferve to fcent, or perfume a Room, if fill'd with per- 
funVd, inftead of common Air. 

JEON, Eon, Aim, q. d. Age; literally figmfies the Du- 
ration of a thing. See Age, and Duration. 

But fome antient Hereticks have affix'd another Idea to 
it • in order to which, they have made ufe of the Philofo- 
ph'y of Plato : giving Reality to the Ideas, which that Phi- 
lofopher had imagin'd in God ; and even perlbnifying them, 



tics, Valentinians, &c 
JEQUAL. 
JEQUALITY. 
^EQUATION. 
jEQUATOR. 
jEQUINOX. 
EQUINOCTIAL. 
jEQUIPOLLENT. 
^EQUIVALENT. 
EQUIVOCAL. 
EQUIVOCATION,^. 



i rEquAL. 

I EojIALlTY. 

II EojIATION. 
I EciUATOR. 

>.See<> E<ll,INOX - 



EojINOCTlAL. 

Equipollent. 
Equivalent. 
Equivocal., 
v. Equivocation, &c. 



in Matters of Chronology, fignifies the fame with 
Eiocha ;' that is, any Point of Time, detetmin'd at Plea- 
fure, whence to begin the Computation of the Years elap- 
fed fince. See Epocha. 



oftbe Presbytery. Here, obferves Aerius, is no mention of 
Bifhops ; but Timothy evidently receiv'd his Ordination 
from the Presbyters or Priefts. 

St. Epipbanius, Her. 75. ftands up brilkly for the Supe- 
riotity of Bifhops, againft the Aerians. — The Word Presby- 
tery in St. Paul, he obferves, includes both Bifhops and 
Priefts ; the whole Senate, or Affembly of the Ecclefiafticks 
of the Place : And in fuch an Affembly had 'timothy been 
ordain'd. See Presbytery. 

AEROMANCY, Aeromantia, a Kind of Divination, 
perform'd by means of the Air. See Divination, and 

Air. 

The Word is compounded of the Greek <t»f, Air, and 
u.&vT&a, ^Divination. See Hydromancy. 

AEROMETRY, Aerometria, the Art of meafuring 
the Air, its Powers and Properties. See Air. 

Aerometry 



A E T 



Asrometry includes the Laws of the Motion, Gravita 
tion, PrefEon, Elafficity, Rarefaflion, Condenfation, be. of 
that Fluid. See Elasticity, Rarefaction be. 

The Word Aerometry is but little ufed: In 'lieu hereof, 
we commonly call this Branch of Philofophy, 'Pneumatic's. 
See Pneumatics. 

C. Wolfius, Profeffor of Mathematicks at Hall, having 
reduced many of the Affections of this Fluid to geometrical 
Demonstration ; publi/fied Elements of Aerometry, at Leip- 
ftc, 1 70 j, firft in High Dutch and afterwards in Latin.— 
Thus is the Doflnne of the Air incorporated into the Ma- 
thematical Sciences. See Mathematicks. 

The Word is compounded of <oi f , and la-rsai, to meafure 

JERUGO. See Rust. 

JJrdco JEris, in Medicine, be. Sec Verdegrease. 

AERY, or Airy, of Hawks, is what we call a Neil in 
other Birds. See Hawk, and Haw kino. 

jESCHYNOMENOUS 'Plants, amon<r Botanifls, are 
thole popularly called Senfitive 'Plants. See Sensitive. 

.ESNECY, in Law. See Esnecy. 

jESTIMATIO Capitis, in our antient Law-Books. See 
Were, Werelade, Weregild, be. 

King Athelftan, in a great Afl'embly held at Exeter, de- 
clared what Mulcts were to be paid pro <eflimatioiie capitis, 
for Offences committed againft feveral Perfons according to 
their degrees ; the Eftimation of the King's Head to be 
;o?oo Tbrymfte ; of an Archbifhop, or Satrapa, or Prince 
1 5000 ; of a Bifliop or a Senator, 8000 ; of a Pricft, or a 
Thane, 2000, be. Crefly's Church Hifi. fol. 834. h. and 
L. Hen. I. 

jESTIVAL, or Estivae, of or belonging to Summer. 
See Summer. 

Thus, we fay, the JEftival Solfticc, &c. in oppoiition to 
Brumal. See Solstice. 

jESTUARY, jEstuarium, in Geography, an Arm of 
the Sea; running up a good way into the Land. See Sea. 

Such is Sriftol Channel, many of the Firths of Scot- 
land, &c. 

-Estuary, is fometimes alfo ufed in Pharmacy, for a Va- 
pour-Bath, Balneum Vaporofum, See Vapour, and Bath. 

JES Uftum, called alfo Crocus Veneris, a Chymical Pre- 
paration, made of Copper cut into thin Plates, put into a 
Crucible with Sulphur and Salt, ftratum fuper ftratum, and 
thus fet in a hot Charcoal Fire, till the Sulphur be con- 
fumed. See Crocus, Copper, Venus, be. 

It is very deterfive; and is ufed for eating off dead Flefh. 
They who make this ufe of it, ate to heat it red hot in the 
Fire nine times 5 and quench it as often in Linfeed Oil. See 
Epulotic. 

jETHER, is ufually underflood of a, thin, fubtile Matter, 
or Medium, much finer and rarer than Air; which com- 
mencing from the Limits of our Atmofphere, poffeffes the 
whole heavenly Space. See Heaven, World, &c. 

The Word is Greek, xifag , fuppofed to be form'd from 
the Verb <u9si>, to burn, to flame ; fome of the Antients, par- 



r*o 



A E T 



uc^Anaxagcras,^^ it of the Nature ofFire. to" be" perfeTt^ r^mogeneo^ incorrupt^, SangSl. 



Thus, the Cartefiam ufe the Term Materia S-Atilis ■ 
which is their JEtber : And Sir I Nev-'on 7JL > ' 

SuMle firi, as in the Cofe of to sSSg^SSfa^ 
Of»*$** ptMtbereal Medium; isi/hit'opZh 

The 1 ruth ,s, there are abundance of Considerations, 
which feem to evince the Exiftence of fome Matter in the 
Air, much finer than the Air it felf.-There is an unknown 
iomething, which remains behind when the lir is taken 
away ; as appears from certain Effects which we fee produ- 
ced 111 Vacuo.— Bant, Sir /. Newton obferves, is communi- 
cated thro a Vacuum, almofl as readily as thro' Air : But 
fuch Communication cannot be without fome interjacent Bo" 
dy, to aft as a Medium. And fuch Body muft be fubtile 
enough to penetrate the Pores of Glafs ; and may be very 
well concluded to permeate thole of all other Bodies ; and 
consequently be diffiiled thro' all the Parts of Space : Which 
anlwers to the full Character of an JEther. See He at. 

The Exiftence of fuch Ethereal Medium beini fettled , 
that Author proceeds to its Properties ; inferring ft to be not 
only rarer and more fluid than Air, but exceedingly more 
clallick, and aflive : In Virtue of which Properties his 
ihews, that a great part of the Phajnomena of Nature may 
be produced by it— To the Weight, e.g. of this Medium, 
he attributes Gravitation, or the Weight of all other Bo- 
dies -and to its Elafficity, the elaftick Force of the Air 
and ol nervous Fibres, and the Emiffion, Refkaion, Reflec- 
tion, and other Pha^nomena of Light ; as alfo, Senfation 
Mulcular Motion, Sc— In fine, this fame Matter feems the 
Pnmum Mobile, the firft Source or Spring of phvfical Ac- 
tion in the modern Syftem.— See further under the Article 
Subtile Mevivu, Attraction, Gravitation, Refrac- 
tion, Reflection, be. fee alfo Fibre, Mufcular Mo- 
tion, be. lee alfo Newtonian Philofophy, &c. 

The Cartcjian JEther is fuppofed not only to pervade, 
but adequately to fill all the Vacuities of Bodies ; and thus 
to make an abfolute Plenum in; the Univerfe. See Materia 
Subtilis ; fee alfo Plenum ; fee alfoCARTEsiANisM,be. 

But Sir /. Newton overturns this Opinion, from divers 
Confederations ; by Ihewing, that the Celeftial Spaces are- 
void of all fenfible Refiftance .• For, hence it follows, that 
the Matter contained therein, muft be immenfely rare, in 
regard the Refiftance of Bodies is chiefly as their Denfi'ty - 
fo that if the Heavens were thus adequately flll'd with a' 
Medium or Matter how fubtile foever, they would refill the 
Motion of the Flanets and Comets much more than Ouick- 
filver, or Gold. See Resistance, Vacuum, Planet 
Comet, be. ' 

jETHEREAL, .Ether eus, fomething that belongs to 
/Ether, or is of the Nature of JEther. See .Ether. 
^Thus, we fay, the JEthereal Space ; JEthereal Regions 
be— Some of the Antients divided the Univerfe, with re- 
fpeS to the Matter contain'd therein, into Elementary and 

JEthereal. See Universe, and Elementary. Under 

JEther, or the JEthereal World, was included all that Space 
above the upper Element, via. Fire. This they fuppofed 



See Fire, 

The Philofophers cannot conceive that the largeft Part of 
the Creation Ihould be perfeaiy void ; and therefore fill it 
with a Species of Matter under the Denomination of JEther. 
—But they vary extremely as to the Nature and Charaaers 
of this JEther. 

Some conceive it as a Body fid generis, appointed only 
to fill up the Vacuities between the heavenly Bodies ; and 
therefore confined to the Regions above our Atmofphere. — 
Others fuppofe it of fo fubtile and penetrating a Nature, as 
to pervade the Air, and other Bodies ; and poflefs the Pores 
and Intervals thereof— Others deny the Exiftence of any 
fuch fpecifick Matter ; and think the Air it felf, by that im- 
menfe Tenuity and Expanfion it is found capable of, may 
difhife it felf thro' the interftellar Spaces, and be the only 
Matter found therein. See Air. 

effea, JEther, b 
mere * 
for 

real or imaginary ; "Authors take the Libetty to modify it 
how they pleafe.— Some fuppofe it of an elementary Na- 
ture, like other Bodies, and only diftinguifh'd by its Tenuity, 
and the other Affeaions coafequent thereon : which is the 
Pbilofopbical JEther.— Others will have it of anothet Spe- 
cies, and not Elementary ; but rather a fort of fifth Element, 
of a purer, more refined, and fpirituous Nature than the 
Subftances about our Earth ; and void of the common Af- 
feaions thereof, as Gravity, be. The heavenly Spaces, 
being the fuppofed Region or Refidence of a more exalted 
Clals of Beings ; the Medium muft be mote exalted in pro- 
portion.— Such is the antient and popular Idea at JEther, or 
JEthereal Matter. See' ^Ethereal. 



■ r l ""»***" * unwiupucrs enuic 10 let it alloc : 
in lieu thereof, fubftitute othet more determinate ones. 



£i?c. See Corruption, be. 

'Twas a Point controverted among 'em, Whether or no 

the JEthereal Matter had the Property of Gravity ? . 

Many late Philolophers, not only at home but abroad, con- 
tend for its Gravity ; and even for its being the Caufe of 
Gravity in all other Bodies.— In effea, fays Chauvin, Bo- 
dies do not dcl'cend by any inherent Principle ; but by the 
Impulfe or Trufion of fomething external : which can be 
nothing but Either ; in regard they fall in Vacuo as readily, 
nay more fo, than in open Air : From the fame Principle 
arifes the Cohefion of Bodies, be. Lexic. Pbilofoth. Vec. 
JEther. See Medium. 

.Ethereal Oil, is a fine, fubtile Oil, approaching nearly 
to the Nature of a Spirit. See Oil. 

Thus, the pure Liquor riling next after the Spirit, in the 
Diftillation of Turpentine, is called the JEthereal Oil of Tur- 
pentine. See Turpentine. 

Some Chymifts dittinguifh two Principles in Urine - the 
one a volatile urinous Salt, refembling Spirit of Nitre -' the 
other an JEthereal Oil, or Sulphur ; partaking of the' Na- 
ture of Spirit of Wine. Dionis. See UrineI 
Ethereal Heaven. See JEthereal Heaven. 
.ETHIOPS Mineral, a Preparation of Mercury, made by 
grinding equal Quantities of crude Quickfilver and Flower of 
Sulphur, in a Stone or Iron Mortar ; till they become incor- 
porated into a black Pouder. See Mercury. 

It Is prefcribed for the Worms, and all Crudities and Acri- 
mony of the Humours ; and is reputed infallible againft the 
Itch, and other cutaneous Difeafes. 

AETIANS, Aetiani, in Antiquity, a Sea or Branch 6f 
Arians, the Difciples of Aetins of Antioch, firnamed the 
Impious 5 who, according to 'Philafiriui, was firft Smith 
then Sophift, and lately Phyfician. SeeARiAN. 

The Aetians had divers other Denominations ; 
Arians, Eunomians, Heterovjians, 7'nglvdytes, 
nomians, Heterousian, be. 
M 



as, 'Pure 
See Eu- 



^ITIO- 



A F F 



( 4 2 ) 



A F F 



.ETIOLOGY, jEtiologia, a Rationale, or Difcourfe 
of the Caulc of a Difeafc. See Disease. 
..' In this Scnfe, we fay, the ALtiokgy of the Small Pox, of 
the Hydrophobia, of the Gout, the Dropfy, lie. See Hy- 
drophobia, Pox, Gout, Dropsy, i$c. 

The Word is compounded of the Greek anta, Caufe, and 
*=>©", Sermo, Tiifcourfc. 

JETITES, in Natural Hiflory, the Eagle-Stone. See Ea- 
^■L*.-Stone. 

The Elites, or Lapis JEtites, is a kind of Stone, vulgar- 
ly faid to be found in the Eagle's Neft ; but this, as well 
as many of the Virtues afcrib'd to it, feem to be fabulous. 
■*-h is found under ground in feveral Parts: Near Treves 
in France, one can icarce dig a few Feet, without finding 
considerable Strata or Beds hereof. 

'Tis ufually hollow, aud has a kind of Core or Kernel in 
it, which, upon lliaking, rattles : Some have two, and others 
three luch Cores. 

It is found of various Forms, and Sizes ; but its Texture 
or Confluence is pretty uniform ; confiding of two or three 
Lays or Coats of a Matter refembling baked Earth : Efpe- 
ciaiiy the innermoft. — They are originally foft, and of the 
Colour of yellow Oker. 

1)iofcorides iays, it is of ufe in difcovering a Thief; for 
by mixing it with his Meat, he'll be unable to fwallow it. — ■ 
Matthiolus informs us, that Birds of Prey never hatch their 
young without this Stone ; and that they feek it as far as 
the Indies. 

The Ufe now made of the Stone, is to afiiit Women in 
Labour ; to which end, they fallen it about the Knee : it 
being a Tradition, that according as it is applied above or 
below the Matrix, it has the Faculty of retaining or exclu- 
ding the Child. See Delivery. 

Hence, it is fomctimes directed to be bore about the Arm 
to prevent Abortion. See Abortion. 

The Word is form'd of the Greek sssto?, Aqtlila, Eagle. 

AFFECTION, Affectio, in Phyficks, a Quality or Pro- 
perty of fome natural Being. See Quality, and Pro- 
perty. 

The Schoolmen define AffcBion an Attribute proper to 
any Being, arifing from the Effencc thereof. See Attri- 
bute, Proper, eifc. 

AffeBious are diilinguifh'd into thofe of Body, and thofe 
of the Mind. 

Affections of Body, are certain Modifications thereof; 
occafioned or induced by Motion ; in Virtue whereof, the 
Body comes to be fo and fo difpofed. See Body, Matter, 
Motion Modification, ££>c. 

Thefe are fubdivided into 'Primary ; as, fffiiantity, Fi- 
gure, Motion, Place, Quality, and Time : and Secondary, as 
Divifibility, Continuity, Impenetrability, Regularity, Health, 
Strength, &c. See each under its proper Article. 

Affections of Mind, are what we more ufually call 
Pa/fions. See Passion. 

Mechanical Affections. See Mechanical AffeBion. 

Affection is peculiarly ufed in Medicine, for a morbid or 
dilordcrly State of a Part. — Thus, we fay, luch a Part of 
the Body is affeBed, i. e. indifpoled, or leized with a Dif- 
eafe. See Disease., 

The Sick are frequently miftaken as to the Place affeBed, 
by means of the Confent between the feveral Parts, which 
makes a Diforder in one Part be felt in another. See Con- 
sent. 
Hypocondriacal Affection.? „ SHyfocondriacal, 
Hyfterical Affection, i£cS '" C Hysteric, &C. 

Affection is fomeimcsalfo ufed inaLegal Senfe, for the 
affigning, making over, pawning, or mortgaging a thing, to 
affurc the Payment of a Sum of Money, or the Difcharge of 
fome other Duty or Service. — His Effects were all affeBed to 
his Creditors. — The Revenues of fuch a Benefice, of fuch an 
Hofpira], are affeBed to the Payment of Penfions, to the 
Support of Orphans. — There are certain Duties and Privi- 
leges affeBed to certain Offices, ^c. 

A.FFEERORS, Afferatores, in Law, are thofe ap- 
pointed in Court-Leets, upon Oath, to fettle and moderate 
the Fines of fuch as have committed Faults arbitrarily pu- 
nifhable, or which have no exprefs Penalty fet down by 
Statute. See Fine, iSc 

The Word is form'd of the French Affier, to affirm ; by 
reafon thofe appointed to this Office, do affirm upon their 
Oaths, what Penalty they think in Confcience the Offender 
hath deferred: 

Kitchin joins the three Words as Synonymas ; Affidati 
Amcrciatores, Affirares. BraBon has Jffidan Mulie'rem, to 
be betrothed to aWoman. — In the Cuilomary of Normandy 
the Word Affeltre, is render'd by the Latin Interpreter 
Taxare, to fet the Price of a thing ; as JEflimare, Indi- 
cate, &c. 

AFFERI, in Law. SceAvERiA. 

AFFIANCE, in Law, the plighting of Troth, between a 
Man and a Woman ; upon an Agreement of Marriage to be 
had between 'em. See Marriage, and Affinity. 



AFFIDATIO Dominorum, an Oath taken by the Lords 
in Parliament ; thus called in the Rot, Pari. Hen. VI. Seu 
Oath, and Parliament. 

AFFIDATUS, or Affidiatus, in our Law-Books a 
Tenant by Fealty: Alio a Retainer. See Tenant, and 
Retainer. 

*= — Affidati am proprie Vaffali flint fed quaff Kiffiili, 
qui in alicujus fidevi i$ clientclam flint recepti, recommen- 
dati diBi. Laurentii Arnalthtea. Affidatio accipiiur pro 
muttta fidelitatis connexions, tarn in fponfaliis, qtiam inter 
fDominum tf Vajfallum. Proles de Affidata 1$ mm Mari- 
tata, non eft htgres. MS. 

AFFIDAVIT, an Oath in Writing, fworn before fome 
Pcrfon who hath Authority to take fuch Oath ; and made 
ufe of, and read in Court, upon Motions, but not upon Trials. 
See Oath, Evidence, Witness, tfc. 

In the Court of Chancery is an Affidavit Office ; under the 
Direction of a Mafter. See Chancery, £jc. 

AFIINAGE, is fometimes ufed in antient Law-Books 
for the Refining of Metals. See Refining. 

AFFINITY, Affinitas, an Alliance, or Relation made 
between two Families, by Marriage. See Alliance, and 
Marriage. 

In this Senfe, the Word ftands comradiftinguifVd to Con- 
fanguinity ; which is a Relation by Blood. See Consan- 
guinity. 

In the Mofaical Law, there are feveral Degrees of Affi- 
nity, wherein Marriage is exprcfly prohibited ; which yet 
feem not at all prohibited by the Law of Nature.— — Thus, 
Levit. C XVIII. ver. 16. a Man was forbid to marry his 
Brother's Widow, unlefs he died without Iffue ; in which 
Cafe, it became enjoined as a Duty. So it was forbid to 
marry his Wife's Siller, while fhe was living, v. 18. which 
was not forbidden before the Law, as appears from the In- 
ftance of Jacob. 

The antient Roman Law is iilent on this Head ; and 
Papinian is the firft who mentions it ; on occafion of the 
Marriage of Caracalla.— The Lawyers who came after him, 
ftretch'd the Bonds of Affinity fo far, that they plac'd Adop- 
tion on the fame Foot with Nature. Sec J.doption. ' 

Affinity, according to the modern Canonifls, renders Mar- 
riage unlawful to the fourth Generation, inclufive : But this 
is ro be underflood of direct Affinity ; and not of that whicli 
isfecondary, or collateral. — Affinis mei affinis, non eft affinis 
mens. See Direct, and Collateral. 

It is further to be obferv'd, that this Impediment of Mar- 
riage, does not only follow an Affinity contracted by lawful 
Matrimony, but alfo that contracted by a criminal Com- 
merce ; with this difference, that this lafl does not extend 
beyond the fecond Generation ; whereas the other, as has 
been obferv'd, reaches to the fourth. See Adultery, 
Concubine, Fornication, $$c. 

The Canonitts diflinguifh three Species of Affinity. 

The firft, that contracted between the Husband and the Re- 
lations by Blood of his Wife ; and between the Wife, and 
the Relations by Blood of her Husband. The fecond, be- 
tween the Husband, and thofe related to his Wife by Mar- 
riage ; and the Wife, and thofe fo related to her Husband. 
The third, between the Husband, and the Relations of his 
Wife's Relations ; and the Wife, and the Relations of her 
Husband's Relations.— By the IVth Council of the Latereu, 
held in 1213, it was decreed, That none but the firft Kind 
was any real Affinity ; the reft being mere Refinements, 
which ought to be fet afide. Tit. de Confang. gf Affin. 

The Degrees are reckon'd after the fame tnanner'in Af- 
finity, as in Confanguinity ; and therefore differently in the 
Canon Law from what they are in the Civil Law. See De- 
gree. 

The Word is form'd of the Latin Affinis, Neighbour; 
of ad, and finis, Boundary, Limit. 

The Romanifls talk of a fpiritual Affinity, contracted by 

the Sacrament of Baptifm and Confirmation. In thai; 

Church, a God-father may not contract Marriage with his 
God-daughter, without a Difpenfation. See God-father, 
Baptism, &c. 

AFFIRM, in Law. — To affirm, fignifies to ratify, or con- 
firm a former Law, or Judgment. — In the like Senfe, is 
the Subftantive Affirmance ufed. See Affirmation. 

AFFIRf/EATION, Affirmatio, a polirive Proportion, 
alledging the Truth of fomcthing. See Proposition, and 
Truth. 

Affirmation is defined by the Logicians, an Act whereby 
we attribute one Idea to another ; as fuppofing it to belong, 
or agree thereto.— As when, conceiving Perfection to agree 
to the Deity, we fay, God is pcrfeB. See Attribute. 

This, on other Occafions, is called Enunciation, Competi- 
tion, Judging, &.c. See Enunciation, Composition, 
Judgment, &c. 

Affirmation is alfo ufed in Grammar, by fome lata 
Refiners upon that Art, for what is ufually call'd a Verb ; in 
regard the Office of that Part of Speech, is to exprefs what 
we affirm, or attribute to any Subject. See Verb. 

Affir- 

2 



A F F 



E 



Affirmation, is particularly ufed in a Legal Senfe, for 
a foiemn Form of atrefling the Truth 5 allow'd to be ufed 
by the Quakers, inflead of an Oath, which they hold ab- 
folurely unlawful. See Quaker, and Oath. 

This People, by their Refufal of all Oaths, lay liable 
to much Trouble ; particularly for declining the Oath of Al- 
legiance, in the Time of King Charles II. — But by an Aft 
pafs'd Anno i6'8o, it was decreed, That their foiemn ^Decla- 
ration of Allegiance and Fidelity, ifiould be accepted in- 
itcad of an Oath. See Declaration, and Allegiance. 

In 11595, tnev a "° obtained, by a Temporary Aft, that 
their foiemn Affirmation fhouid be accepted in all Cafes 
where an Oath is by Law requir'd ; except in Criminal 
Cafes, upon Juries, and in Places of Profit and Trull under 
the Government. In this form : 

J, A. B. do declare, in the 'Prefencc of Almighty God, 
the Witnefs of the 'truth of what I fay, &c. 

This Aft was afterwards continued ; and at lad made 
Perpetual.— But this Form not being fuch as was defir'd, and 
having, in reality, all the Eflenaals of an Oath $ they ap- 
plied to the Parliament for an Alteration, which they ob- 
tained Anno 1711 : When the following Form was fettled to 
their general Satisfaction, viz. 

I, A. B. do fincerely, folemnly, and truly declare, and 
affirm. 

Which is the Form now ufed, in the fame manner, and un- 
der the fame Limitation with the former. — Any Perfon de- 
pofing, upon his foiemn Affirmation, a known Falfhood, 
incurs the Penalty of wilful and corrupt Perjury. See Per- 
jury. 

AFFIRMATIVE, in Logick, &c. is underflood of a Pro- 
■ofition, or the like, which imports an Affirmation ; or that 
ays, A thing is. See Affirmation. 

In this Senfe, the Word Hands oppofed to Negaiive. See 
Necative. 

There are univcrfal Affirmative Propofitions ; and fuch, 
ufually are the firll of Syllogifms. See Universal, Syl- 
logism, £j?c. 

In A'lgebra we have alfo Affirmative or •To/ttive Quanti- 
ties. See Quantity, and Positive. 

Affirmative*^, or Character. See Character. 

In Grammar, Authors diftinguifti Affirmative 'Particles : 
6uch is, Tes. See Particle, Adverb, Jjfc. 

The Term is fometimes alfo ufed Subftantively. The 

Affirmative is the more probable fide of the Queftion : 
There were fo many Votes or Voices for the Affirmative. 
See Vote. 

Affirmative is particularly applied in 'the Roman In- 
quifition, to fuch Hereticks as own the Errors and Opinions 
rhey are charged withal ; and maintain the fame in their 
Examination with Firmnefs and Refolution. See Inquisi- 
tion. 

AFFORCIAMENTUM, in Law. See Efforcement. 

AFFORESTING, Afforestatio, the turning Ground 
into Foreft. See Forest. 

In this Senfe, the Word ftands oppofed to Deaffarefling. 
See Deafforesting. 

The Conqueror, and his Succeffors, continued afforefting 
the Lands of the Subject, for many Reigns ; till the Grie- 
vance became fo notorious, that the People, of all Degrees 
and Denominations, were brought to fue for Relief; which 
was at length obtain'd, and Commiffions granted to furvey 
and perambulate the Foreft, and feparate all the new affo- 
reftcd Lands ; and re-convert them to the Ufes of their Pro- 
prietors, under the Name and Quality of 'Purlieu, or Pou- 
rellee Land. See further under the Article Purli etj. 

AFFRAY, or Akfrayment, in Law, an Affright put 
upon one, or more Perfons. 

This, according to the Lawyers, may be done without a 
Word fpoke, or a Blow ftruc'k.— As, where a Man fliews 
himfelf arm'd or brandi/hes a We; 
into others unarm 'd 



(43) 



A G A 



apon, 



ay ftrike a Fear 



Affray is a common Injury ; in which it differs from an 
Afjalllt, which is always a particular Injury. See Assault. 

AFFREIGHTMENT, or Affretament, Affreta- 
mentum, in Law, fignifies the Freight of a Ship. See 
Freight. 

The Word is form'd from the French Fret, which cxpreffes 
the fame thing. 

AFFRONT E', in Heraldry, is underflood of Animals 
bore in an Efcutcheon, as facing, or with their Heads turn'd 
toward each other.— This is otherwife called Confront!. 

The Word is French ; and literally fignifies the fame thing. 

AFILIATION. See Adoption. S 

Among the antient Gauls, Afiliation was a fort of Adoption 
only practisd among the Great.— It was performed with Astat 
Military Ceremonies: The Father prefenteofa Battle-ax to %l 
the Perfon he was to adopt for his Son 5 as an Intimation S1 



that he was to preferve the Effefls he thus call'd him to 
lucceed to, by Arms. 

AFRICAN Company. See Company. 
AFRICANUS, a Quality or Sirname, given to feveral 
1 erfons, in refpea of the Country of Africa. See Title, 
Quality, Name, Sirname, &c. 

'P. Cornelius Scipio had the Appellation Africanus be- 
ftow'd on him, from his taking and dcmolifhing the City 
of Carthage, and_ thus ridding the Romans of fo formidable 
an Enemy. — In feme Medals we find Scipio's Head on one 
fide, with the Infcription, P. SCIPIO A F R 1 C ; and on 
theother, Scipio in a Carr drawn by Horfes ; with CART. 
SUB ACT. 

Africanus is a|fo the Sirname of a celebrated Hiflorian 
and Chronologift of the Hid Century, born in Paleftine; of 
whom we have nothing extant befide a few Fragments, 
preferv'd in Eufchius and Syncellus. — His Name was Ju- 
lius Africanus. ^Authors frequently confound him with 

Sextus, or Ccfius Africanus. 

AFTER-Birth, among Midwives, the Coat or Mem- 
branes wherein the Foetus is enclofed, inUtcro. See Foetus. 
It is thus called, by reai'en it comes away feme time af- 
ter the foetus ; by way of a fecond Birth, or Delivery. See 
Delivery. 

Phyficians ufually call it the Secundincs. See Secun- 
dine. — See alfo Heam, (£c. 

hvTKv.-'Pains, are Pains felt in the Loins, the Groin, 
(S>c. alter the Birth is brought away. See Delivery. 

They feem to arife from a Diftention of the Ligaments of 
the Uterus in time of Delivery ; and are feldom dangerous, 
unlefs aggravated by a Detention cf the Lochia. — To pre- 
vent 'em, Oil of fwcet Almonds, Sperma Ceti, Capillus 
Veneris, &c. are ufually prefcribed. 

After Math, among Husbandmen, die After-Grafs, or 
fecond Mowings of Grafs ; or elfe Grafs or Stubble cut after 
Corn. 

AGA, in rhe Language of the Afgcls, &c. fignifies a 
powerful Man, or a Lord and Commander. 

In this laft Senfe, the Term is alfo ufed among the furks: 
Thus, the Aga of the Janizaries, is their Colonel ; and 
the Capi-slga, the Captain of the Gate of the Seraglio. 
See January, Capi-Aoa, iSc 

The Title Aga is alio given by way of Courtefy, to 
feveral Perfons of Diftin£ticn; tho not in any OiHce or Com- 
mand to entitle 'em to it, 

On feme Occafions, in lieu of Aga, We i.Vj,Agaffl : Thus, 
the Aga or Governour of the Pages, is called Cafi-Agrffi ; 
and the Aga or General of the Horfc, Spabtlar AgaJJi. See 
Page, Oda, Spahi, ISc. 

AGAT, Agio, in Matters of Commerce, a Term ufed, 

chiefly in Holland, and at Venice, for the Difference between 

the Value of Bank-Notes, and currenr Money. See Bank. 

The Agio in Holland is fometimes %, or even 4 per Cent. 

in favour of the Bank-Notes. See Discount. 

AGAPjE, in Church Hifl'ory, Love-Feafis ; a Name gi- 
ven to certain FefKvals, celebrated in the antient Greek 
Church, to keep up a Harmony and Concord among its 
Members. See Feast. 

The Word is fcrm'd of the Greek ayaTti, ^DilcElion ; of 
ityctTttv, I love. 

In the primitive Days they were held without Scandal, or 
Offence ; but in after-Times, the Heathens beg:n to tax 
them with Impurity. — This gave occafion to a Reformation 
of thefe Agapa. 

The Kits of Charity, with which the Ceremony had end-, 
ed, was no longer given between different Sexes ; and it was 
exprelly forbidden to have any Beds or Couches, for the 
Conveniency cf thofe who fhould be difpos'd to eat more at 
their Eafe. 

Notwith Handing thefe Precautions, theAbufes committed 
in them became fo notorious ; that they were folemnly con- 
demn'd at the Council of Carthage. 

Some Criticks will have it to be thefe Agap£ that St. Paul 
fpeaks of, 1 Cor. ch. XI, under the Name of the Lord's 
Supper $ which, they contend, was net the Eucharift, bur 
a Feaft accompanying it 5 held by the Chriflians of thofe 
Times, in commemoration of out Saviour's intlituting that 
Sacrament, in his Supper with the Apoftles. — The Text 
feems to intimate, that the Feaft was held before the Com- 
munion ; but by an Ordinance afterwards made, they were 
oblig'd to communicate fading ; fo that the Ag<!f& were 
poftpon'd till the Sacrament was over. 

Some Authors imagin'd this Ceremony to have been, not 
a Commemoration of our Saviour ; but a Cuflom_ borrow d 
from the Heathens : Mos vero ille, ut referunt, fays Sedu- 
litis on the Xlth Chapter of the Epiflle to the Corinth, de 
Gentili adhuc fnperflitionc veniebat. And Fauftus the Ma- 
nichee is reprcfemed in St. Augtiftin, as reproaching the 
Chriflians, with converting the Heathen Sacrifices into 
: Chrifiianos facrificia (Paganorum couvertiffe in 
afas. 

AGA- 



AGE 



( 44) 



AGE 



AGAPETjE, in Ecclcfiaftical Hiftory, Well-beloved 5 a 
Name given to certain Virgins, who in the antient Church 
affociated themfelves with Ecclefiafticks, out of a Motive 
of Piety and Charity. 

In the primitive Days, there were Women inftituted Dea- 
coneffes 5 who devoting themfelves to the Service of the 
Church, took up their abode with the Miniftcrs, and affift- 
ed them in their Functions. See Deacon. 

In the Fervour of the primitive Piety, there was nothing 
fcandalous in thefe Societies : But they afterwards degene- 
rated into Libertinifm j infomuch, that St. Jcrom afks, with 
Indignation, wide Agapetarum pefiis in ecclefias intrant ? 

This gave occafion to Councils to fupprefs them. St. A- 

thanajius mentions a Prieft named Leontius, who, to remove 
all occafion of Sufpicion, offer'd to mutilate himfclf, to pre- 
ferve his Companion. 

A&ARIC, or Fungus Agarici, in Pharmacy, a kind 
of fungous Excrefcence growing on the Trunks, and large 
Branches of feveral Trees ; but chiefly on the Larch-Tree, 
and certain Oaks. See Fungus. 

Tiiofcorides derives its Name from a Province of Sarmatia, 
called Agaria ; whence it was firft brought.— Several Au- 
thors, and among the reft, Galen, take it for a Root ; but 
the common Opinion is for its being of the Mufhroom kind. 
— It is brought from the Levant. 

It is white, light, tender, brittle, of a bitter Tafle, pun- 
gent, and a little Styptic.' — This is what the Antients call'd 
the Female Agaric : As for the Male, it is ufually yellowim 
and woody ; and is generally excluded out of Phyiick, be- 
ing only uied in Dying. 

Agaric was a Medicine in mighty ufe among the Antients; 
not only fot the purging of Phlegm, but in all Diflempers 
proceeding from grofs Humours and Obftruclions 5 as the Epi- 
lepfy, Madnefs, Afthma, &c. — Yet they complain'd, that it 
weaken'd the Bowels, and purg'd too violently. 

They had divers Correctors for it - chiefly of the Aro- 
matic kind : But Dr. £>uincy fays, the beft way is to banifh 
it for good, as the prelent Practice has almoft done: for 
that it rather makes People fick, than purges them ; be- 
ing, very naufeous, and but little cathartic. See Purgative. 

By a chymical Solution, it paffes almoft wholly into 
Oil : It yields no volatile Salt 5 but abounds with a fore of 
fcaly Earth, and an acid Phlegm. 

"We read of Pillule de Agarico, and Troches of Agaric ; 
but they are difufed. 

Some Authors alfo mention a Mineral Agaric ; which is 
a whitifh Stone, found in the Clefts of Rocks in Germany ; 
called alfo Lac Lunce, and by fome Naturalifts, Lithomagra, 
and Stemmagra. See Lac Lunee. 

AGAT, Achates, in Natural Hiftory, a precious Stone, 
partly tranfparent, and partly opake. See Precious Stone t 
and Gem. 

The firft Agats were faid to have been found in Sicily, 
along the Banks of the River Achates ; whence, fome will 
have it, the Name is deriv'd. 

There are various Kinds of Agats 5 which, according to 
their different Colours, degrees of Tranfparency, &c. have 
different Names. — The principal may be redue'd to thefe 
four, -viz. the Onyx, the Chalcedony, the 'Black, and the 
German Agats. See Onyx, and Chalcedony. 

The Agat has ordinarily a reddifh Teint; but is finely va- 
riegated with Spots and Stains 5 many of which feem very 
naturally to reprefent Woods, Rivers, Trees, Animals, Fruits, 
Flowers, &c. — 1)e Soot mentions one, or the Size of a 
Nail, wherein a Bifliop, with his Mitre, was very well re- 
prcfented : Turning it a little, a Man and Woman's Head 
were feen in its Place. 

The Sardines, and Sardonyx Agats, are very valuable ; 
the latter is of a fanguine Colour, and is divided into Zones, 
which feem to have been painted by Art. — Pliny, Strabo, 
and Cicero fay, that Polycrates's Ring was a Sardonyx. See 
Sardonyx. 

Authors alfo fpeak of Roman Agats, Egyptian Agats, 
Onyx-fardovyx Agats, &c. — The Antients mention a red 
Agat, fpotted with Points of Gold, found in Candia ; and 
called Sacred, as being a Prefervativc againft the Poifon of 
Vipers, Scorpions, and Spiders.' — 'Pliny has a whole Chapter 
of the Virtues of Agats. 

Agat has always been eftcem'd for Seals ; as being a 
Stone that no Wax will Hick to, SceSEAL, Engraving, ££c. 

The Gold Wire-drawers burnifh. their Gold with an Agat ; 
whence the Instrument made ufe of on that occafion, is cal- 
led Agat. See GoxM-Wire. 

Mr. Boyle takes Agats to have been form'd of feparate 
Beds, or Strata of fine Clay or Earth, brought by a petrify- 
ing Liquor to coagulate into a Stone. See Gem.- The 

fame Author obferves, that the Fire will purge away the Co- 
lours of Agat. He alfo mentions an Agat with a moveable 
Spot or Cloud in it. 

AGE, the natural Duration of any thing; and particu- 
larly of the Life of Man. See Duration, and Life. 



The ordinary Age of Mankind has been occafionally va- 
ried, in fuch manner as to afford a fine Inflance of the Wif- 
dom of Providence. See the Article Longjevity. 

Age is alfo ufed in Chronology, for a Century ; or a Syf- 
tem or Period of an hundred years ; called alfo Secalum. 
See Seculum, and Century. 

An Age differs from a Generation. See Generation. 

Age is alfo underftood of a certain State or Portion of 
the ordinary Life of Man 5 which is divided into four diffe- 
rent Ages, viz. Infancy, Youth, Manhood, and Old Age. 

Infancy, or Childhood, Puerhia, extends as for as the 
fourteenth Year. See Infancy, and Children. 

Youth, Adolefcence, or the Age of Puberty, commences 
at 14, and ends at about 25. See Youth, Adolescence, 
Puberty, &c. 

Manhood, or the Virile Age, terminates at 50. See Vi- 

R I LE. 

Old Age, Sene&m, fucceeds, which is the laft: tho fome 
divide this into two; reckoning it decrepit Age after 75. 
Sec Old Age. 

. Age, in Horfemanfhip, makes a considerable Point of 
Knowledge $ the Horfe being an Animal that remarkably 
Jtiews the Progrefs of his Years, by correfpondent Altera- 
tions in his Body. See Horse. 

We have Characteriflicks from his Teeth, Hoofs, Coat, 
Tail and Eyes. See Teeth, Hoof, \S>c. 

The firft Year he has his Foal's 'Teeth, which are only 
Grinders and Gatherers : The fecond, the four foremoit 
change, and appear browner and bigger than the reft : The 
third, he changes the Teeth next to thefe ; leaving no ap- 
parent Foal's Teeth, but two on each fide above, and two 
below : The fourth Year, the Teeth next to thefe are chang- 
ed, and no Foal's Teeth are left, but one on each fide 
above and below. At five Years, his foremoit Teeth are 
all changed ; and the Tufhes on each fide are cOmpleat : 
thofe which come in the Places of the laft Foal's Teeth, be- 
ing hollow^ and having a little black Speck in the midtt $ 
which is called the Mark in a Horfi's Mouth, and continues 

till eight Years of Age. See Mark.. At fix Years, he 

puts up new Tufhes ; near which appears a little Circle of 
young Flelh, at the bottom of the Tufli : the Tuflies 

withal, being white, fmall, fhort, and fliarp. At feven 

Years, the Teeth are all at their growth, and the Mark in 
the Mouth appears very plain. — At eight, all his Teeth are 
full, fmooth, and plain, and the Mark fcarce difcernable ; 
the Tuflies looking yellowifti. — At nine, the foremoft Teeth 
ihew longer, yellower, and fouler than before; and the 
Tuflies become bluntifh. — 'Ac ten, no Holes are felt on the 
infide of the upper Tufhes ; which till then are very fenfi- 
ble : Add, that the Temples begin to be crooked, and hol- 
low. — At eleven Years, his Teeth are very long, yellow, 
black, and foul ; but he will cut even, and his Teeth ftand 
directly oppofite to one another. — At twelve, the upper 
Teeth hang over the nether. — At thirteen, the Tufhes are 
worn clofc to his Chaps, if he have been much ridden ; 0- 
therwife they will be black, foul, and long. 

2 , As to the Hoof. If it be fmooth, moift, hollow, 

and well-founding, 'tis a Sign of Youth : On the contrary, 
if rugged, and as it were feamed, one Seam over another, 
and withal dry, foul, and rufty, 'tis a Mark of Old Age. 

5 , For the Tail. Taking him by the Stern thereof, 

clofe at the fetting on to the Buttock, and griping it between 
the Finger and Thumb ; if a Joint be felt to flick out more 
than the reft, the bignefs of a Nut, the Horfe is under 
ten : but if the Joints be all plain, he may be fifteen. 

4 , The Eyes being round, full, and flaring $ the Pits 
that arc over 'em filled, fmooth, and even with his Tem- 
ples ; and no Wrinkles to be feen, either under or above : 
is a Mark of Youth. 

5 , The Skin being pluck'd up in any Part betwixt the Fin- 
ger and Thumb, and let go again ; if it return fuddenly to 
its Place, and remain without Wrinkles, he may be argued 
to be young. 

<J°, A dark-colour'd Horfe, growing grifly above the Eye- 
brows, or under the Main j or a whitifti Horfe growing 
mcanelled, either white or black, all over ; may be infalli- 
bly concluded extremely aged. 

Laftly, a Horfe being young, the Bars of his Mouth are 
foft and fhallow 5 otherwife they are deep, and feel hard 
and rough. 

Age, in Hunting. — Deer, and other Beafts of Game, 
have different Denominations, according to their Age j 
which fee under the Article Hunting. 

The firft Head, called in fallow Deer, Broches, and in red 
Deer, Pricks, does not come till the fecond Year of their 
Age : The next Year, they bear four or fix fmall Branches ; 
the fourth Year, eight or ten ; the fifth, ten or twelve ; the 
fixth, fourteen or lixteen ; the feventh Year, they bear their 
Heads beam'd, branch'd, and fum'd, as mm:h as ever they 
will be. 

The 



AGE 



The Age of a Hart, t$c. is chiefly judg'd of by the Fur- 
hiture of his Head. See Head. 

The Huntfmen have fcveral other Marks, whereby to 
know an old Hart without feeing him ; as, the Slot, Entries, 
Abaturcs, Foils, Fewmets, Gate, and Fraying Pod. See 
Hunting. 

Age of the Moon, in Aflronomy, is underdood of the 
Number of Days elapfed fince the lift Conjunction, or New 
Moon; called alfo her Quarter. Sec Conjunction, Quar- 
ter, &c. 

To find the Moon's Age. See Moon. 

Age, in Chronology. The Age of the World, is the 

Time pafs'd fince the Creation. See Creation. 

The feveral Ages of the World, may be redue'd to thefe 
three grand Epocha's, viz. the Age of the Law of Nature, 
from Adam to Mofes.— The Age of the Jeimfo Law, from 
Mofes to Chrift.— And the Age of Grace, 'from Chrift to the 
prefent Year. 

The firft Age, according to the Je-tvs, confided of 2447 
Tears ; according to Scaliger, of 2452 ; and according to 
Ufber, of 2513. — The fecond Age, according to the Jews, 
confided of 13 12 Years; according ro Scaliger. of 1508 ; 
and according to Ujher, of 14.91. — Of the third Age, there 
have elapfed 1726 Years ; tho this, too, is controverted by 
Chronologers. 

Petavius will have our Saviour to have been born four 
Years before the vulgar Epocha ; on which footing, the 
current Year fhould be 1730; according to Capella, 1731 ; 
according to Baromus and Scaliger, 1728. See Nativity. 

The Romans diftingmfli'd the Time that preceded them 
into three Ages : The obfeure or uncertain Jge, which 
reach'd down as low as Ogyges King of Attica ; in whofe 
Reign the Deluge happen'd in Greece.— The falrdous, or 
heroic Age, which ended at the firft Olympiad : And the 
hiflorical Age, which commene'd at the Building of Rome. 
See Fabulous, Heroic, Historical, &c. 

Among tho Poets, the four Ages of the World, are the 
G-lden, the Silver, the Brazen, and the Iron Age. See 
the Metamorphojis of Ovid, Lib. I. or rather, Heficd in his 
Poem 'Efft km ips&i, Opera t£ Dies, vcr. 108, S$c. He is 
the firft that has defcribed the four Ages, and the beft. 

The Eajl Indians alfo reckon four Ages fince the Begin- 
ning.— The firft, which they reprefenr as a fort of Golcien 
Age, lafted, according to them 1728000 Years : In this the 
God Brahma was born ; and rhe Men were all Giants ; their 
Manners innocent : They were exempt from Difeafes, and 
lived 400 Years. — In the fecond Age, which lafted 1296000, 
their Rajas were born : Vice now crept into the World ; 
Mens Lives were fallen to 300 Years, and their Size rc- 
ttench'd proportionally.— Under the third Age, which lafted 
8064000 Years, Vice being increas'd, Men only attain'd to 
200 Years. — Thelaft Age is that wherein we now live, of 
which 



( 4$ ) A G G 

• J t? z ~." er .' a P , etkion > or Motion made in Court, bv one 
in his Minority ; having an Aflion brought againft him for 

uefting, that the 
This, the Court, 



ren 
See 



402719; Years arc already gone; and the Life of ceflary to the Being of an 



Lands coming to him by Defcent ; requeuing, 
Action may reft till he come to full Age. ' 
in moft Cafes, ought to grant. 

It is otherwife in the Civil Law ; which obliges Child 
in their Minority to anfwer by their Tutors, or Curators. ! 
Tutor, Curator, Minority, Pupil, i$c. 

AGEMOGLANS, or Azamoglans, Children oiTrihite 
"•<d. ev ery three Years by the grand Seignior, among the 
Chtiftians whom he tolerates in his Dominions. 

The Commifiioners appointed for this Levy, take them 
by force, even out of the Houfes of Chrittians ; always 
claiming one in three, and pitching upon fuch as fcem the 
handfomeft, and promife to be the mod handy. 

Thefe are immediately convey 'd to Gallipoli or Conflati- 
tinople ; where they ate firft circumcis'd, then inftrufted in 
the Mahometan Faith, taught the Turkifi Language and 
the Exercifes of War, till fuch time as they become of Age 
to bear Arms. B 

Such as are not judged proper for the Army, they employ 
in the lowed and moll letvile Offices of the Seraglio ; as 
in the Kitchen, Stables, $$c. 

The Word, in its O.iginal, fignifies a Barbarian's Child ; ' 
that is, a Child not a Turk.— It is compounded of two Ara- 
lic Words, DJN Agem, and DN^y Child ; which among 
the Turks fignifies as much as Barbarous among the Greeks"; 
the former People dividing the World into Arabs 01 Turks, 
and Agem ; as the latter into Grecians and Barbarians. 

AGENT, Agens, in Phyficks, that whereby a thing is 
done or effefled ; or that which has a Power whereby it ails 
on another ; or by its Action induces fome Change in ano- 
ther. See Act, and Action. 

The Word Agent is ufed promifcuoufly with Efficient 3 
and in contradidinflion to 'Patient. Sec Efficient, Pas- 
sive, &c. 

The Schools divide Agents into Natural and Free. 

Natural or Phyfical Agents, are thofe immediately deter- 
min'd by the Author of Nature, to produce one fort of Ef- 
fect ; with an Incapacity to produce the contrary theteto. — 
Such is Fire, which only heats, and does not alfo cool. 

Free or Voluntary Agent, is that which may equally do 
any thing, or the oppofite thereof; as acting not from any 
Pre-deiermination, but from Choice.— Such is the Mind 
fuppofed to be ; which may either will or nill the fame thing. 
See Predetermination, Liberty, Will, &c. 

Natural Agents, again, are fubdivided into Univocal ; 
which are fuch as produce Effects of the fame Kind and 
Denomination with the Agents themfelves : and Equivocal, 
Whofe Effects are of a diftercnt Kind, (£c. from the Agents. 
See Equivocal, and Univocal. 

The Schoolmen reckon the following Circumftances ne- 



Man funk to one fourth of its otiginal Duration. 

Age, in Law, is particularly underdood of a certain State 
or Time of Life, wherein a Perfon is qualified to do fome- 
thing, which before, for want of Yeats, and confequently 
Difcretion, they could not. See Major, Minor, £J?c. 

There are two principal Ages in a Man : At fourteen, he 
is at the Age of Difcretion ; at twenty: one Years, at full Age. 

In a Woman, there were antiently fix Ages obferv'd : 
At feven Years, her Father mighr diftrain the Tenants of fornixes. Tee^A^E'cHEC^E 



his Manor for aid to marry her ; for at thofe Years die 

may confent to Matrimony. BraBon. At nine Years 

old fhe is dowable ; for then, or within half a Year after, 
Hie is faid to be able fromcreri dotem ii virum fuftinere. 

Fleta. At twelve Years, die is able finally to ratify and 

confirm her former Confent to Matrimony. — At fourteen, die 
may take her Lands into her own Hands ; and .fhould be 
out of Watd, if fhe were at this Age at her Anceftor's 
Death. — At fixteen, flie fliould be out of Ward ; tho at 
the Death of her Anceftor fhe was under fourteen : The 
Reafon is, that then fhe might take a Husband able to per- 
form Knight's-Service.— At twenty one Years, fhe may alie- 
nate Lands and Tenements. 



That it be conti- 
guous to the Object, didinft from it, have a Power over ir 
a Sphere of Activity, and a Proportion or Rate of acting. 

Agent, is alfo ufed for a Perfon entruded with the Ma- 
nagement of the Aft'airs of a Corporation, or private Per- 
fon : In which Senfe, the Word coincides with Deputy, 'Pro- 
curator, Commifjioner, Falior, &c. See Deputy, Procu- 
rator, Commissioner, Factor, &c. 

Among the Officers in the Exchequer, are four Agents 



Agents of Bank and Exchange, are publick Officers, 
eftablifh'd in rhe trading Cities of France, to negotiate Mat- 
rets between Merchants, telating to Bills of Exchange ■ 
and the buying and felling of Goods. Thefe amount to what', 
among us, are called Exchange-Brokers. See Broker, and 
Enchange. 

Agent and Patient, in Common Law, is where a Perfon 
does, or gives fomething to himfelf; fo that he is at the 
fame time both the Doer or Giver, and the Receiver or 
Party it is done to. — Such is a Woman, when fhe endows 
her felf with patt of her Husband's Inheritance. 

AGEOMETRESIA, a Term purely Greek, 'AytajUTS»<rU, 

fometimes ufed by Euglif/j Writers ; denoting a Want or De- 

°!Al^l\lt e ^°itl"^ h t m ^ cU( ^ S0 ^ fi. 1 * in Pint of Geometry. -Kepler not having taught any 

direct and geometrical Methods of finding certain Matters, 
in his Elliptic Theory ; particularly, the ttue Anomaly, from 
the mean : has been charged with Ageometrejta. See A- 

NOMALY. 

AGER Terra, in antient Writers, the fame with an 
Acre of Land. See Acre. 

AGGLUTINANTS, Agglutinantia, in Medicine, a 
Species of ftrengthning Remedies, whofe Office and Effect 
is to adhere ro the folid Parts of the Body, and thus re- 
cruit and fupply the Place of what is wore off and wafted 
in the animal Actions. See Medicines, Nutrition,^. 

Thefe are moft of 'em of the glutinous Kind, or fuch as 
eafily form themfelves into Gellies and gummy Confidences ; 
whence the Name Agglutmant, which is form'd of ad, to, 
and gluten, glue. See Glue, and Agglutination, 



Guardian, and claim his Lands held in Soccage. Dyer, fol. 
162. thoBratfon, Lib. II. limits this to fifteen Years ; with 
whom Glauville agrees. — At fourteen, a Man may confent 
to Marriage, as a Woman at twelve. — At fifteen he ought to 

be fwotn to the Peace, An. 24 Ed:v. I. Stat. 3. At the 

Age of twenty one, a Man was oblig'd to be a Knight, if 
he had_ twenty Pounds Land per Annum in Fee, or for 
Term of Life, Anno 1 Ediv. II. Stat. 1. But this Statute 
is repealed, 17 Car. I. cap. 10.. The fame Age alfo ena- 
bles him to make Contracts, and manage his own Eftate ; 
which, till that time, he cannot do with Security of thofe 
that deal with him. 

The .^ge of twelve Yeats, binds to Appearance before the 
Shetiff and Coroner, for Inquiry after Robberies, Anno 52 

tj cap - J 4 — The Age of twenty four Years enabled 
a Man to enter an Order of Religion, without Confent of 
Parents, Anno + Uen. IV. cap. 17. 



N 



The 



AG I 



?40 



A G N 



The Operation and Ufe of Agglutinates, fee under 
.Strength en ers. 

The principal Simple? which come under this Oafs, are 
Jfing-glafs, Olibanum, Gum Arabic, Dragons Blood, Caflia, 
Sago, Vermicelli, Pulfe, Comfrey, Plantain, &c. See I- 
sing-gcass, Gum, Olisanum, Dracon's Blood, Cassia, 
Pulse, gfo 

AGGLUTINATION, literally, denotes the Aft of join- 
ing, or cementing two Bodies together, by means of a proper 
Gluten, or Glue. See Cement, Glue, &c. 

In Medicine, the Term is peculiarly uled for the Addi- 
tion of new Subftance ; or the giving a greater Confidence to 
the Animal Fluids, to fit 'cm the more forNourifhment. See 
Agglutinants ; fee alfo Accretion, and Nutrition. 

AGGRAVATION, the Act of augmenting a Crime, 
qr the Punifhment thereof. See Crime, and Punishment. 

The Word is compounded of ad, to, and gravis, heavy, 
grievous. 

In the Romifc Canon Law, Aggravation is particularly 
ufed for an Ecclefiaftical Cenfure, threatening an Excom- 
munication after three Admonitions ufed in vain. See Cen- 
sure. 

From Aggravation, they proceed to Re-aggravation ; 
which is the laft Excommunication. See Excommunica- 
tion. 

AGGREGATE, the Sum, or Refult of feveral things 
aggregated or added together. See Aggregation, and 
Sum. 

Natural Bodies are Aggregates, or Affemblages of Parti- 
cles or Corpufeles, bound together by the Principle of At- 
traction. See Bony, Particle, &c. 

The Word is form'd of ad, to, and grex, gregis, a Flock, 
Company. 

AGGREGATION, Aggregatio, in Phyficks, a Spe- 
cies of Union, whereby feveral things which have no natural 
Dependence or Connection with one another, are collected 
together, fo as in fome Senfe to conflituteone. See Union. 

Thus, a Heap of Sand, or a Mafs of Ruins, arc Bodies 
by Aggregation. 

In a like Senfe, they fometlmes fay, To be of a Com- 
pany or Community by Aggregation.— An Aggregation of fe- 
veral Doctors to the Faculty of Laws. — In Italy, Aggrega- 
tions arc frequently made of Houfes or Families 5 by Vir- 
tue whereof, they all bear the fame Name, and Arms. 

The Word Aggregation, ftri&ly fpeaking, differs from 
Congregation 5 in that the former denotes a Coalition of fe- 
veral things in fome Senfe equal 5 and the latter an Accef- 
ilon of a lefs to a more confiderable. See Congregation. 

AGGRESSOR, in Law, he, of two contending Parties, 
who makes the firil Affault, or Attack 5 or who began the 
Quarrel, Encounter, or Difference. — In Criminal Matters, 
it is firft enquir'd who was the Aggrejjbr. See Attack, &c. 

AGILDE, in our antient Cufloms, a Perfbn fo vile, that 
whoever kill'd him was to pay no Mulct for his Death. See 
VEstimatio Capitis. 

The Word comes from the privative a, and the Saxon 
Gildan, Jbfoere. See Gild. 

AGILITY, Agilitas, Nimblenefs ; a light and active 
Habitude, or Difpofition of the Members, and Parts de- 
figncd lor Morion. See Muscle, and Muscular. 

AG1LLARIUS, in antient Law- Books, a Hayward, or 
Keeper of a Herd of Cattle in a common Field. 

AGIST, in Law.— To agijl, fignifies to take in, and 
feed, the Cattle of Strangers, in the King's Foreft ; and 
gather the Money due for the fame. See Agistor. 

The Word is alfo extended to the taking in of other Mens 
Catrcl, in any Man's Ground ; at a certain Rate per Week. 

It is alfo ufed metaphorically for a Charge or Burden on 
any thing. — In this Senfe, we meet with Tcrrtf ad Cufto- 
d;am Maris Agiflat<e, i. c. charged with a Tribute to 

keep out the Sea. Seld. Mare Clatif. So, Terree Agif- 

t&t&; are Lands whofe Owners are bound to keep up the 
80a- Banks. Spelman. 

The Word is form'd of the French Gijle, a Bed, or Ly- 
ing-Place. 

AGISTOR, an Officer of the Foreft, who takes in the 
Cattle of Strangers, to feed therein; and receives for the 
King's Ufe, all luch Tack-Money as becomes due upon that 
account. Sec Forest, and Agist. 

In Engl/Jh, they are otherwifc called, Gileft-takers, or 
Gift-takers, and made, by Letters Patent, to the Number 
of four, in every Foreft, where his Majefty has any Pan- 
nage. Sec Pannage. 

Their Function is term'd Ag'/Jlment, and Agiftage. 

AGITATION, Agitatio, properly fignifies Shaking- 
or a reciprocal Motion of a Body this way and that. See 
Motion, 

The Prophets, Quakers, Pythian Pnefteffes, ££c. were 
fubject to violent Agitations of Body, &c. See Prophet 
Quaker, Pythia, OSJc. 

Among Phyfiologifts, the Term is fomctimes appropriated 



to that Species of Earthquake, call'd Tremor, or Trembling 
Arietatw. See Earthquake. 

Among Philofophers, it is chiefly ufed for an intefiine 
Commotion of the Parts of any natural Body. Sec Intes- 
tine. 

_ Thus, Fire is faid to agitate the minute Particles of Bo- 
dies. See Fire. — Fermentation, and Efrervefcence, are at- 
tended with a brifk Agitation of the Particles. See Fer- 
mentation, Effervescence, and Particle. 

Agitation of Seajis in the Forefl, anriently fignify'd 
the Drift of Bealts in the Foreft. See Drift, and Forest 

AGITATORS, in our Engliffj Affairs, were certain Of- 
ficers, created by the Army in it>47> E ° take care of tHe 
Intercfts thereof. 

Crom^xel leagued himfelf with the Agitators, whom he 

found to have more Intereft than the Council of War.' . 

The Agitators undertook to make Propolals relating to the 
Reformation of Religion and the State. 

AGLECTS, Aglets, or Agleeps, among Florifts, the 
Pendants hanging on theTip-ends of Chives,and Stamina ; as 
in Tulips, Roles, Spike-grafs, tfc. See Chive, Stamina,^ 

AGNATI, in the Civil Law, a Term ufed in refpeft of 
the Male Defcendents of the fame Father, in different 
Lines. See Agnation. 

In this Senfe, the Word is contradiftingui/h'd to Cognati. 
See Cognati. 

AGNATION, Agnatio, in the Civil Law, the Bond 
of Confanguinity or Relation between the Male-Defcen- 
dents of the fame Father ; as Cognation is the Bond of Re- 
lation between all the Defcendents of the fame Father, both 
Males and Females. Sec Cognation. 

The Difference, then, between Agnation and Cognation, 
confifts in this, that Cognation is the univerfal Name,' un- 
der which the whole Family, and even the Agnati them- 
felves are contain'd $ and Agnation a particular Branch of 
Cognation, which only includes the Defcendents in the Male 
Line. See Consanguinity. 

By the Law of the Twelve Tables, Males and Females 
fucceeded one another 5 according to the Order of Proximi- 
ty, and without any regard to the Sex; but the Laws were 
afterwards chang'd in this refpect, by the Lex Vocoma ; and 
Women were excluded from the Privileges of Agnation, ex- 
cepting fuch as were within the Degree of Confanguinity, 
i.e. excepting the Sifters of him who died ab-inteftatei 
and it was hence that the Difference between Agnati and 
Cognati firft took its rife. 

But this Difference was again aboliftYd by Juflinian* 
and the Females were re-inftatcd in the Right of Agnation* 
and all the Defcendent's on the Father's fide, whether Males 
or Females, were appointed to fucceed each other indifcri- 
minately, according to the Order of Proximity. 

Hence, Cognation came to take in all the Relations of 
the Father 5 and Agnation to be reftrained to thoPi of the 
Mother. 

Adoptive Children enjoy'd the Privileges of Agnation ; 
which was called Civil in their refpect, in oppofition to the 
other, which was Natural. See Adoption, 

AGNOITES, or Agnoetes, a Denomination given to 
certain antient Hereticks, who denied that Chrift foreknew 
the Day of Judgment. 

The Word is Greek, *&yvw\T& ; formM of dyvoia, Jgnoro, 
I do not know. 

Eulogius, Patriarch of Alexandria, afcribes this Herefy 
to certain Solitaries in the Neighbourhood of jferufalem t 
who in defence hereof, alledg'd divers Texts of the New 
Teftament, and among others, this of St. Mark, C. XIII. 
ver. 32. " Of that Day and Hour knoweth no Man 5 no 
* c not the Angels who are in Heaven, nor the Son, but 
" the Father only." — The fame Paflage was made ufe of by 
the Arians ; and hence the Orthodox Divines of thofe Days 
were induced to give various Explications thereof : Some al- 
ledge, that our Saviour here had no regard to his Divine Na- 
ture, but only fpoke of his Human. Others underftand it thus, 
That the Knowledge of the Day of Judgment does not con- 
cern our Saviour confider'd in his Quality of Mefliah, but 
God only. Whick is the moft natural Explication. 

AGNOMEN, among the Romans, a kind of Sirname, 
ufually given on occafion of fome particular Action, Habit, 
or other Circumftance of the Bearer. See Name, and 

SlRNAME. 

Thus, one of the Scipio's was named Africanus, and the 
other Afiatictis, from the brave Achievements which the 
one did in Africa, and the other in Afia. 

The Agnomen was the third in order of the three Ro- 
man Names. — Thus, in Marcus "Tullius Cicero, Marcus is 
the Prarnomen, Ttillms the Nomen, and Cicero the Agno- 
men. See Nomen, Prjenomen, &c. 

AGNUS Cajlus, a Shrub, famous among the Antients as 
a Specific for the Prcfervation of Chaftity, and the prevent- 
ing of all "Venereal Dcfires, Pollutions, &c. 

The Greeks call'd it "Ayv@- y chaft ; to which has fines 
been added the Reduplicative Caftits, q, d. Cbaft t ckajl- 

The 



AGO 



C 47 3 , . A G R 

AGONOCLITA, or Agon 



Seft 



The Athenian Ladies, who mad; Profc'ffion of Chaftity, 

never to kneel, bur to deliver ail their Prayers {land- 

oee GENUFLEXION. 



See C; 

It is reputed a Cooler, and particularly f tne Genital 
P ; rrs ; and was anticntly ufcd in Phyfick, to allay thole in- 
ordinate Motions arifing from feminai Turgefcences : But it 
is out of the prefent Practice. See Pollution. 

Aonus 'Dei, a piece of confecrated Pafte, of great fervice 
in the Church of Rome. 

The Name literally fignifies Lamb of God ; this being 
itippofed an Image or Reprefentation of the Lamb of 
God, fje. 

They cover it up with a piece of Stuff, cut in form of a 
Heart, and carry ir very devoutly in their Proceflions.— The 
Romijh Priells, and Reli 



:le &, y;w. 



was, 
ing. 

The Word is compounded of the Privative Particle 
Knee, and x.hUw, / bend. 

AGONY, Aconia, the Extremity of Pain, or a DlC 
eale ; when Nature makes her lait Effort, or Struggle ro 
rhrow off the Evil rhar oppreffes her. See Pun, De- 
base, and Death, 

The Word is form'd from the Greek dyat, Certamen 
Combat ; this being a kind of Strife, between Life and" 
Death. 

AGORONOMUS, in Antiquity, a Magistrate of Athe 



g trLT' e d g00 f Penny 'h byfel - ^v*^^^- c r^o™ «^ 

to lome. and urelenrmcr thrm tn , n .L„ M'« t li„i_ ., t r n. & ,. . ... ' . .. ' 



ling thefe Agnus Set's to fome, and prefenting them to 
others. 



the Infpeflion of the Weights, Mea- 



The Pope confecrates frefh ones once in feven Years, the 
Diltribution whereof, belongs to the Mailer of rhe Ward- 
robe ; and they are receiv'd by the Cardinals with a world 
of Reverence, in their Mitres. — This Ceremony they pre- 
tend to derive from an antientCuflom of the Church, where- 
in parr of the Pafchal Taper, confecrated on Holy Thurf- „ 
day, was diflributed among the People, to perfume their ings 

Houfes, Fields, efe fa order to drive away Devils, and to AGRARIAN, in the Roman Jurifprudence, a Denomi- 
them from Storms and Tempefts. See Paschal nat i „ giv e n to fitch Laws as relate to the Partition, or 

Diftnbution of Lands. See Law. 



in the Markets : 
fures, £5?c. 

The Agoronomus was much the fame with the Curnle M- 
dile among the Romans. See Edile. 

The Word is compounded of the Greek, dytei, Market, 
and HfW, to diflribllte.—Arifiotle diftinguifiies two Kinds 
of Magiftrares, the Agoronomi, who had the Intendance of 
the Markets ; and the Aflynomi, who infpefted the Build- 



efct 



prelcrve 
Taper. 

The Name Agnus Dei, is alfo popularly given to that 
Part of the Mafs, wherein the Prielt, (hiking his Bread 
three times, rehearfes, with a loud Voice, a Prayer begin- 
ning with the Words Agnus Dei. 

AGON, in Antiquity, 'AyiSr, q. d. Combat ; a Difpute 
or Contention for the Mattery, either in fome Exercifes of 
the Body, or the Mind. 

There were of thefe Agones, on certain Days, in molt of 
their Feafts, and other Ceremonies, in honour of Gods, or 
Heroes. See Feast, and Game. 

There were alfo Agones eftablifh'd exprefly, and not 
attach'd to any other Solemnity.— Such was the Agon Gym- 
mats, at Athens ; the Agon Nem<£tts, inflituted by the 
Argi in the 53d Olympiad ; the Agt ' 



The Word is form'd of the Latin Ager, Field. 

The Agrarian Law, ZmAgraria, absolutely, and by 
way of Eminence fo call'd, was a celebrated Law, publifh- 
ed by Spunus CaJJius, about the Year 268, for the Divi- 
fion of the Lands taken from the Enemy.— Thofe other 
two in the Digejl, the one publiili'd by Ccefar, and the other 
by Norm, only relate to the Limits or Boundaries of 
Grounds ; and have no Relation to that of Spuria* CaJJius. 

There are fifteen or twenty Agrarian Laws, whereof, the 
principal are, The Lex Apuleia, made in the Year of Rome 
<Jj5 ; the Lex Sa'bia ; the Lex Cajji'., in the Year z6^ 5 
the Lex Cornelia, in the Year (J73. ; the Lex Plaminia, in 
the Year 525 ; the Lex Flavia ; the Lex Julia, in the 



mOlympius, inflituted Year Sot ; i the' Lex Licinla,^ wl ^LeVjEba Lici 
by Hercules, 430 Years before the firft Olympiad. See n ia ; the Lex Lima 
Nemacan, Olympic, £5£. 



the Lex Marcia ; the Lex Rubria, 



The R«ma„< tSairf °j „ , ■ a: . j c x. -d made after the takin g of Carthage ; two Sempronian Lawsl 

„1 „f *£ rl I, rt i S m& T 6 r 3K a t e n?F?- in the Tear 6l ° > the L °* Serbia, in tfoo /the Lex Tho- 

pie ot the Greeks . The Emperor Altrehan eflablifh d the ria ; and the Lex Titia 

*?rl™ !S 'JfXZ[l ! Lm° ! and ^'f'^ th «=^^- . AGREEMENT, Agreamentum, in Law, is defined 

pitolmus, which was held every fourth Year, after the by Tlowden, a ioinina or , 

manner of the Olympic Games.— Hence, the Years, inftead Minds in any thing lone 
of Luflra, are (ometimes nutnber'd by Agones. Of this there mfv bp , 



ng or putting together of two or more 



or to be done. 



Agon was alfo an Officer bf Sacrifice, whofe Bufinefs 
was to flrike the Victim. See Sacrifice, and Victim. 

The Name was detived hence, that Handing ready to give 
the Stroke, he frequently aflt'd Agon, or Agone ? Shall I 
flrike ? 

The Agon was alfo called 1>opa, Cultrariits,' and ViBima- 
rius. See Pope. 

-AGONALES, in Antiquity, an Epithet given to the 



nnmg j mention'd in the Stat. 
That the Goods bought by 



Salii, confecrated by Numa Pompilius to the God Mars or affents thereto, afterwards. See Assent. 



ment executed at the 

of j 5 Edna. III. which fays, 

I Foreftallers, being thereof attainted, fliall be forfeited to 

the King ; if the Buyer thereof have made Gree with 
' the Seller :' Where the Word Gree, otherwife called A- 
greemem executed, fignifies Payment for the Things, or Sa- 
tis faclion. 

The fecond is, where one does an A3, and another agrees 



firnamed Gradivus. See Salii 

They were alfo called 'guirinales, aud 'Palatini. See 
Quirinales, and Palatini. — Rofinus calls 'em Agonen- 
fes Salii. 

AGONALI.A, or Agonea, in Antiquity, Feafls ce- 



Iebrated by rhe Romans, in honour of Janus ; or, as fome <p e llets, or Sails. See Ogresses. 



The third is, when both Parties at one time are agreed 
that fuch a thing (hall be done in time to come ; which is 
Executory, in regard the thing is to be done afterwards. 
See Contract. 

AGRESSES, or Ogresses, in Heraldry, the fame as 



Romans 



have it, in honour of the God Ago; 
ans ufed to invoke upon their undertak 



jonius, whom the 
upon their undertaking any Bufinefs 
of importance. See Feast. 

Authors vary as to the Etymology of this Solemnity ; 
fome derive it from the Mount Agon, afterwards Mons 



AGRICULTURE, the Art of tilling or cultivating the 
Earth, in order to render it fertile, and make it bear Plants, 
Trees, Fruits, &c. See Easth, Soil, Culture, Plant, 
Fruit, Seed, (£c. 

The principal and moll general Operations in Agriculture, 



Summits , whereon it was held.-Others fuppofe it taken are Manuring, 'Ploughing, Fallowing, So-wtng, Harrowing ; 

from that Ceremony ,„ the Feaft where the Pr.eft holding as alfo, Reaping, Mowing, &c. See the Articles Manure, 

the naked Kmfe and ready to flrike the Victim, which was Ploughing, Fallowing, Sowing, &c 
a Ram, aft d, Agone % Shall I do it ?-This is Ovid's Opi- To the Operations of Agriculture do alfo belong the Ma- 

•'.'■:■'. nagement of the Produftions of particular Countries ; a* 



AGONIST1CI, in Antiquity, a Name given by Donatus Haps, Hemp, Vines, 'Tobacco', s'affro7i^L7q'^r7ce',Woa7,Scc', 
Sect, whom he fent into the neighbouring See Hops, Hemp, Tobacco, Saffron, Glycirrhiza, 



See Hops, He 
Wo ad, lie. 

To the fame Art belong 'Planting, Tranfplanting, Pru- 
ning, Engrafting ; the Culture of Forefts, Timber, Copfes, 
&c. See Planting, Transplanting, Pruning, En- 
grafting, Timber, Tree, £5?c. 
Even Gardening, or Horticulture it felf, is only a Branch 
Agonothetes, in Antiquity, a Ma- f Agriculture. See Garden, and Gardening. 
he Greeks, to prefide, and have the The Word is form'd of the Latin Ager, Field, and cul- 



Places, Fairs, Markets,^, to preach his Doflrine ; for which 
rcafon they were alfo called Circuitores, Cercelliones, Catro- 
pitte, CoropitdS, and at Rome, Montenfes. 

They were called Agoniflici, from the Greek dyav, Com- 
bat ; in regard they were fent as it were to fight, and fub 
due the People to their Opinions. 

AGONOTHETA - 
giflrate chofe among 



Superintendency of their facred Games, or Combats ; to tun> f CT / 0> t ,in._Among the Antients, it is frequently 

detray the Lxpcnces thereof, and adjudge the Prizes to the ca u et i Qeorgica. See Georgicks. 

Conquerors. See Game, Combat, &c. We forbear to fay any thing about the Antiquity or Ufe- 

mpounded of dytiv, Combat, facred Sport ; fi, me f s of this Art : Every Reader's Imagination will fup- 



The Word i 



and .3-sTtif 
Romans, 
Sec Ath 



he who difpofes, appoints, ordains.— —hmong the p i y t h at DefeB.- It has' been cultivated by many of die 

e Officer was denominated jilbebtbeMi greateft Men among the Antients ; as Emperors, Dictators, 



::' L '"^ Ll lum dmuiig 111c ^\niii-iiia j »■■ ~- — t — *"» J , i**».fct*«#»™» 

and Confuls ; and has been treated of by fome of their 

greateft 



A I D 



(48) 



A I L 



greateft Authors : Virgil for inftancc, Cato t Varto, and Co- 
lumella. 

The later Authors on Agriculture, are Palladius Conjtan- 
tinus, C<efar, Saptijla (Porta, Hefesbachius, and Agricola, 
in Latin 5 Alphonfo Herrara, in J&ttnv ; Stephens, Lie- 
baut, de Serrh, de Croifcens, Selhn, and Cbomel, in French ; 
and Evelyn, Mortimer, Sivitzer, Bradley, and Lawrence, 
in Englijh. See Geofonick. 

AGRIPPA, a Name applied, among the Antients, to 
Children deliver'd in an unufual, or irregular manner. See 
Delivery. 

They were called Agrippce, quafi Ogre parti. 

AGRYPNIA, AyfVTTt'ia, a Watching, or dreaming Slum- 
ber. See Coma, Watching, Sleep, &c. 

AGUE, a periodical Difeafe, confifting in a cold miver- 
ing Fit, fucceeded by a hot one ; and going off in a Dia- 
phorefis, or Sweating. See Disease. 

If the Coldnefs and Shivering be inconfiderablc, and only 
the hot Fit felt ; the Difeafe is called an Intermitting Fe- 
ver. See Fever. 

According to the Periods or Returns of the Fits, the Dif- 
eafe is either a Quotidian, Tertian, or Quartan Ague, or 
Fever. See Quotidian, Tertian, Quartan, &c. 

The next Caufe of Agues, feemstobean obftru&ed Perfpi- 
ration, or whatever by overloading the Juices, retards their 
Motion, or occafions a Lentor in the Blood. — The Symptoms 
are Heavinefs and Reaching ; a weak, flow Pulfej Cold- 
nefs, and Shivering, felt firft in the Joints, thence creeping 
over the whole Body; Pain in the Loins, and an involuntary 
Motion of the under Jaw. 

A Vernal Ague is eafily cur'd ; but an Autumnal one is 
more obftinate, efpecially in aged and cachcftical Pcrfons 5 
if complicated with a Dropfy, "Peripneumony, ££?c. dange- 
rous. — When an Agile proves fatal, it is ufually in the cold 
Fit. 

The Cure is ufually begun with an Emetic of Ipecacu- 
anha, an Hour before the Accefs 5 and compleated with the 
Cortex Peruvianus, adminifler'd in the Interval between two 
Fits 5 and continued at times, to prevent a Relapfe. See 
Cortex. 

Dr. §>uincy endeavours to account for the EffecT: of the 
Bark, from the Irregularity, Afperity, and Solidity of its 
Particles, which fit it to break thofe Vifcidities in the Jui- 
ces whereby the Capillaries were obftrufted, and to draw up 
the Solids into a Tenfion, fufficient by the vigorous Vibra- 
tions enfuing thereon, to prevent any future Accumulation 
thereof. — The firft Intention, he obferves, is anfwer'd, by 
giving the Blood a greater Momentum ; and the fecond, by 
its corrugating the Nerves, and rendering the Contractions 
of the Veffels more brifk and forcible. — Hence alfo its Ef- 
fects upon fuch as are apt to fweat immoderately. 

AID, or Aide, Auxilium, literally denotes the Help, Suc- 
cour, or AflUtance, which any Perlbn lends another, when 
too weak to do, or avoid fomething. See Assistant. 

The Word is French, form'd, according to M. Menage, 
from the Italian Aitare ; and that from the Latin Adjutare, 
whence the Spanifh Adjutant. 

Aid, in Law, is when a Petition is made in Court, for the 
Calling in of Help from another Perfon interested in the 
Matter in Queftion ; who, 'tis probable, may not only flreng- 
then the Party's Caufe, who thus prays tor Aid, but alfo 
prevent a Prejudice arifing to his own Right. 

This is called Aid Prier, or Aid 'Prayer : But this 
Courfe of Proceeding is now much difufed. 

A City or Corporation, holding a Fee-farm of the King, 
may Pray in Aid of him 5 if any thing be demanded of 
them relating thereto. 

The Aid Prier, is fometimes alfo ufed in the King's be- 
half, to prevent any Proceeding againlc him till his Coun- 
cil be calFd, and heard what they have to fay for avoiding 
the King's Prejudice, or Lofs. 

Aid de Camp, an Officer in an Army, whofe Bufinefs is 
to attend the general Officers, and receive and carry their 
Orders, as occafion requires. 

When the King is in the Field, he ufually appoints 
young Volunteers of Quality to carry his Orders, who are 
called the King's Aids de Camp. 

Aid Major, or Adjutant, is an Officer, whofe Bufinefs 
is to eafe the Major of part of his Duty ; and to perform 
it all in his Abfence. See Major, and Adjutant. 

Some Majors have feveral Aid-Majors. — Each Troop of 
Guards has but one Major, who has two Aid-Majors un- 
der him ; or more, according as the Bufinefs requires. See 
Troop, and Guard. 

Every Regiment of Foot hath as many Aid-Majors as it 
contains Battalions. — When the Battalion is drawn up, the 
Aid-Major's Poft is on the Left, beyond all the Captains, 
and behind the Lieutenant-Colonel. See Regiment, Bat- 
talion, £S?c 

' Aid, Auxilhm t in our antient Cuftoms, a Subfidy or Sum 



of Money due to the Lord, from his Tenants, on certain 
Occafions. See Subsidy, Service, $$c. 

It differ'd from a 1*ax, which is impofed at any time 
when wanted ; whereas the Aid could only be levied where 
it was Cuftomary, and where the particular Occafion fell 
out. See Tax. 

Such was the Aid de Relief, due from the Tenants in Fee 
upon the Death of the Lord Mefn, to his Heir j towards 
the Charge of a Relief of the Fee, of the fuperior Lord. 
See Relief, Fee, Lord, ££>c. 

Such alfo was the Aid Chcvel, or Capital Aid, due by 
Vaffals, to the chief Lord, or the King, of whom they 
held in Capite. See Vassal. 

Of this there are three Kinds. — The firft, of Chivalry, 
or, as they call'd it, Par fitz Chevalier, towards making 
his eldert Son a Knight, when arrived at the Age of 15 
Years : The fecond, of Marriage, or Par fille marier, to- 
wards marrying his eldeft Daughter.- — Both thefe, with all 
Charges incident thereto, are taken away by Stat. 12 Car.ll. 
See Tenure, Capite, $£?*. — Some will have 'em to have 
been firft eftabli/Vd in England, by William the Conque- 
ror ; and afterwards transferr'd to Normandy : But the more 
common Opinion is, that the Conqueror brought 'em with 
him : The third was of Ranfom, due when the Lord was 
taken Prifoner. See Ransom. 

In fome Provinces there was a fourth kind of Aid -^ due 
whenever the Lord fhould undertake an Expedition to the 
Holy Land. See Croisade, i£c. 

We alfo read of Aids paid the Lord, when he was mind- 
ed to purchafe any Land or Tenement. Thefe were only 

granted once in his Life. Aids for the Repairing and 

Fortifying of Gaftles, Seats, $$c. 

Thefe Aids, or Contributions, were at firft impofed by 
the Lord or King, at what Rate he pleas'd 5 but by a Stat. 
3d Edw. I. a Reftraint was laid on common Perfons being 
Lords, and they were tied down to a fix'd Proportion : 
By a fubfequent Statute, the fame Rate was extended even 
to the King. 

They feem to have been firft eftablifh'd with a View to 
the Clients and Freedrnen of antient Rome, who made pre- 
fents to their Patrons towards his Daughter's Fortune, as 
alfo on his Birth-day, and other folemn Occafions. See Pa- 
tron, and Client.' Accordingly, Souteiller relates, 

that in his Time, they depended on the Courtefy and 
Good-will of the Vaffals ; for which Reafon they were cal- 
led, ^Droits de Complaifance. 

The Bi/hops alfo received Aids from their Ecclcfiafticks, 
called Synodales, and Pentecofials. They were to be paid 
at the Time of their Confecration 5 or when they had a 
King to entertain ; or when call'd by the Pope to his Court, 
or to a Council ; as alfo when they went to receive the Pal- 
lium. See Synodales, &c. 

Add, that the Archdeacons exacted Aids from the Clergy 
of their Jurifdiclion. See Procuration, £J?c. 

Aids are alfo ufed in Matters of Polity, tor any extraor- 
dinary Taxes or Impofitions occafionally levied by the King 
and Parliament, upon the Subjects 5 to fupport the Charges 
of the Government, when the ordinary Revenue proves 
fhort. See Subsidy. 

Aids, in the Manage, are Helps or Afliftances, which 
the Horfeman contributes towards the Motion or Action re- 
quir'd of the Horfe ; by a difcrete ufe of the Bridle, Cave- 
fon, Spur, Poinfon, Rod, Calf of the Leg, and Voice. See 
Bridle. 

Such a Horfe knows his Aids, anfwers his Aids, takes his 
Aids with Vigour, &c. — The Aids are made ufe of, to a- 
void the NecefTuy of Corrections. — -The fame Aids, given 
in a different manner, become Corrections. SeeCoRREc-' 

TION. 

The Aids ufed to make a Horfe go in Airs, are very dif- 
ferent from thofe requir'd in going upon the Ground. New- 
cafile. 

The inner Heel, inner Leg, and inner Rein, are called 
inner Aids. — The outer Heel, outer Leg, &c. are outer 
Aids. 

AIGLETTE, in Heraldry. See Eaglet. 

AIGUE Marine, in Natural Hiftory. See Aqua Ma- 
rina. 

AIGUISCE, or Aiguissee, or Eguiscf., in Heraldry, a 
Term applied to a Crols, when its four Ends are fharpen'd, 
fo however as to terminate in obtufe Angles. See Cross. 

The Crofs Aigttifce differs from the Crols Fitchee, in that 
the latter goes tapering by degrees to a fharp Point 5 where- 
as only the Ends of the former are taper'd. See Fitchee. 

AILE, in Law, a Writ which lies where the Grand-fa- 
ther, or Great Grand-father called Sefaile, was feixed of 
Lands or Tenements in Fee-fimple, on the Day he died; and 
a Stranger abates or enters the fame Day, and difpoffeffeth 
the Heir. The Word is form'd of the French Aieul, Avus, 
Grand-father. 



AIR, 



A I R 



(49 ) 



A I R 



AIR, Aer, in Phyficks, a thin, fluid, tranfparcnt, com- fame may be obferved of Alcohol of Wine, and other full 

^rcflible, and dilatable Body ; lurrounding the terraqueous tile and fugitive Spirits, rais'd by Diftillation.— Whetcas real 

Globe to a confiderable Height. See Earth, and Ter- Air is not reducible by any Compreflion, Condensation or 

raqjieous. the like, into any other Subftance befide A'r. SeejEoLiriLE 

Air was confider'd by fome of the Antients as an Ele- Water, then, tho it may put on an aerial Nature tor 

menr ; but then, by Element they underftood a different a-while, yet is not capable of perfifting cherein : And the 

thing from what we do. See Element. fame may be faid of other Fluids.— The furthefl they can 

"fis certain, that Air, taken in the popular Senfe, is far go, is to become Vapour ; which is the Mattet of the Fluid 

from the Simplicity of an Elementary Subllance ; tho there render'd much rarer, and put in a brifk Motion. For a 

may be fomething in it, which bids fair for the Appellation. Subllance to become permanent Air, it muft be of a fixed 

—Hence, Air may be diftinguifh'd into Vulgar, or Hete- Kind: otherwife, it is not capable of undergoing the Alte- 

rogeneous ; and "Prefer, or Elementary. ration neceflary to be induced in it ; but gives way and Hies 

off too foon. So that the Difference between 'Permanent 

Vulgar or Heterogeneous Air, is a Coalition of Corpufcles and Tranfient Air, amounts to the fame as that between 

of various Kinds, which together conftitute one fluid Mais, Vapour and Exhalation ; the one, e. g. being dry, the other 

wherein we live and move, and which we are continually moift, l$c. See Vapour, and Exhalation. 
receiving and expelling by Refpiration.— The wholeAffem- We can go a little further yet. — This elaftick Property of 

blage of this, makes what we call the Atmofphere. See Air, is fuppofed by many Philofophers, to depend on the 

Atmosphere. Figure of its Corpufcles, which they luppofe to be ramous : 

Where this Air or Atmofphere terminates, there jEther Some will have 'em fo many minute Floculi, refemblina 

is fuppofed to commence ; which is diftinguim'd from Air, Fleeces of Wool 3 others conceive 'em roll'd up like Hoop° 

in that it does not make any fenfible Refraction of the Rays and curled like Wires, or Shavings of Wood, or coil'd like the 

of Light, which Air does. See .Ether, and Reerac- Springs of Watches ; and endeavouring to ieflore themfelves 

tion. in Vittue of their Texture : fo that to produce Air, muft 

The Subftances whereof Air confifts, may be reduced to be to produce fuch a Figure and Difpofition of Parts ; and 

"two Kinds, viz. 1", The Matter of Light, or Fire, which thofe Bodies only are proper Subjects, which are fufceptible- 

is continually flowing into it from the heavenly Bodies. See of fuch Difpofltion ; which, Fluids, from the fmootlinefs 

Fire. — To which, probably, may be added the Magnetical roundnefs, and ilippetinefs of their Parts are not. See* 

Effluvia of the Earth. See Magnetism. Fluid. 

1% Thofe numbetlefs Particles, which in form either of But Sir I. Newton puts the Thing another way • fuch 

Vapours, or dry Exhalations, are rais'd from the Earth, a Texture he thinks by no means fufficicnt to account for 

Water,^ Minerals, Vegetables, Animals, ige. either by the that vaft Power of Elafticity obferved in Air, which is ca- 



folar, fubterrancous, or culinary Fire. See Vapour, and 
Exhalation 



pable of diffufing into above a Million of times more 

Space than it before poffefs'd. — But, as all Bodies are fhewn 

to have an attractive and a repelling Power j and as both. 

Elementary Air, or Air, properly fo call'd, is a certain thefe are flronger in Bodies, the denfer, mote folid and 



fubtile, homogeneous, elaftick Matter ; the Balis, or Funda- 
mental Ingredient of the Atmofpherical Air, and that which 
gives it the Denomination. 

Nature and IProdutfion of Air. 



compact they are : Hence it follows, that when by Hea 
or any other powerful Agent, the attractive Force is fur- 
mounted, and the Particles of the Body fcparated fo far as 
to be out of the Sphere of Attraction ; the repelling Power 
commencing thence, makes 'em recede from e ch other with, 
a ftrong Force, proportionable to that wherewith they be- 
The peculiar Nature of this aerial Matter, we know but fore coher'd ; and thus they become permanent Air.- 



little of; what Authors have advanced concerning it being 
chiefly conjectural. We have no way of examining it apart, 
or feparatjng it ftom the other Matters it is mix'd with 5 
and confequently no way of afcertaining with Evidence 
what belongs to it abftractedly from the reft. 

Dr. Hook, and fome others, will have it to be no other 
than the JEther it felf 5 or that fine, fluid, active Matter, 
diffufed thro' the whole Expanfe of the Celeftial Regions ; 
which coincides with Sir Jfaac Newton's Subtile Medium, or 
Spirit. See^iTHER, Medium, and Spirit. 

In this View it is fuppofed a Body fui generis, ingenera- 
ble, incorruptible, immutable, prefent in all Places, in all 
Bodies, tyc. 

Others, considering only its Property of Elafticity, which 
they account its effential and conftituent Character ; fup- 



Hence, fays the fame Author, it is, that as the Particles cf 
permanent Air are groffer, and arife from denfer Bodies, 
than thofe of Tranfient Air, or Vapour : true Air is more 
ponderous than Vapour ; and a moid Atmofphere lighter 
than a dry one. Opticks, p. 371, &c. See Attraction, 
Repulsion, £5?c. 

But, after all, there may ftill be Rea r on to doubt, whe- 
ther the Matter thus produced r rom folid Bodies havo all 
the Properties of Air ; and whether fuch Air be not tran- 
fient, as well as that from humid ones ; tho not to that 

degree.- Mr. Beyle argues, from an Experiment made 

in the Air-Yump with lighted Match ; that thofe light and 
fubtile Fumes into which the Fire it felf (hatters dry Bo- 
dies, have no fuch Spring as Air ; fince they were unable to 
hinder the Expaniion of a litt'e Air, included in a Bladder 

pole it mechanically producible ; and to be no other than they futrounded. <Pbyf. Meet. Exper. Yet, in fome 

the Matter of other Bodies alter'd, fo as to become per- fubfequcnt Experiments, by diflblvlng Iron either' in Oil of 
manently elaftick. — Mr. Boyle gives us feveral Experiments, Vitriol and Water, or in Aqua-fortis ; a large aerial Bubble 
which he made " for the Production of Air; taking Pro- W as produced, which had a real Spting ; fo°as to hinder the 
" duction for the obtaining a fenfible Quantity thereof, from futrounding Liquor from regaining its Place' and which 
" Bodies wherein it did not appear either at all, or in fo by the Application of a warm Hand, readily d'ilated it felf 

•' great Plenty." Among the feveral Ways of doing this, like other Air, and broke into the Liquor in feveral fuc- 

« the fitted for Practice,' he obferves, ' are Fermentation, ceeding Bubbles ; and even thro' the Liquor into the open 
' Corrofion, Diflblution, Decompofition ; the boiling of Wa- Air. Ubi fupra. 

' ters and other Fluids ; and the mutual Action of Bodies, The fame excellent Perfon further allures us, he procured 
' efpecially faline ones, upon each other.' Hifl. of Air. — a really elaftick Subftance from divers other' Matters • as 
He adds, ' that various folid and mineral Bodies, unfufpect- Bread, Grapes, Muft, Ale, Apples, Peas, Beef gfc. 'and 
1 cd of Elafticity, being plunged in corrofive unelaflick from fome Bodies by only burning 'em in Vacuo, particularly 
' Menftrua, will, by a proper Comminution of their Parts Paper, Hartfhorn, i$c. which yet, upon further Examina- 
' in the Conflict, afford a confiderable Quantity of perma- tion, was fo far from being pure'A'r, that Animals inclofed 
' nently elaftick Air.' Ubifupra. in it, not only could not refpire it without harm ; but even 

Of the fame Opinion is Sir /. Newton 3 ' The Particles of died fooner than in Vacuo, where there was nothing like 
* denfe, compact, and fixed Subftances, cohering by a ftrong Air. *Pbyf. Mecban, Exper. 

<■ attractive Force, are not feparable without a vehement We may here add an Obfervation of the Members of the 
' FIcat, or perhaps not without Fermentation ; and fuch Royal Academy of Sciences at 'Paris ; which imports, that 
' Bodies being at length rarified by fuch Heat or Fermen- the Property of Elafticity is fo far from conftituting Air ; 
' ration, become true permanent Air.' Opticks. — ' Thus, that Air is render'd more elaftick by the Admixture of 
the fame Author adds, * Gunpouder generates Air by Ex- fome other Matters along with it, than it is in its Purity. — 
' plofion.' Ibid. Thus, from fome Experiments of M. de la Hire at 'Paris, 

We have hete, therefore, not only the Materials whereof and of M. Stancari at Boulogne, M. Fomenelle affures us, 
Air (hould be made ; but the Means of doing it : with re- that Air moiften'd with Water, is confiderably more elaftick, 
gard to which, the Air is divided into Real or %>erma- and expands further, than when pure.— M. de la Hire even 
tient 5 and Apparent or Tranfient. — For, that all which ap- found the moift Air eight times more elaftick than the dry, 
pears to be Air does not continue fuch, is evident from Hift. de I'Acad. An. 1708. 

the Inftance of an jEolipile ; the Water of which being But it muft not be omitted, that Dr. Jurin explains the 
fufticiently rarefy'd by the Fire, rufb.es out in a iharp whift- Experiments another way ; ant. endeavours to fhew, that 
ling Blart, perfectly relembling Air, while the Motion lafls; the Conclufion does not neccftarily follow from 'era. Ap- 
but foon lofes that tefcmblance, efpecially in the Cold, and find, ad Varen. Geegr. 
returns by Condcnfation into its original Water ; And the 

O Thus 



A I R 



C 50) 



A I R 



Thus much for Air confidcr'd in it felt*. But fuch Air, 

we have obferv'd, no where exifts in its Purity.— That 
wherewith we are concern'd, and whofe Properties and Ef- 
fects are chiefly confider'd, is acknowlcdg'd by Mr. Boyle 
to be the moft heterogeneous Body in the Univerfe : Boer- 
haave even mews it to be an univerfal Chaos, or Colluvies 
of all the Kinds of created Bodies.— Whatever Fire can 
volatilize is found in the Air ; but there is no Body that 
can withttand the Force of Fire. See Fire, Volatility, 
Burning-Glass, &c. 

Hence, for inftance, the whole Foflil Kingdom mutt ne- 
ceffarily be found therein : For all of that Tribe, as Salts, 
Sulphurs, Stones, Metals, &c. are convertible into Fume, 
and thus capable of being render'd part of the Air.— Gold 
it felf, the molt fix'd of all natural Bodies, is found to ad- 
here clofe to the Sulphur in Mines 5 and thus to be raifed 
along with it. See Gold, $£c. 

a , All the Parts of the Animal Kingdom mutt alfo be 
in the Air : For, betide the copious Effluvia continually 
emitted from their Bodies, by the vital Heat, in the ordi- 
nary Courfe of Perfpiration $ by means whereof an Animal, 
in the Courfe of its Duration, impregnates the Air with 
many times the Quantity of Its own Body, (See Perspira- 
tion, Effluvia, iyc.) Befide this, we find that any Ani- 
mal when dead, being expofed to the Air, is in a little 
time carried wholly off, Bones and all. So that the Whoie of 
what before was an Animal, e.g. a Man, an Ox, or the 
like, is now in the Air, 

By the way, it may be noted what huge Swarms of the 
groffer excrememitious Matters of Animals mutt Iwim in the 
Air: At Madrid, we are afiured, they have no Neceffary 
Houfes 5 and thar they always make a Jakes of their Streets 
overnight : yet does the Air imbibe the tilth as faff as 
'tis laid 5 intbmuch, that there is no increafe of any fetid 
fmeli. 

3 , As to Vegetables, nothing of that Clafs can be fuppo- 
fed wanting ; fince we know that all Vegetables by Putri- 
fa&ion become volatile 5 even the earthy or vafcular Part, 
in time follows the reft. See Vegetable, Plant, £=fc. . 

Of all the Effluvia floating in this grand Ocean the At- 
mofphere $ one of the principal, are the Saline. Thefe, Au- 
thors commonly conceive, as chiefly of the nitrous Kind ; 
but there is no doubt but that there are of all the forts, Vi- 
triolick, Aluminous, Sea Salt, £#c. See Salt, Nitre, %$e. 

Mr. Boyle even obferves, that there may be many com- 
pounded Kinds of Salts in the Air, which we have not on 
Earth; arifing from different faline Spirits, fortuitouily meet ing 
and mixing together. — Thus, the glafs Windows of antient 
Buildings are fometimes obferv'd to be corroded, as if they 
had been Worm-eaten 5 tho none of the Salts abovemen- 
tion'd have the Faculty of corroding Glafs. 

The Sulphurs, too, mutt make a coniiderable Article in 
the Air ; on account of thofe many Volcanoes, Grottos, Ca- 
verns, and other Spiracles chiefly affording that Mineral, 
difperfed thro' the Globe. See Sulphur, Volcano, £*?c. 

And the Affociations, Separations, Attritions, Diflolutions, 
and other Operations of one fort of Matter upon another, 
may be confider'd as a Source, of numerous other neutral 
or anonymous Bodies, unknown to us. 

Air, in this general Senfe, is one of the moft coniiderable 
and univerfal Agents in all Nature j being concern'd in the 
Production of moft of the Phenomena relating to our World. 
— Its Properties and Effects, including a great Part of the 
Refearches and Difcoveries of the modern Philofophers, 
have fome of 'em been reduced to precife Laws and De- 
monftrations ; in which form they make a Branch of Mathe- 
rnaticks, called Pneumaticks, or Aerometry. See Mathe- 
maticks, Pneumaticks, and Aerometry. 

Mechanical 'Properties and Ejfebls of Air. 

F, Fluidity. That the Air is a Fluid, is evident from 

the eafy Paffage it affords to Bodies thro' it 5 as in the 
Propagation of Sounds, Smells, and other Effluvia : For this 
argues it a Body whofe Parts give way to any Force im- 
prefs'd, and in yielding, are eafily moved among themfelves ; 
which is the Definition of a Fluid. See Fluid. — See alfo 
Sound, &c. 

They who, with the Cartefians, make Fluidity confitt in 
a perpetual inteftine Motion of the Parts, find Air alfo an- 
Jwers to that Character : Thus, in a darkned Room, where 
the Species of extetnal Objects are brought in by a fingle 
Ray: they appear in a continual Fluctuation 5 and thus even 
the more accurate Weather-Glaffes are obferv'd never to re- 
main a moment at reft. See Weather-G/^/J. 

The Caufe of this Fluidity of Air, is attributed by fome 
late Philofophers to the Fire intermixed therewith ; with- 
out which, they imagine, the Atmofphere would harden 
into a folid, impenetrable M^tfs. — And hence, the greater the 
Degree of Fire therein, the more fluid, moveable and per- 
vious the Air : And thus, as the degree of Fire is continu- 
ally varying 5 according to the Circumftances and Pofition of 



the heavenly Bodies ; the Air is kept in a continual Reci- 
procation. See Fire. 

Hence, in good meafure, it is, that on the Tops of the 
higher Mountains $ the Senfes of Smelling, Hearing, &c. are 
found very feeble. See Mountain. 

II , Weighty or Gravity.- That the Air is heavy, fol- 
lows from its being a Body ; Weight being an cfiential Pro- 
perty of Matter. See Weight, and Gravity. 

But we have infinite Arguments of the fame from Senfe, 
and Experiment : Thus, the hand, applied on the Orifice 
of a Veffcl empty of Air, foon feels the Load of the incum- 
bent Atmofphere. — Thus, glafs Veffels, exhautted of their 
Air, are eafily crufh'd to pieces by the Weight of the Air 
without. So, two fmall hollow Segments of a Sphere, ex- 
actly fitting each other, being emptied of Air, are piefs'd 
together with a Force equal to 100 Pound, by the Pondus of 
the ambient Air. 

Further, a Tube clofe at one end, being filled with Mer- 
cury, and the other End immerged in a Bafon of the fame 
Fluid 5 and thus erected : The Mercury in the Tube will 
be fufpended to the Height of about 50 Inches above the 
Surface of that in the Bafon. The Reafon of which 
Sufpenfion, is, that the Mercury in the Tube cannot fall 
lower, without railing that in the Bafon 5 which being 
prefs'd down with the Weight of the incumbent Atmo- 
fphere , cannot give way, unlefs the Weight of the Mercury 
in the Tube, exceeds thar of the Air out of it. — That this 
is the Cafe, is evident hence 5 that if the whole Apparatus 
be included in an Air-Pump ; in proportion as the Air is ex- 
hautted from the fame, the Mercury tails: and gradually let- 
ting in rh<: Air again, the Mercury reafcends to its former 
height.— This makes what we call the Torricellian Experi- 
ment., See Torricellian. 

To fay no more, we can actually weigh Air : For a Vef- 
fel, full even of common Air, by a very nice Balance, is 
found to weigh more than when the Air is exhautted ; and 
the EffecT: is proportionably more fenfible, if the fame Vef- 
fel be weigh'd full of condenfed Air, and void of Air. See 
Weighing, and Hyi>rostatical Balance. 

The Weight of Air is continually varying, according to 
the different degree of Heat, and Cold. — Ricciolus eftimates 
its weight to that of Water, to be as 1 to 1000 ; Mer- 
fenmts as 1 to 1300, or 1 to 1355 5 Galileo only makes it as 
1 to 400. — Mr. Beyle, by a- more accurate Experiment, found 
it about London, as 1 to $38 5 and thinks, all things confi- 
der'd, the Proportion of 1 to 1000 may be taken as a Medium; 
for there is no fixing any precifeRatio, fincenot only the Air y 
but the Water it feif, is continually varying. Add, that Ex- 
periments made in different Places neceffarily vary, in re- 
gard of the different Heights of the Places, and the diffe- 
rent Confittences of Air arifing therefrom. Boyle, e Phyf 
Mecban. Exper. 

It mutt be added, however, that by Experiments made 
fince before the Royal Society ; the Proportion of Air to 
Water was, firft, found as 1 to 840 5 then, as 1 to 852 ; 

and a third time, as 1 to 8tfo. "Phil. Tranf. N° 181. 

And lattly, by a very fimple and accurate Experiment of the 
late Mr. Hawkshee ; the Proportion was fettled as r to 88 j. 

"Pbyf. Mecban. Exper. But thefe Experiments being all 

made in the Summer Months, when the Barometer was 29 
Inches •*- high ; Dr. Jurin thinks, that at a Medium be- 
tween Heat and Cold, when the Barometer is 30 Inches 
high ; the Proportion between the two Fluids, may be taken 
as 1 to 800. 

Air, then, being heavy and fluid ; the Laws of its Gra- 
vitation, or Preffure, may be inferr'd to be the fame as in 
other Fluids ; confequently, its Preffure mutt be as its per- 
pendicular Altitude. See Fluid. 

This is alfo confirmed by Experiment. — For, removing the 
Torricellian Tube to a more elevated Place, where the in- 
cumbent Column of Air is fhorter 5 a proportionably fhorter 
Column of Mercury is fuffained ; it being found to defcend 
at the Rate of one fourth of an Inch, for every 100 Foot of 
Afcent. See Levelling. 

On this "Principle depends the StruBure and Office of the 
Barometer. See Barometer. 

From hence, alfo, it follows, that the Air, like all other 
Fluids, mutt prefs equally every way.— Which is confirm'd 
by what we obferve of foft Bodies futtaining this Preffure 
without any Change of Figure 5 and brittle Bodies, without 
their breaking $ tho the Preffure upon 'em be equal to that 
of a Column of Mercury 30 Inches high, or a Column of Wa- 
terof 32. Foot. — 'Tis obvious, that no other Caufe can pre- 
ferve fuch Bodies unchanged, but the equable. Preffure on all 
Sides, which refifts as much as it is refitted. And hence, up- 
on removing or diminiffung the Preffure on one fide only; 
the Effecl of the Preffure is foon perceiv'd on the other. 

For the Quantity and EffeB of this "Preffure of the At- 
mofphere on the human Body. See Atmosphere. 

From this Gravity of the Air, confidcr'd with its Fluidi- 
ty, feveral of its Ufes and Effects are deducible.— And, i°, 
by means hereof, it clofely invefts the Earth, with all the 
a Bodies 



A I R 



Bodies on it ; and conftringcs and binds 'em down with a 
Force amounting, according to the Computation of M. 'Paf- 
chal, to 2232 Pounds weight, upon every fquare Foot, or 
upwards of 1 5 Pounds upon every Inch fquare. — Hence, it 
prevents, e.g. the Arterial Veffels of Plants and Animals, 
from being too much diflended by the Impetus of the cir- 
culating Juices, or by the elaftick Force of the Air fo plen- 
tifully lodg'd in the Blood. — Thus, we fee, in the Operation 
of Cupping, that upon a Diminution of the Preffure of the 
Air, the Parts of the Body grow tumid ; which neceffarily 
alters the manner of the Circulation thro' the Capillaries, i$c. 

The fame Caufe hinders the Juices from oozing and efca- 
ping thro' the Pores of their containing Veffels : This is 
experienced by fuch as travel up high Mountains, who, in 
proportion as they afcend, find themfelves grow more and 
more relaxed ; and at length fall into a (pitting of Blood, 
and other Hemorrhages 5 by reafon of the Air not fufficient- 
ly binding up the Veffels of the Lungs. — The like is ob- 
ferv'd of Animals inclos'd in the Receiver of an vftV-Pump, 
who, as the Air is taken from 'cm, fwell, vomit, drivel, 
dung, urine, fwear, $5c See Vacuum. 

2°, The Mixture of contiguous Bodies, efjiecially fluid 
ones, is chiefly owing hereto.— Hence many Liquids, as Oils 
and Salts, which teadily and fpontaneouily mix in Air, up- 
on taking that away, remain quietly in their State of Sepa- 
ration. 

5°, It determines the Aflion of one Body upon another. 
— Thus, the Fire which burns Wood immediately goes out, 
and its Flame diffipates upon removing the Air ; by reafon 
fomething is then wanting to prefs the Corpufcles of Fire 
againft thofe of the Fuel, and prevent the too fpeedy Diffu- 
fion of the Flame. The fame is obferved of Aqua Regia, 
and Gold ; that Menflruum ceafing any longer to operate on 
the Metal, aftet the Air is taken away. And upon the 
fame determining Power of the Air it is, that 2>apm's Di- 
geftor is built. See Digestor. 

Hence alfo it is, that on the Tops of high Mountains, as 
on the Pike oi'Teneriffe, the moft favoury Bodies, as Pepper, 
Ginger, Salts, Spirit of Wine, &c. have no fenfible Talte; 
for want of their Particles being prefs'd upon the Tongue, 
fo as to enter its Pores, but inflead thereof, being diffipated 
and blown away by its hear. The only thing that there re- 
tains its Savour, is Canary Wine, which is chiefly owing to 
its unctuous Quality ; in Virtue whereof, it adheres clofely 
to the Part, and is not eafily blown away. 

From this Principle of Gravity chiefly arife our Winds ; 
which are only A r put in Motion by fome Alteration in the 
Equilibrium thereof. See Wind. 

Ill", Elafticity, — or a Power of yielding to an Impreffion 
by contracf ing its Dimenfions ; and, upon removing or di- 
minifhing the impreffivc Caufe, returning to its former 

Space or Figure. This elaftick Force is accounted the 

diftinguifhing Property of Air; the other Properties hitherto 
enumerated being common to it with other Fluids. 

Of this Power we have numerous Proofs. — Thus, a blown 
Bladder being fqueez'd in rhe Hand ; we find the included 
Air fenfibly rclitt ; fo as upon ceafing to comprefs, the Ca- 
vities or Impreffions made in its Surface, are readily expand- 
ed again, and fill'd up. 

On ibis 'Property of Elafticity, the StruBure and Office 
of the Kw-'Pump defends. See Ais.-'Pump. 

This Nifus or Endeavour to expand, evety Particle of Air 
always exerts ; and thus ftrives againft an equal endeavour 
of the ambient Patticles ; whofe Refiftance happening by 
any means to be weaken'd, it ttrait diffufes into an immenfe 
Extent. — Hence it is, that chili glafs Bubbles, or Bladders, 
full of Air, and exactly clofed ; being included in the ex- 
haufted Receiver of an _/fc>-Pump, burtt, by the Force of 
the included Air. So a Bladder quite flaccid, containing on- 
ly the fmalleft Quantity of Air ; fwells in the Receiver, and 
appears quite full. And the fame EffecT: is found, by car- 
rying the flaccid Bladder to the Top of an high Mountain. 

This Power does not (eem to have any Limits aflign'd it 5 
nor docs it appear capable, by any Means whatever, of be- 
ing deftroy'd or diminifh'd. — Mr. Boyle made feveral Expe- 
riments, with a View to difcover how long Air, brought to 
the greater! degree of Expanfion he couhi reduce it to in 
his Air-Pump, would retain its Spring ; and could never 
obferve any fenfible Diminution ; even tho this poor thin 
Air was clog'd fome Months with a Weight which one would 
wonder how it ifiould fupport a Moment. 

Yet, Mr. Hawksbee, by a later Experiment, has fhewn, 
that the Spring of the Air may be fo difturb'd by a violent 
Prcflion, as to require fome time to return to its natural 
Tone. 

The Weight or Preffure of the Air, it is obvious, has 
no dependence on its Elafticity ; but would be the fame, 
whether the Air had fuch Property or not.— But the Air, 
in being elaftick, is neceffarily affeaed by the Preffure, 
which reduces it into fuch a Space, as that the Elafticity 
which re-ads againft the compreffing Weight, is equal to 
that Weight. Sec Compression. 



($t ) 



AIR 



« I , n k eff n a V ,V ' e ^7 0f > is Elafl j dt y. ». Aat'it increafes 
as the Denfity of the Air mcreafes ; and the Dcnfitv in- 
creates, as the Force increafes wherewith it is prefs'd Now 
there muft neceffarily be a Balance between the Action 
and Re-aaion ; i. e. the Gravity of the Air, which tends to 
comprefs it, and the Elafticity of the Air which endeavours 
to expand it, mutt be equal. See Density:, Reaction, {«Jc. 

Hence, the Elafticity increafing or diminifhing univer'fally 
as the Denfity increafes, or dimmifhes, i.e. as the Dillance 
between the Particles diminifhes or increafes ; 'tis no mat- 
ter whether the Air be comprefs'd, and retain'd in fuch Space 
by the Weight of the Atmofphere, or by any other means : 
It mutt endeavour, in either Cafe, to expand with the fame 

Force. And hence, if Air near the Earth be pent up 

in a Veffel, fo as to cut off all Communication with the ex- 
ternal Air ; the Preffure of the inclofed Air will be equal 
to the Weight of the Atmofphere. Accordingly, we find 
Mercury fuftained to the fame Height, by the elaftick Force 
of Air inclofed in a glafs Veffel, as by the whole atmofphe- 
rical Preffure. — See further under the Article Elasticity. 

On the fame Principle may Air be artificially condenfed. 
See Contensation of Air. 

And hence ike StruBure of the Wind-Gun. See Wind- 
Dr. Halley afferts, in the <Philofoph. T'ranfaBimis, that 
from the Experiments made at London, and by the Aca- 
demy del Cimento at Florence, it may be fafely concluded, 
that no Force whatever is able to reduce Air into eight hun- 
dred times lefs Space than what it naturally poffeffes on 
the Surface of our Earth. In anfwer to which, Monfieur A- 
montons, in the Memoirs of the French Academy, main- 
tains, that there is no fixing an, Bounds to its Coudenfation ; 
that greater and greater Weights will ftill reduce it into 
lefs and lefs compafs ; that it is only elaftick in Vittue of 
the Fire it contains ; and that as 'tis impofftble ever abfo- 
lutely to drive all rhe Fire out of it, 'tis impomble ever to 
make the utmoft Condenfatioh. 

The AZMatatiin of the Air, by Virtue of its elaftick 
Force, is found to be very furprizin'g ; and yet, Dr. Wallis 
fuggefts, that we are far from knowing the utmoft it is 
capable of. — In feveral Experiments made by Mr. 'Beyle, it 
dilated firft into nine times its former Space ; then into 31 
times; then into 5o ; then into 150. Afterwards, it was 
brought to dilate into 8000 times itsSpace; then into 10000, 
and even at laft into 13570 times its Space: and all this 
by its own expanfivc Force, without any help of Fire. 

On this depends the Sirutliire andUfe of the Manometer. 
See Manometer. 

Hence, it appears, that the Air we breathe, near the Sur- 
face of the Earth, is comprefs'd by its own Weight into at leaft 
the 1 ;6"79tri Part of the Space it. would poflefs in Vacuo. — 
But if the fame Air be condenfed by Art ; the Space it will 
take up when moft dilated, to that it poffeffes when con- 
denfed ; will be, according to the fame Author's Experi- 
ments, as 505000 to 1. See Dilatation. 

Hence, we fee how wild and erroneous was that Obfer- 
vation of Ariftotle, that Air, render'd ten times rarer than 
before, changes its Nature, and becomes Fire. 

M. Amontons, and others, we have already obferved, take 
the Rarefying of An to arife wholly from the Fire contain'd 
in it ; and hence, by increafing the Degree of Heat, the 
Degree of Rarefaaion may be carried ftill further than its 
fp. ntaneous Dilatation. See Heat. 

On this 'Principle depends the StruBure and Office of 
the -Thermometer. See Thermometer. 

M. Amontons firft dilcover'd that Air, the denfer it is, 
the more it will expand with the fame degree of Heat. See 
Density. 

On this Foundation, the fame ingenious Author has a Dif- 
courfe, to prove " that the Spring and Weight of the Air, 
e * with a moderate degree of warmth, may enable it to 
" produce even Earthquakes, and other of the moft ve- 
cc hement Commotions in Nature." 

According to the Experiments of this Author, and M. de 
la Hire, a Column of Air on the Surface of the Earth, 36 
Fathoms high, is equal in weight to three Lines Depth of 
Mercury; and it is found, that equal Quantities of Air pof- 
fefs Spaces reciprocally proportional to the Weights where- 
with they are preffed : The Weight of the Air, therefore, 
which would fill the whole Space poffeffed by the terreftrial 
Globe, would be equal to a Cylinder of Mercury, whofe Bafe 
is equal to the Suffice of the Earth, and its Height containing 
as many times three Lines, as the Atmofpherical Space con- 
tains Orbs equal in weight to that of 35 Fathoms, where- 
of the Experiment was made. — Hence, taking the denfeft 
of all Bodies, e.g. Gold, whofe Gravity is_ about 14530 
times greater than that of Air in our Orb, it is eafy to com- 
pute, that this Air would be reduced to the fame Denfity as 
Gold, by the Preffure of a Column of Mercury 14530 times 
28 Inches high, i. e. 409540 Inches : fince the Bulks of 
Air, in that Cafe, would be in the reciprocal Ratio of the 
Weights wherewith they are preffed. This 40^540 Inches, 

there- 



At B. 



C*0 



A I R 



* l t • t.. „. ,„t,^I, »!,- taarnme'ter muft and confiderably increafes its weight. — Yet Gold is gene- 
^^^qP^* ^"'™^™^^ K leflem'd indiffbluble by ^i?, being never found- t6 
•fiand, where the Air would be as heavy as Gold and the r i y ^ fo } ,_ ^ Reafoii o 

Number *.<£«* L T^^^hf«WtoS 3 E that Sea Salt, which is the only Menftruum capable 
lumn of 3 (S Fathoms of Air, would be reduced in the lame rf , ^ ^ ^ ^ ^^ j o ^^ . (h ^ » 

a... -,„*.„•, Tnrhes or A»?i8 Fathoms, but a (mail Proportion of it in the Atmofphere. In the 
know, *" o ^^t5.ete 4 ^ L E.„h \ Chymifts Laboratories, where Aqua Regia is preparing; the 

- Atr becoming impregnated with an unulual Quantity of 
this Salt ; Gold contrails a Ruft like other Bodies. See 
Gold, i£c. 

Stones alfo undergo the common Fate of Metals.- 

Thus, Turteck Stone, whereof Salisbury Cathedral confifts, 
is obferved gradually to become fofter, and moulder away 
in the Air ; and the like Mr. 'Boyle relates of Slackington 
Stone. See Stone. He adds, that Air may have a no- 
table Operation on Vitriol, even when a ffrong Fire could 
ail no further on it. The fame Author has even found 
the Fumes of a fharp Liquor ro work more fuddeniy and 
manifeftly on a certain Metal, when fullained in the A:r 1 
than the Mcnffruum it felf did which emitted thofe Fumes, 
on thofe Parts of the Metals it cover'd. 



place. 

Now, we 
is only the 74th Part «. 

and when you are paft that, whatever Matters there be, 
they muft be heavier than Gold: 'T.s not >»P«>baMe, 
therefore, that the remaining Sphere of <S 4 5f 53° Fathoms 
Diameter, may be full of denfe Air, heavier, by many 
degrees, than the heavieft Bodies among us.— Hence, again, 
as it is proved, that the more Air is compreffed, the mote 
does the fame degree of Fire increafe the ?««£'" 
Spring, and render it capable of fo much the greater Effect ; 
and that, for inftance, the Heat of boiling Water increafes 
the Spring of our Air, beyond what it ordinarily is, by a 

Quantity V al to one third of tlie Wei 8j? 1 wherl T!™ ." 

iTprefled : We may infer, that a degree of Heat, which in 

our Orb can only produce a moderate Erreft, may have a 

verv violent one in fuch lower Orb ; and that as there may 

Te many degrees of heat in Nature, beyond that of boiling »', Air volatilizes fo A Bodies.-Thus Sea Salt being firft 

Water Ms probable there may be Come, whofe Violence, calcined, then fufed by th 

thus affifted by weight of the Air, may be fufficient to the Air to liquify ; when . 

tear funder the folid Globe. Mcm.de Mead. An. .703. &d »&™ 5 «A ^ Operation thus repeated : will by de. 



e Fire, and when fufed expofed to 

when liquified fet to dry again, then fu- 

e Operation thus repeated: will by de- 

This elaftick Power of the Air, is the fecond great Source grses he almoft wholly evaporated ; nothing remaining but a 

lUiBuowwA ... t,, . , . . ° , . _r -^ Hub, C...I. t.Akt«J 5w VniSTiiir? V or A T I T 1 7. x -r r nxi 



of the Effects of this important Fluid.— In virtue hereof, it 
infinuates into the Pores of Bodies, carrying with it this pro- 
digious Faculty of expanding ; and that fo eafy to be excited : 
whence it muft neceffarily put the Particles of the Bodies 
it is mix'd withal, into perpetual Ofcillations. In effect, the 
Degree of Heat, and the Air's Gravity and Denfity, and 
confequentiy its Elaiticity and Expanfion, never remaining 
the fame for two Minutes together ; there muft be an in- 
ceffant Vibration, or Dilatation and Contraction, in all Bo- 
dies. See Vibration. 

This Reciprocation we obferve in feveral Inftances, par- 
ticularly Plants, the Trachea! or Air-Vetteh whereof, do 
the Office of Lungs : For the contained Air alternately ex- 
panding and contracting, as the Heat increafes ordimimfhes, 
by turns preffes the Veflels, and eafes 'em again ; and thus 
promotes a Circulation of their Juices. See Vegetable, 
Circulation, t$c. 

Hence, we find, that no Vegetation or Germination will 
proceed in Vacuo.— -Indeed, Beans have been obferved to 
grow a little tumid therein ; which has led fome to attri- 
bute that to Vegetation, which was really owing to no other 
than the Dilatation of the Air within 'em. See Vegeta- 
tion, Germination, £j?r;. 

From the fame Caufe it is, that the Air contain d in the 
Bubbles in Ice, by its continual Action, burfts the Ice : 
And thus Glaffes and other Veflels frequently crack, when 
their contained Liquors are frozen. Thus, alfo, entire Co- 
lumns of Marble fometimes cleave in the Winter time, from 
fome little Bubble of included Air's acquiring an increafed 
Elasticity. 

From the fame Ptinciple antes all Putrefaflion and Fer- 
mentation j neither of which will proceed, even in the bell 
difpofed Subjeas, in Vacuo. See Putrefaction, and Fer- 
mentation. " . 

In this we have a lingular Inftance of the wonderful Ef- 
ficacy of Air, that it can change the two Kingdoms, and 
convert Vegetable Subftances into Animal, and Animal into 
Vegetable. See Animal, tSc. 

In effect, all natural Corruption and Alteration Teems to 
depend on Air I and Metals, particularly Gold, only feem to SeeCALCiNATioN Coal, &c. 

X , , , 'j • . _.:li~ ;., ir;.„.. n f .1..;: m»ki,i fl Th« Air is liable ro abund 



little Earth behind. See Volatility, Volatilizatio 
tgc 

Helmont mentions it as a mighty Arcanum in Chymiffry, 
to render fixed Salt of Tartar volatile : but the thing is 
eafily effected by Air alone ; for if fome of this Salt be 
expofed to the Air in a Place replete with acid Vapours, the 
Salt draws the Acid to it felf, and when faturated therewith, 
is volatile. See Tartar, i3c. 

3°, Air alfo/w« volatile Bodies. Thus, tho Nitre or 

Aquafortis readily evaporate by the Fire ; yet, it there be 
any putrified Urine near the Place, the volatile Spirit wili 
be fix'd, and fall down in form of Aqua fecunda. Sep 
Fixity. 

4°, Add, that Air brings many quiefcent Bodies into Ac- 
tion, i. e. excites their latent Powers.. — Thus, if an acid Va- 
pour be diffufed thro' the Air, all the Bodies whereof that is. 
a proper Menftruum, being diffolved thereby, are brought in- 
to a State proper for Action. See Salt, £S?c. 

In Chymiftry, not only the Prefence or Abfence of the 
Air, but even its being barely open, or inclofed, is of great 
confequence. — Thus, Camphire fired in a clofe Veffel, runs 
wholly into Salts ; whereas, if during the Proccfs, the'Cover 
be removed, and a Candle applied, the whole flies off" in 
Fume. So to make Sulphur inflammable, it requires a free 
Air .- in a clofe Cucurbit, it may be fublimed a thoufand 
times without kindling. Sulphur being put under a glafs 
Bell, and a Fire applied, riles into Spirit of Sulphur per 
Campanam : But it there be the leaft Chink whereby the 
included Air communicates with the Atmofphere, it im- 
mediately kindles. So an Ounce of Charcoal, incloled in a 
Crucible well luted, will remain without lofs for fourteen 
Days in the intenfeit Heat of a melting Furnace ; tho tbe 
thoufandth Part of the Fire in open Air, will prefently turn 
it into Allies. — Helmont adds, that the Charcoal remains all 
that while without any Alteration of its black Colour ; but 
that if the minute Air is let in, it fails inlfantly into white 
Afhes. The lime holds of the Parts of all Animals and 
Vegetables; which can only be calcined in open Air: In 
clofe Veflels they never become any other than black Coals. 



to be durable and incorruptible, in Virtue of their not being 
pervious to Air— Accordingly, Names flightly wrote in the 
Sand, or Dull, on the Tops of high Mountains, have been 
known to remain 40 Years, without being in the leaft al- 
ter'd or effaced. See Corruption, Alteration, X$c. 

EjfeBs of the peculiar Ingredients of tie Air. 

Air not only acts by its common Properties of Gravity, 
and Elaiticity, but there are numerous other Effects, ari- 
fing from the peculiar Ingredients whereof it confifts. 

Thus, 1", it not only diffolves and attenuates Bodies by 
its Preflure and Attrition ; but as a Chaos, containing all 
Kinds of Menffruums, and confequentiy having wherewithal 
to diffolve all Kinds of Bodies. See Dissolution. 

'Tis known, that Iron and Copper readily diffolve, and 
become rufly in Air, unlefs well defended with Oil. — Soer- 
baave affures us, he has feen Pillars of Iron fo reduced by 
Air that one might crumble 'em to Dull between the 
Fingers ; and for Copper, it is converted by the Air into a 
Subftance much like the Verdegreafe produced by Vinegar. 
See Iron, CorpER, Veriiegrease, 2fr;. 

Mr. Soyle relates, that in the Southern EngHJb Colonies, 
the great Guns ruft fo fall, that after a few Years lying in 
the Air, large Cakes of Crocus Martis may be eafily beat 
v&'em.—Aa>fia adds, that in Teru the Air diffolves Lead, 



The Air is liable to abundance of Alterations, not only 
in refpeel of its Mechanical Properties, Gravity, Denfity, 

££?c. but alfo in refpeel of the Ingredients it confifts of.- • 

Thus, in Places abounding with Marcafites, a fretring vitrio- 
lick Salt is obferved to predominate in the Air, which rots 
the Hangings, and is often leen lying on the Ground in a 
whitifh Efflorefcence.- — At ~Fafhlmi in Sweden, noted for 
Copper Mines, the mineral Exhalations arTccl the Air fo 
fenfibly, that their Silver Coin is frequency difcoloured in 
their Purfes ; and the fame Eifluvia change the Colour of 
Brafs. — Mr. Soyle was allured by a Gentleman who poi- 
fefs'd fome Ground wherein there were feveral Veins of 
Metals, and other Minerals, that he had frequently feen 
Pillars of Fumes afcending thence ; fome having no Scent, 
fome an ill one, and fome few a good one. — In Carniol®, 
Campania, &c. where there are Mines of Sulphur, the Alf 
at times becomes very unwholefom ; whence frequent epi- 
demick Difeafcs, iSc — 'Tis added, that the Mines near the 
Cape of Good Hope, emit fuch horrible Fumes from the 
Arlenic that abounds theie, that no Animal can live near 
them ; fo that fuch as have at any time been opened, 
were obliged to be immediately clofed again. 

The Effluvia of Animals alfo have their Effect in varying 
the Air ; as is evident in contagious Difeafes, Plagues, Mur- 
rains, and other Mortalities which are fpread by the Air. 
See Plague. „, 

a The 






A I R 



(58 ) 



A I R 



The like is obferved in Vegetables. Thus, a good cefs Tucceeds the heft.— Add, that Stains caufed by vef>eta- 

Part of the Clove-Trees which grew fo plentifully in the ble Juices, are obferved to be beft taken our of Linen, a: 
Iiland of Teriare, being fell'd at the Solicitations or the the Time when the feveral Plants that afford them ate' in 
Ulltcb, in order to heighten the Value of that Fruit ; filch a their Prime. This, Mr. Boyle obferves, has been experi- 
Chanr>e enfued in the Air, as fhew'd the falutary Effect of ene'd in the Stains of Juice of Quinces, Hops, l?c. which 
the Effluvia ofthc Clove-Trees, and their Bloffoms: the whole latter, eluding all the endeavours that could be ufcd to gee 
Ifland, foon after they were cut down, becoming exceeding it out, has vanifh'd of it felf the next Hop-feafon. 
fickly. This, a Phyfician who had been upon the Spot, and After all, fome of our more curious and penetrating Natu- 
from whom Mr. Boyle had the Relation ; attributed to the ralifts, have obferved certain Effects of Air, which do not 
noxious Steams of a Volcano there ; the ill Quality where- appear to follow from any of the Properties, or the Materials 
of, had been correct 1 ed by the aromatick Effluvia of thofe above recited. — On this View, Mr. Boyle has compo'ed an 
fpicy Bloffoms. exprels Treatife of Snfpicions about fome unknown Troper- 

The Air is alfo liable to Alterations from the Seafon of tics of the Air. — The Phenomena of Eire and Flame in 
the Year. — Thus, few fubterraneous Effluvia are emitted in Vacuo, feem, according to him, to argue fome odd unknown 
the Winter ; by rcafon the Pores are lock'd up by the Froft, vital Subftance diffufed thro' the Air, on Account whereof 
or cover'd by Snow ; the fubterraneous Heat being all the that Fluid becomes fo neceffary to the Subfiftence of Flame: 
while at work, and preparing a Fund, to be difcharged the but whatever this Subftance be, it fhould feem by its hidden 
enfuing Spring. — Hence it is, that if the fame Seed be wafting or fpoiling, that the Quantity thereof is very incon- 
fown in the fame Soil, in Autumn and Spring, and the de- fiderable, in proportion to the Bulk of Air it impregnates 
gree of Heat be the fame, a very different Effect will be with its Virtue ; in regard, when the Flame can no longer 
found ; and for the like Reafon, Rain-Water gathcr'd in fubfift in it, the Air, upon Examination, is not found to 
the Spring, is found to have a peculiar Vittue in rcfpedl of have undergone any Alteration in any of its Properties. 
Corns ; which being fteep'd therein, afford a much larger See Flame. 

Quantity of Spirits than othetwife. — Hence alfo, we fee why Other Inftances to countenance fuch Sufpicions, are, the 
a very fevere Winter, is ufually follow'd by a wet Spring Appearance and Growth of Salts in many Bodies; which, 
and fruitful Summer; and vice verfa. either afford 'em not at all, or not in that plenty, unlefs ex- 

Again, from the Winter's Solftice to the Summer's, the j, fed to the Air. Mr. Boyle mentions fome Marcafites dug 
Sun's Rays growing ftill more and more perpendicular ; their from under ground, which being kept in a dry Room, were 
Impulfeonthe Earth's Surface becomes more and more power- foon cover'd over with a vitriolick Efrlorefcence, and in a 
ful ; by which the Glebe or Soil is more and more relaxed, little time, by the Operation of the Air on 'em, were in 
foften'd and putrified ; till he arrives at the Tropic : where, g re at part crumbled into a Pouder exceeding rich in Cop- 
with the Force of a chymical Agent, he refolves the fuper- p eras . tn o they had probably lain many Ages entire under 

ground : So, the Earth or Ore of Allom, and many other 
Minerals, robb'd of their Salt, Metals, or the like, will in 
tract of time recover 'em j and the like is obfetved of 
the Cinders of Sea-Coal at the Iron Works. See Mine, 
Metal, Iron-works, Ashes, c5c. 

Mr. Boyle adds, that fome Lime in old Walls has in time 
gained a large Efflorefcence of a nitrous Nature, from which 
Salr-pctre was procurable. Add, that the Colcothar of Vi- 



Oil 



triol is not naturally corrofive, nor can any Salt be procured from 
ir, even by the Affufion of Water; but being expofed a-whils 
to the Air, it yields a Salt, plentifully. See Colcothar. 

The Exiffence of fucu hidden Properties, is alfo argued, 
from rhe Accefs of the Air rendering Antimonial Medicines 
emetick, and difpofed to produce Faintings and Fleartburn- 
ings ; and from its fpecdy corrupting and mouldering of Trees 
dug from under ground, which had for Ages remain'd firm, 

and 



ficial Parts of the Earth into their Principles, Water, 
Salt, i§c. which are all fwept into the Atmofphere. 

And hence we conceive the Nature of Meteors, which are 
either Collections of fuch Effluvia, or Difperftons thereof. 

See Meteor. Thefe Meteors, too, have confiderable 

Effects on the Air ; and thus Thunder is known to put Li- 
quors upon fermenting afrefh. 

In effect, whatever alters the Degree of Heat ; will make 
a proportionable Alteration in the Matter of the Air. Mr. 
Boyle fuggeffs fomething further on this Head, viz. that 
the Salts, $$c. which in a warm Srate of Weather were 
kept in a FJuor, and mix'd together, fo as to be in a Con- 
dition to acf conjunctly ; upon a Remiffion of the Warmth, 
may lofe their Fluidity and Motion, fhoot into Cryffals, 
and thus feparate again. 

The Height or Depth of the Air makes a further Alte- 
ration, the Exhalations being few of 'em able to afcend and almoft impervious to the Ax, See Antimony. 
above the Tops of high Mountains, as appears from thofe Subterraneous. 
Plagues, where the Inhabitants of one fide of a Mountain To fay no more, the Silks in Jamaica, if expofed to the 
have all perifh'd, without the leafl Diforder on the other fide. _^>, f 00 n rot; even while they preferve their Colour -. 
Nor mult Drought and Moifture be denied their Share in whereas, if kept from the Air, they hold both their Firmnefs 

varying the State of the Atmofphere. At Guinea, the and Dye : And the fable Taffety worn at Brajll, becomes 

Heat with the Moifture, conduce fo much to Putrefaction, j n a few Days of an iron-grey Colour in the Air 5 but in 
that the pureft white Sugars are often full of Maggots ; the Shops prefcrves its Hue : And fome Leagues beyond 
and their Drugs foon lofe their Virtue, and many of them farigua, white People foon grow tawny ; but as foon re- 
grow Verminous. 'Tis added, that in the Ifland of St. Ja- cover their native Colour, upon removing out of that Quar- 

go, they are obliged to expofe their Sweetmeats daily to the ter. -Thefe, out of a great Number of Inftances tending 

Sun, to exhale the Moifture they had contracted in the the fame way, may convince us, that notwithttanding ail 

Night, which would otherwifc occafion 'em to putrify. the Difcoveries hitherto made concerning Air, there ftill 

On this 'Principle depends the SiruSure and Office of the remains a Field for future Inquiries. 

Hwromcter. See Hygrometer. . ,. . r 

Thefe Diverfirics in the Air, are found to have an In- , AlR . m Medicine, &c. makes one of the fix Ivon-Natu- 
fluence on the Operations, Experiments, £?c. of Philofophers, «>?• S « ^-Natural, Health, Disease, &c. 
Chvmifts, and other Operator! From Obfervat.ons on Bleeding in Rheumanfms, and af- 
fhus, 'tis very difficult to procure Oil of Sulphur for "' taking Cold, ns evident the^r can enter with all its 
Cimpauam in a clear dry Atmofphere, its Parts being then Qualities, and vitiate the whole Texture of the Blood, and 
fo ready to efcape into the Air : But in a thick, moitt Air, mh " J"'^ s - »ee Blood. 

the O.I comes in abundance.-So, all Salts melt eafieft in *<"» the Palfies Vertigoes and other nervous Affections 

a cloudy Air; and when melted, aft moft forcibly. And caufed by Damps Mmes, £?<;. tis evident Air thus qualified 

all Separations fuccecd beft in fuch Weathcr.-If Salt of " n rela £ and °" 1 ™^ the «*<*; nervous Syftem See 

Tartar be expofed in a Place where any acid Spirit is float- D * M ^ > f <>— And from the Cholicks, Fluxes, Coughs, 

ing in the Air, it will imbibe the fame ; and of fixed be- *f Confumpt.ons produced by damp mo.fr, and nitrous 

<- ~ Air, tis evident it can corrupt and ipoil the noble Organs, 

&c. See further under the Article Atmosphere. 

Innate Air, is a fine aerial Subftance, fuppofed by fome 
Anatomifts to be incJofed in the Labyrinth of the inner 
Ear, and to minifier to the due Conveyance of Sounds to 
the Senfory. See Labyrinth, Sound, and Hearing. 

But the Exiftence of fuch Innate Air, has of late been 



come volatile. Hence, the Experiments made of Salts at 
London, where the Air is plentifully impregnated with Sul- 
phur exhaled from Sea-Coal, prove different from thofe 
made on the fame Subjects in other Parts of the Kingdom, 



where Wood, Turf, &c. are the ufual Fuel. Hence alfo, 
metalline Utcnfils, l£c. ruft much fooncr at London, than in 
other Parrs, where there arc fewer acid corrofive Corpufcles 

in the Air $ and Fermentation, which is cafily raifed and called in queftion, and even difproved. See Ear 
carried on in a Place free of Sulphur, is impracticable in 
Places where fulphurous Exhalations abound. — If pure well- 
fermented Wine be curried into a Place where the Air is 
replenihVd with the Fumes of new Wine then fermenting ; 
it will begin to ferment afrefli, So Salt of Tarrar (wells, and 
as it were ferments, when carried into a Place where Spirit 

of Nitre, Vitriol, or Sea Salt is preparing. — 'Tis Matter of tions of a manag'd Horfe/ See Horsemanship. 
common Obfervation among Brewers, Diltillers, Vinegar- Such are the ^Demi-volt, Curvet, Capriole, Cronpade, 3z~ 
makers, &c. that at the Time when thofe feveral Plants ufe lotade, and Step and Leap. See Demivolt, Curvet, Ca- 
to be in flower, the refpective Juices ferment, and the Pro- priole, Salt, &c. 

P Some 



Air, in Mufick, fignifies the Melody, or the Inflection of 
a Mufical Composition. See Melody. 

The Word is alfo ufed for a Song it felf. See Song. 

Airs, in Horfemanfhip, the artificial or praftifed Mo- 



A I R 

Some Authors take Airs, in a more extcnfive Senfe ; and 
divide 'em into loii), and high. 

The Ifia Airs include the Natural Paces, as Trotting, 
Walking, Galloping, and Terra-a-Terra. See Pace, Trot, 
Gallop, tic. * . . r 

The high, or m/jV ^7irs, are all fuch Motions as rile 
higher than the Terra-a-terra ; as the 'Demivolt, Curvet, Sec 



AIRPvmp, a Machine, by means whereof the Air may 
be exhaufted out of proper Vcffcls. See Air. 

The Ufe and 'Effea of the Air-Tump, is to make, what 
we popularly call, a Vacuum ; which, in reality, is only a 
Deorec of Rarefaaion fufficicnt to fufpend the ordinary 
Effeas of the Atmoiphere. See the Article Vacuum. 

By this Machine, therefore, we learn, in fomc meaiure, 
what our Earth would be without an Atmofphere ; and how 
much all Vital, Generative, Nutritive, Alterative Power, 
depend thereon. See Atmosphere. 

: Principle on which it is built, is the EJafticity ot tl 



(54) -«I R , 

fphere.a great part of which was to be removed at every Exac- 
tion, after a Vacuum was nearly arrived at. — But this Incon- 
venience has been fince removed by Mr. Haivksbce, who 
by adding a fecond Barrel and Pillon to the former, to rife 
as the other fell, and fall as it rofe 5 made the Preffure of 
the Atmofphere on the defcending one, of as much fervice as 
it was of differvice in the afcending one. 

Some of the Germans have alfo brought the Air-Tump 
to do the oppofitc Office of a Cond.nfcr : But this is not 
to make the Inftrument fo much better, as more complex. 
See Condenser. 

<rhe Structure of the Air Pump, as now made among us, 
with all its Advantages, is reprefented: in Tab. Tneuma- 
ticks, Fig. 16. 

It confifts of two brazen Barrels or Cylinders, reprefented 
by aaaa ; which communicate with each other by a Canal 
paffing between them at dd ; and with the Receiver 0000, 
by means of the hollow Wire h h, one End whereof opens 
into the Canal of Communication, and the other into a like 



Th lfr; P o n e :iirrco=rWyeSu m p^ fo W l C^aT^whi* penetrating the Plate it, 



Air 

ed, i's the Gravity of the fame Air. Sec Pump. 

The StruBure of the Air-Tump is, in it felf, more fimple 
even than that of the Water-Pump.— The latter [uppofes two 
Principles Gravity and Elafticity likewiie : So that the Wa- 
ter-Pump mull firft be an Air-Tump, i. e. muft rarity the 
Air ere it raife the Water.—In effea, Water being a dor- 
mant unelaftick Fluid, needs fome external Agent to make 
it afcend ; whereas Air afcends in Virtue of its own elaftick 
Aaivity : its natural Tendency is, to feparate and leave a 
Vacuum ; and all that remains to Art, is to prevent the am- 
bient A r from fupplying the Place of what thus lponta- 
neoufly flies away. 

To fay no more, to make Water afcend, the Force where- 
with it is prefs'd downwards, is cither to be diminifh'd or 

increas'd in one Part, more than another ; like a Balance in /, catching by us Teeth into thejiac 
Equilibrio, one of whole Scales may be made to rife, either 
by dimini filing its own weight, or increafing that of the 
other : the Water, therefore, recedes from the common Cen- 
tre of Gravity, by the very Power wherewith it tends to- 
wards it, indireftly or fecondarily applied ; for that two fi- 
rnilar centripetal Forces being made to aa contrary to each 
other what the one overbalances the other, muft have the 
Eficci of a Centrifugal Force.— \Vhereas,thc Principle where- 
by Air ratifies or dimimfn.es, does nor refpea the Centre 
of the Earth, but the Centres of its own Particles ; being 
no other than a certain implanted Power, whereby they 
immediately tend to recede from each other. See Repel- 
ling Tower. . ' 

The Invention of this noble Inftrument, to which the 
prcfent Age is indebted for fo many fine Difcoveries ; is af- 
cribed to Otto de Guerick, the celebrated Conful of Magde- 
lourg ; who exhibited his firft publick Experiments there- 
with, bc'.bre the Emperor and the States of Germany, at 
the breaking. up of the Imperial Diet at Ratisbon, in the 
Tear ltJ 54. , 

Dr. Hook and M. in Hamel, indeed, afenbe the Invention 
to Mr. Boyle ; but that ingenious Author frankly confeffes 
de G"crick to have been beforehand with him. Some At- 
tempts, heaffures us, he had made upon the fame Founda- 
tion, bctore he knew any thing of what had been done 
abro.-d : but the Information he afterwards receiv'd from 
Scbottus's Mechamca Hydraulico-Tnevmatica, publilhed in 
1S57, wherein was an Account of de Guerick' s Experi- 
ments, firft enabled him to bring his Defign to any thing of 
Maturity. — From hence, with the Affiltance of Dr. Hook, 
after two or three unfuccefsful Trials, arofe a new Air- 
Tump ; more eafy and manageable than the German one : 
and hence, or rather from the great Variety of Experiments 
that illuftrious Author applied it to, the Engine came to be 
denominated, the Macbiti'a Soyleana. 

SmiBure and Ufe of the AiR-Pump. 

The Bafis or eflential Part in the Air-Tump, is a metal- 
line Tube, anfwering to the Barrel of a common Pump, or 
Syringe ; having a Valve at the bottom, opening upwards : 
and a moveable Pifton or Embolus, anfwering to the Sucker 
of a Pump, furr.ifii'd likewife with a Valve opening up- 
wards.— The whole, duely fitted to a Veffcl, as a Recipient. 
See Embolus, Valve, and Recipient.— See alfo SP- 
RINGE. 

The reft, being only Circumftances chiefly refpeaing Con- 
veniency, has been diverfified and improved from time to 
time according to the feveral Views and Addrefs of the 

Makers. That of Otto de Guerick being lefs artlefs, laboured 

r feveral Defeas, in refpea of the Force neceffa 



the Receiver. 

Within the Cylinders arc two Emboli, or Suckers made of 
Brafs, and fitted with Cork and Leather to the Cavities of 
the Barrels, fo as exaaiy to fill the fame ; each being fur- 
nifh'd with its Valve, and terminating at top in a Racktpc, 
by which it is to be work'd. 

At the bottom of either Barrel is another Valve; by 
which the Air may pafs out of the communicating Canal 
dd, and confequcntly out of the hollow Wire and the Re- 
ceiver it felf, into the Cylinder, below the Pifton ; from 
whence by the Valves of the Pifton it may proceed into the 
upper Space of the Cylinder, and thus into the open Air. 

Fir the Application of this Mecbanifm. The Winch 

bb being turn'd upward and downward ; its Spindle 
tchino by its Teeth into the Racks, will raife and de- 
p'refs the two Pi Lions, alternately.— Now, the Confequence 
of deprefltng a Pifton, is, that the Air before inclofed be- 
tween it and the bottom of the Cylinder, being thus crowd- 
ed into a lefs compafs, will, by its elaftick Force, which 
now exceeds the Preffure of the Atmofphere, pufh up the 
Valve of the Pifton, and thus efcape ; till what little re- 
mains be of the fame Denfity with the external Air incum- 
bent on the Valve. 

This done, and the fame Pifton being again raifed in its 
turn, from the bottom of the Cylinder to the top ; the little 
Air before left, will of neceflity expand it felf, fo as to pof- 
feis the whole Space of the Cylinder thus deferted by the 
Pifton : Upon which, its Force or Preffure upon the Valve 
at the bottom of the Cylinder, being now inconfiderable ; 
the other, denfer Air of the Receiver, hollow Wire, and 
Canal of Conimnnication, by their fuperior elaftick Force, 
will lift up the Valve, and thus pafs into the Cylinder of rari- 
fied Air, till both be of the fame degree of Denfity. 

And thus is the Air in the Receiver diminifh'd at each 
Elevation of the Pifton, by the Quantity of a Cylinder full; 
abating for what little remain'd between the deprefs'd 
Pifton, and the bottom : So that by thus repeating the O- 
peration again and again ; rhe Air in the Receiver is at 
length rarified to fuch degree, that its Denfity does not 
exceed the thin Air remaining in the Cylinder when the 
Pifton is raifed : which done, the Effea of the Air-Tump 
is at an end ; the Valve cannot now be open'd, or if it 
could, no Air would pafs it ; there being a juft Equilibrium 
between rhe Air on each fide. 

To judge of the Degree of Exhauftion, there is added 
a Gage, //; confifting of a Tube, whofe upper Orifice 
communicates with the Receiver; the lower being im- 
mersed in a Bafon of Mercury, mm. — Hence, the Air in 
the Tube rarifying as fail as that in the Receiver ; in pro- 
portion as the Exhauftion advances, the Mercury will be 
-raifed by the Preffure of the Column of external Air, pre- 
vailing over that of the Column of Air included ; till the 
Column of Air, and Mercury together, become a Balance 
to that of the external Air. When the Mercury is thus 
rifen to the fame Height as it ftands in the Barometer, 
which is indicated by the Scale of Inches added to the 
Gage ; the Inftrument is a juft Torricellian Tube ; and 
the Vacuum may be concluded to be as perfeft as that in 
the upper End of the Barometer. See Barometer, and 
Torricellian. 

To let Air again into the exhaufted Receiver, the Cock 
n is to be turn'd ; which makes a Communication with 
the external Air ; upon which the Air rufhing itnpetuoufly 
in, the Mercury in the Gage immediately fubfides into the 
Bafon. 

To the Air-Tump belongs a large Apparatus of other 
Veffels, accommodated to the divers 'Kinds of Experiments. 



under feveral Defeas, in reipett ot the i'orce neceuary 

work it, which was very great ; and the Progrefs very How : 

befide that it was to be kept under Water; and allow'd of See Apparatus, 

no Change of Subjeas for Experiments £ s of Rarefaction in the Receiver of an Air-Pump. 

Mr Soyle, by degrees, removed ieveral of thele lnconve- J . 

niences ; and alleviated others : but ftill the Working of his 1°, For the Proportion of Air remaining at any time in 

Pump w'as laborious, by reafon of the Preffure of the Atmo- the Receiver, we have the following general Theorem.-- 



A I R 



C55 ) 



ALA 



w-' III a Vcffel exhaufted by the Air-Pump, the primitive 
c or natural Air contained therein, is to the Air remaining, 
' as the Aggregate of the Capacity of the Veffel and of the 
' Tump, (*'• e. the Cylinder left vacant in an Elevation 
' of the Pifton, with the Wire and ether Parts between the 
' Cylinder and Receiver) rais'd to a Tower ichofe Exponent 
<■ is equal to the Number of Strokes cf the Pifton, to the 
' Capacity of the Vejfel alone raifed to the fame 'Power.' 

M. Varigmn gives an Algebraical Demonftration of this 
Theorem, in the Memoires de I' Acad. R. An. 1705. p. 397, 

but it may be alfo demonfttated pneumatically, thus : ■ 

Calling the Air remaining after the firft Stroke, the firft 
Refidual-, that after the fecond, the fecoud Refidual, &c. 
and remembering that the Air in the Receiver is of the 
fame Denfity as that in the Cylinder, when the Pifton is 
raifed : it is evident, that the Quantity of Air in the Recei- 
ver, is to the Quantity of Air in theCylinder.Wire, tyc. as the 
Capacity of the Receiver to that of the Cylinder, iSc. and 
confequenrly, the Aggregate of the Air in the Receiver 
and the Cylinder, i. e. the whole primitive Air, is to the 
Air in the Veffel alone, i. e. to the firlt Refidual Air, as 
the Aggregate of the Capacity of the Receiver and the Cy- 
linder, to the Capacity of the Receiver alone. — After the 
fame manner may it be proved, that the Quantity of firft re- 
fidual Air, is to the fecond Refidual, as the Aggregate of 
the Capacity of the Receiver and Cylinder, to the Capa- 
city of the Vcffel alone. And the fame Proportion 
does the fecond Refidual bear ro the third, and fo of 

the reft. Hence, the Product of the primitive Air 

into the firft, fecond, third, fourth, iSc. Refiduals, is to the 
Product of the firil Refidual into the fecond, third, fourth, 
fifth, &fe. as the Product of the Capacity of the Receiver 
and Cylinder together, multiplied as oft into it felf as the 
Number of Strokes of the Pillon contains Units ; to the 
Faftum atifing from the Capacity of the Receiver alone, 
multiplied fo often by it felf: That is, As the Power of the 
Aggregate of the Capacity of the Receiver and Cylinder 
together, whole Exponent is the Number of Strokes of the 
Pillon, to the Capacity of the Veffel alone, raifed to the 
fame Power. — Confequently the primitive /lir is to the lait 
Refidual, in ihc Ratio of thofe Powers. #. E. 2). 

2 , The Number of Strokes of the Piiton, together with 
the Capacity of the Receiver and Cylinder wirh the Wire, 
$3c. being given ; to find the Ratio of the primitive Air 
to the Air, remaining. 

Subtract the Logarithm of the Capacity of the Receiver, 
from that of the Sum of the Capacity o\~ the Receiver and 
the Cylinder ; rhen, the Remainder being multiplied by the 
JMumber of Strokes of the Piiton, the Product will be a 
Logarithm, whofe Natural Number thews how oft the pri- 
mitive Air contains 1 the Remainder requir'd. 

Thus, if the Capacity of the Receiver be 460, that of 
the Cylinder 580, and the Number of Strokes of the Pillon 
6 5 the primitive Air wiil be found to the remaining Air, as 
I4<i$ff » 1. 

For, fuppofe the Capacity of the Veffel =0 ; that of the 
Cylinder and Veffel together, ~a ; the Number of Strokes 
of the Piiton =re ; and the remaining Air — 1. Since the 
Primitive is to the remaining Air as a n to v n 5 the primitive 
Mir will alfo be to the remaining Air, as a" -. v" to 1. 
Confequently, if the remaining Air be 1, the Logarithm 
of the primitive Air ha — vxn. 

3 , The Capacity of the Receiver and the Barrel being 
given j to find the Number of Strokes of the Pifton required 
to rarify the Air to a given Degree. 

Subtract the Logatithm of the remaining Air from the 
Logarithm of the primitive Air ; and the Logarithm of the 
Capacity of the Receiver, from the Logarithm of the Ag- 
gregate of the Capacity of the Receiver and Cylinder ; 
then, dividing the former Difference by the latter, the Quo- 
tient is the Number cf Strokes requir'd. 

Thus, if rhe Capacity of the Cylinder be fuppofed 580 ; 
that of the Receiver 460 ; and the primitive Air to the 
remaining Air, as 1464 to 10 : The Number of Strokes 
required will be found to be 6. 

Befide the Effects, and Phenomena of the Air-Tump, re- 
counted under the Articles Vacuum, Air, &c. we may 
add fome others 5 which, related at large, make the Sub- 
flance of Mr. Boyle's 'Phyf. Mech. Exper. As, — That the 
Flame of a Candle ufually goes out in a Minute, tho it 
fometimes laits two, but the Wieck theteof continues ignited 
after ; and even emits a Smoke, which afcends upwards. — ■ 
That a kindled Charcoal is totally extinguiift'd in about five 
Minutes, tho in open Air it remain alive half an Hour ; and 
that it goes out by degrees, beginning from the Top and 
the Outfides. — That red-hot Iron is not affected by the Ab- 
fence of the Air 5 and yet that Sulphut or Guneouder will 
not be lighted thereby, but only fufed. — That a Match, 
after lying feemingly extinct in Vacuo, a long time j revives 
again upon the Re-admiffion of the Air. — That a Flint and 
Steel ftrikc Sparks of Fire as copioully in Vacuo as out of it $ 
and that the Spatks move in all Directions, upwards, down- 



wards, &c. here,' as ir 1 the ^/r.-That Magnets and Mag- 
netick Needles are the fame in Vacuo as in Air -That 
Smoke in an exhausted Receiver, the Luminary being ex- 
tfflflj gradually fettles to the Bottom in a darkifh Body 
leaving the upper part clear and ttanfpatent ; and that in- 
clining the Vcffel fometimes on one fide, and fometimes on 
another, the Fume keeps its Surface horizontal, after the 
Nature of other Fluids.— That the Syphon docs not run in 

Vacuo.- that Water freezes in Vacuo.— That Heat may 

be produced by Attrition in the exhaufted Receiver. - 

That Camphire will not take fire in Vacuo ;.and that Gun- 
pouder, tho fome Grains of a Heap be kindled by a 
Burmng-glafs in Vacuo, will not give Fire to the conti- 
guous Grains. That Glow worms lofe their Light, in 

proportion as the Air is exhaufted ; and at length be- 
come totally oblcure : but upon the Re-admiffion of Air, 
prefently recover it all.— That Vipers and Frogs fwell much 
in Vacuo, but will live an Hour and half, or two Hours ; 
and tho feemingly ftark dead in that time, come to Life 
again in fome Hours in rhe Air.— That Snails furvive ten 
Hours ; and Efts or Slow-worms, two or three Days ; Lea- 
ches five or fix.— That Oyftcrs will remain alive in Vacuo 
24 Hours without hatm.— That the Heart of an Eel taken 
out of the Body, continues to beat in Vacuo, more nimbly 
than in Air ; and this for a good part of an Hour.— That 
warm Blood, Milk, Gall, (gc. undergo a confidcrabie Intu- 
mescence, and Ebullition in Vacuo.— That a Moufe, or 
otnet Animal, may be brought, by degrees, to furvive lon- 
ger in a ranfied Air, than naturally it docs.— That Air tray 
retain its ufual Pieffurc, after it is become unfit fot Refpira- 
tion.— That Silk-Wotms Eggs will hatch in Vacuo, &c. 

AIRY, or Am ie, of Hawks. See Aery. 

Airy Triplicity, among AOrologers, the Signs of Gemini, 
Libra, and Aquarius. See Tiuplicity. 

AISIAMENTA, in Law. See Easements. 

AJUSTING. Sec Accommodation. 

AJUTAGE, in Hydraulicks, part of the Apparatus of an 
artificial Fountain, or Jet d'Eau ; being a fort of Tube, 
fitted to the Mouth or Aperture of the Veffel ; thro' which, 
the Water is to be play'd, and by it determin'd into this 
or that Figure. 

, ' Tis cl ^fly the Divcrfity in the Ajutages, that makes the 
different Kinds of Fountains.— And hence, by having feveral 
Ajutages to be applied occafionally, one Fountain comes to 
have the Efiect of many. 

'the various forts of Ajutages, their StruBure, Appli- 
cation, &c. fee under the Article lorn-thin. 

The Word is French, form'd of rhe Verb Ajouter, to adjuft. 

AKOND, an Officer of Juftice in Perfia,' who takes cog- 
nizance of the Caufes of Orphans, and Widows ; of Con- 
traas, and other Civil Concerns.— He is Head of the School 
ot Law, and gives Lcaures to all the fubaltetn Officers ; 
he has his Deputies in all the Courts of the Kingdom, who, 
with the fecond Sadra, make all Contraas. 

AL, an Arabick Particle, prcfix'd to Words to exalt or 
give them a mote emphatical Signification.— As, in ^chvmv, 
/fflgebra, 0?c. '...»'• 

Ae, or Alii, in our antient Cuftoms, fignifies as much 
as old, antient.— This, being prefix'd ro the Names of Pla- 
ces expreffes their Antiquity ; as Aldborough, Aldgatc, &c. 

A'LA.a.ZatniTerm, literally fignifying Wing. See Wing. 

Ala is alfo ufed in Anatomy, for feveral Parts of the Bo- 
dy, which bear fome refemblance to the Figure of a Wing. 

Thus, the Lobes of the Liver are fometimes called Al£. 
See Lore. 

The foft, fpongious Bodies in the Tudendum Muliehre, 
ufually called the Nymphs, are alfo denominated Al<e. See 

NyMI'HJE. 

The two Cartilages of the Nofe which form the Noftrils, 
are alfo called Ale. See Nose, and Nostril. 

And the fame Denomination is given to the Top of the 
Auricle. See Auricle, and Ear. 

Ala is alfo ufed in Botany, for rhe Angle which the 
Leaves, or the Stalks or Pedicles of the Leaves, form with 
the Stem or Branches of a Plant from which they arife: 
See Leave, E?c. 

This Angle is ufually acute, and always direaed up- 
wards. — The fame Name is occafionally applied to the An- 
gle form'd by the Branches themfelvcs, with the Stem ; 
which is alfo obferved to be very regular and uniform. See 
Branch. 

ALjE, in the Military Art, are the two Extremes of an 
Army, ranged in form of Battle. See Wing, Army, i$c. 

ALABASTER, Alabastrides, in Natural Hillory, a 
kind of Stone, fofter than Marble, yet harder than Plaifter 
of Paris. See Stone. 

It is found of all Colours ; fome extremely white and 
ihining, wn i c h is the moft common ; fome red, like Coral 5 
and other called Onyx from its Colour, which refembles 
that of the Onyx, tho very different from it in Nature. 
See Onyx. «, 

* Alalafter 



ALB 



C#) 



A L C 



Alebsftcr cuts very fmooth and eafy, and is much us'd 
among Sculptors for Utile Statues, Vafes, Columns, £$c. See 
Statue, Foundery, &c. 

They i'ometimes alio employ it like Plaifter of Paris : in 
order to which-, they bum and calcine it ; after which, 
mixing it up with Water to a thin Confidence ; it is call 
into a Mouid, where it readily coagulates into a firm Body. 
See Plaister. 

Alabafter, Mr. "Boyle obferves, being finely poudcr d, and 
thus let in a Bafon over the Fire ; will, when hot, a flume 
the Appearance of a Fluid, by rolling in Waves, yielding to 
the fmalleft Touch, and emitting Vapour ; all which Pro- 
perties it lofes again, on the Departure of the Heat, and 
difcovers it felf a mere incoherent Pouder. See Fluid, and 
Fluidity. . r 

Some derive the Word from the Latin alblls, becaulo ot 
the Whitenefs of this Stone.— Others, from the Greek &h&- 
£«£(}?, which they form from the Privative a and Aaj/£aW', 
capio ; this Stone being too fmooth and flippery for the 
Hand to fiflen hold of it. 

The Alabaster Box of precious Ointment, mention d in 
St. AfffanXXVI. 7. Mark XIV. 3. and Luke VII. 57. 
has niven the Criticks and Interpreters fome Pain. — To fup- 
pofe^t a Vafe of Alabafter, docs not feem confident with 
its breaking lo eafily, as is intimated by St. Mark. 

F. Kircher, in tn^Oedip. JEgyp. notes, that Alabafter, 
Alabaftrum, was not only ufed for a Vafe of odoriferous Li- 
quor, but alfo for an Egyptian Meafure, containing nine 
Kofti, or Egyptian Pounds ; amounting, according to his 
Computation, to 24 Reman Sextarics, or Pounds. See 
Measure, Weight, &c. 

ALABASTRA, in a Plant, are thofe little green Leaves 
which compafs in the bottom of the Flower. See Ca- 

ALAISEE, in Heraldry. SeeHuMETTY. 

A-LA-MIRE, in Mufick. Sec Note, and Gamut. 

ALAMODE, a fort of Silk, or Taffety. See Stuff, 
Silk, Taffety, Sjfc. 

ALANORARUJS, in our antient Cuftoms, a Keeper 
or Manager of Spaniels, or Setting-Dogs, for the Sport of 
Hunting, Flawking, iSc. See Hunting, and Hawk- 
ing. 

The Word is form'd from the Gothic Alan, a Greyhound. 

ALARES, in Antiquity, are fuppofed by fome Authors 
to have been a kind of Militia, or Soldiery among the Ro- 
mans i fo called from Ala, a Wing, becaufe of their Light- 
nefs and Swiftnefs in the Combat. 

Others make them a People of Tannonia : but others, 
with more probability, take Alares for an Adjective or Epi- 
thet ; and apply it to the Roman Cavalry ; becaufe plac'd 
in the two Wings, or Al£ of the Army ; for which Rea- 
fon, a Body of Horfe was called Ala. See Wing, Caval- 
ry, e?c. 

Alares Mufculi, in Anatomy. See Pterygoids. 

ALARM, a Signal given by Shouts, or by Inftruments of 
War, for the Soldiers to take to their Arms, at the unexpec- 
ted Arrival of an Enemy. 

The Word is form'd from the French a I'arme, to your 
Arms. 

Aearm -Toft, is the Ground appointed to each Regiment, 
by the Quarter-Mader-General, for them to march to, in 
cafe of an Alarm. 

In a Garilbn, the Alarm-Toft is the Place where every 
Regiment is order'd to draw up, on all Occafions. See 
Place. 

ALB, Alee, Alba, antiently called Camifia, a Robe or 
Veftment of white Linen, hanging down to the Feet ; 
wherein the RomiJIl Prieffs perform divine Service. 

The Alb correfponds to the Surplice among us. — It takes 
its Name from its Colour, albus, white. 

ALBA Firma, or Album, was a yearly Rent, payable 
to the Chief Lord of a Hundred; fo called, becaufe paid 
wholly in white Money, or Silver, and not in Corn, which 
was called Slack Mail. 

ALBIGENSES, a Seer or Party of Reformers about 
Tholoufe, and the Albigeois, in Languedoc ; who, in the 
XHth Century, became remarkable tor their opposition to 
the Difcipline and Ceremonie* of the Church of Rome. 
See Reformation. 

They were alfo known by various other Names ; as, the 
fetrobrnffians, Armldifts, Cathares, Tatarius, 'Publicans, 
Tijferans, Sons-hommcs, Taffcgers, &c. 

'Tis pretended, they received their Opinions from Bulga- 
ria ■ which having been infected by the Taulicians of Ar- 
menia, difTufed the fame into Italy, Germany, &c. and that 
Teter Sruys was the firft that brought 'em into Lavguedoc, 
about the Year 11:6. See Petrobrussian. 

The Romanifts tax them with abundance of heterodox 
Opinions ; as, for inftance, that there are two Gods, the 
one inSnitcly Good, and the other infinitely Evil : That the 
good God made the invifible World, and the Evil one that 



which we live in ; and the red of the Manichean Teneis 
See Manichee. 

But this teeth's rather one of thofe pious Frauds allowed 
particularly in that Church, which eltcems it a kind of Merit 
to blacken Hereticks; 

However this be, the Albigcnfes grew fo formidable in a 
little time, that a Holy League or Croizade was agreed upon 
among the Catholicks ; and. War denoune'd again!! them 
the Pope himfelf railing the firit Standard. — In 1229, a Peace 
was flruck up, and an Inquifition eftablifh'd at Tholoufe 
from which time they dwindled by little and little, till the 
Times of the Reformation ; when fuch of them as were 
left, fell in with the Vaudois, and became conformable to 
the Doctrine of "Luinglius, and the Difcipline of Geneva. 
See Vaudois. 

ALBUGINEA, in Anatomy, the outctmoft Coat or Te- 
gument of the Eye ; called alfo the Adnata, Conjunctiva, 
&c See Adnata, Conjunctiva, ££c. 

It takes the Name Atbuginea, from its Whitenefs ; it 
being this that forms what we call the White of the Eye, 
See Eye. 

The fame Term is alfo applied to the Membrane imme- 
diately encompafling the Tefticle. See Testicle, and 
Scrotum. 

ALBUGO, or Album Oculi, the fame with the Alba- 
ginea, or White of the Eye. See Eye, Albuginea, 6?c. 

Albugo is alfo a Dileafe of the Eye ; otherwife called 
Leucoma, and popularly, Tin and Web. See Leucoma, 
and Pin. 

The Albugo is a whitidi Speck or Film, growing, fay fome 

Authors, on the Cornea ; and obftructing the Sight. . 

Others, more juftly, place the Albugo on the Atbuginea 3 by 
this diilinguifhing it from the Pterygium, which is a fimiUr 
Speck on the Cornea. See Pterygium. 

It ofteneft arifes as a Scar, after an Inflammation or Ulcer 
in the Part j particularly in the Small Pox. — The Cure is 
the fame as in the Pterygium. 

ALBUM Gr<ecum, or Stercns Canis Officinale, Dogs 
white Dung, is a Medicinal Drugj in the prefent Practice, 
ufed with Honey, to cleanfe and deterge, chiefly in Inflamma- 
tions of the Throat 5 and that principally outwardly, as a 
Plaifter. 

ALBUMEN Ovi, the White of an Egg. See Egg. 

It is ufed in Medicine, as being of a glutinous or binding 
Nature, on which Account it is often mixed with Bole Ar- 
moniac, i$c. to prevent any drained Part from rifing into 
a Tumor, and redore it to its Tone or Eiadicity. — It is alfo 
an Ingredient in fome Mixtures for confolidating frelh 
Wounds, and preventing too great a Lofs of Blood. 

ALBURN Colour, Brown. See Auburn. 

ALCADE, or Alcalde, or Alcaid, in the Spanijh Y& 
licy, a fort of Judge or Minitter of Juftice, anfwering to a 
Provod. See Provost. 

The Spaniards borrow their Alcade from the Saracen Al- 
caid. See Alcaid. 

ALCAICKS, in the antient Poetry, a Name common to 
fcveral Kinds of Verfes ; thus called from the Poet Alceus, 
the Inventor thereof. See Verse. 

The firfl Species of Alcaicks, confids of two Dactyls and 
two Trochees : As, 



Exilium impofintra cymie. 

There is another Kind, confiding of five Feet, of which 
the fird is a Spondee or Iambick ; the fecond an Iambick ; 
the third a long Syllable ; the fourth a Dactyl ; the fifth a 
Dactyl or Amphimacer: As thefe of Horace, 

Omnes eodem ccgimur, omnitim 
Verfatur urna, Jerius, ocitts 
Sors exitura, 

Befides thefe two Kinds of Verfes, which are call'd Al- 
caick DaBylics, there is a third fort, called Amply Alcaick; 
whereof the firft is an Epitrite, the fecond and third Cbo- 
riambus's, and the fourrh a Bacchius 5 as, 

Cur timet fla\vum Tiberim ] t anger e ? cur \ cUvum 1 - 

'The Alcaick Ode, confifts of four Strophes, each of 
which contains four Verfes ; rhe two firft are Alcaick Verfes 
of the fecond Kind ; the third an Iambick Dimeter Hyper- 
catalectick, i. e. of four Feet and a long Syllable : As, 

Sors exitura, c£ nos in ceternum. 

The fourth is an Alcaick of the firft Kind. The emits 

Alcaick Strophe is as follows : 



Omnes eodem cogimur, omnium 
Verfatur urna, Jerius, ocius 
Sors exitura, (S nos in sternum 
Exilium impofitura cymb#. 



ALCAIP. 






City 



A L c C 57) .. A L C 

- ALCAID, the Governour of 
Alcade. 
The T 

■ »' Nature, can fake Sii : 

re, turn 'em into Gold, 
ter tells us, he was " wont to ftyle himfelf 

Xi m 'X"> Gold-finder, and ■xffmnt, Chymifi." Hence 

we may gather, there was fome fuch Art in being in that 
Age ; but, as neither of thcfe Authors relate how lone it 
had been known before, their Teftimony will not carry us 
back beyond the Age wherein they liv'd. 

Nor do we find any earlier, plainer Traces of the Uni- 

- better Diflolvent, for vcrfal Medicine : not a Syllable of any fuch rhino in all the 

feme particular Purpofes; or to load the Phlegm, fo as it Phylkians and Naturalirfs, from Mfis to Geb £ tee Ardb, 

fpintuous Parts who is fuppofed to have lived in the VIHth Century. In 

on, Distilla- that Authors Work, intitlecL, the Philofipher's Stone, men. 

ALCANTARA n.j t s. l!°!l ls m ,- ade of " a Medi ™K5 which cures all Lepras :" This 

tient MiUrarv HtSTaZ ■ A r^^H T s an an " ^ ffa S e fome Authors fu PP°<" e to have given the firft Hint of 
S3nm^'«? Ti ftmiCit A 0f,k, S ita ' 't C MattCr i th ° G^«' himfelf, perhaps, meant no fuch 



in Sarbary. See neas Garms, another Greek Writer, towards the CVe of 
rilHiaion of the Jcaidj fovereign, both in Ci- ^^SS^^T^t^^J^ ' 
vilaiid Criminal Concerns; and 1 Fines and Punifhments lie <• and Tin, and changing thdX.ur '' ^ ^ 

wholly at his Door —The Word is form'd of the Parricle The fame Writ 3 

Jl, and the Verb ?N1 kad, or akad, to govern, rule ad- 
minifter. 

ALCALI, Alcaly, or rather Alkaly. See Alkaly 
ALCALIZATION, or Alkalization, Alcaliztuio, in 
Ghymillry, rhe Act ol impregnating a Liquor with an alca- 
hne Salt. See Alkaly. 
This is done either to mak 

pofes ; or to ._. 
may not rife in Diftillation, whereby th 
may go over more pure. See Dissolution, 



Mphonftis IX. having recover'd Alcantara from rhe Moors, 
in the Tear mi; committed the Cuftody and Defence 
thereof, firft, to the Knights of Calatrava ; and two Years 
afterwards, to the Knights of the Pear-Tree, another Mili- 
tary Order inftituted in 1170, by Gomez Fernand, and ap- 
proved by Pope Alexander III. under rhe Rule of St Sene- 
diB : upon which they changed their Name, and took the 
Denomination of Knights of Alcantara. 

After the Expulfion of the Moon, and the Taking of 
Granada-, the Sovereignty of the Order of Alcantara, and 
that ot Calatrava, were fettled in the Crown of Cafiile by 
Ferdinand and Ifabella. See Calatrava. 

In 1540, the Knights of Alcantara fucd for leave to 
marry 5 which was granred 'em. 

,- A j L 9 I iL MY ', ° r ALCIIEMlf . a higher or more refined 
kind ot Ghymillry, employ'd in the more myfterious Re- 
fearches of the Art. See Chymistry. 
The Word is compounded of the Arabic Particle of Aug 



.- and Diet ion 

ol this Author, which abounds in Allegory, ir appears high- 
ly probable, that by Man he means Gold, and by Lepras 
or Difeafes, the othet Metals, which are all impure in com- 
parifon of Gold. 

Saidas accounts for this total Silence of Authors in refpeft 
of Alcbymy, by.obferving, that Diocletian procured all the 
Books of the antient Egyptians to be burnt 5 and that it 
was in thefe the great Myfteries of Chymiflry were contained. 
—Conrmgius calls thisHiftory in queftion.and afks how Sai- 
das, who lived but 500 Tears before us, mould know what 
happen'd 800 Years before him ? To which Sorricbius an- 
fwers, that he had learnt it of Endsmus, Helladius, Zozi- 
mus, Pamphilus, Sec. as Saidas himfelf relates. 

Kircber affcrts, that the Theory of the Philofonher's 
Stone is deliver'd at large in the Fable of Hermes; and that 
the antient Egyptians were not ignotant of the Art, but de- 
clined to profecute it. They did not need to tranfmute 
Gold, they had ways of feparating it from all kind of Bo- 



rTTT', ru -n e C b'"ia, Egyptian Kemia, or dies, from the very Mud of the Nile, and Stones of a 

Gr^kXV" :,Cbym,llry. _ Kinds. But, he adds, thefe Secrets were never wrote down 

The Name Alcbymy K of no long Handing: The firft or made publick, but confined ,0 the Royal Family, and 
time it occurs is in Julius Ftrmicus Maternns, an Author handed down traditionally from Father to Son 
who lived under Conftmtme the Great, and who in his Ma- The chief Point advanced by Sorricbius, 'and on which 
iflL JEL P < K g , flf fT ? f the H ««"ly he feems to lay the greater! Strefs, is the Attempt of CaM- 
Bod.es, affirms 'that if the Moon be in the Houfe of gula, mention'd by Pliny, for procuring Gold by Diftilla- 
ld is born, he /hall be Ikill'd tion from Orpiment. Hifl. Nat.L. XXXIII. c. 14. — But 
this, it may be obferved, makes very little for that Author's 



w Saturn, 
in Alchymy. 



'r>u a „ „.,I r\w n. r ] r , . - t ....-, -j i~ w^±^iyv.u, m^w very nttie lor mat .nutnors 

The great Objects or Ends purfued by Alcbymy, are, 1°, Pretenfions ; there being no Tranfmutation, no Hint of any 

The making ot Gold ; which is attempted three different Philofopher's Stone, but only a little Gold extracted or fepa- 

ways : by Separation ; by Maturation ; and by Tranfmuta- rated from the Mineral. See Orpiment 

t.on ; which laft is to be effefted by means of what they The principal Authors in Alchymy, are' Giber, Friar Sa- 

call the Pbilofiphrrs Stone Sec GoLi>.-See alfo Trans- con, Ripley, Lully, John and ijdac Hollands, Safil Valen- 

mutation Philosopher s Stone, &c. tine, Paracelfus, Van Zuchten, and Centiviglio 

With aView to this End^ Alcbymy, in fome antient Wri- ^ALCMANIAN, the Name of a kind of Vetfe, compos'd 

liable ; as, 



ters, is alio called wo;»™», 'Poena, Poetry ; and xrwhw, of three Dactyls and a lone. S v i 
Cbryfipoetice, q. d. the Art of making Gold.— And hence , r , . . ° ' . 

Munera, Itetitiamque 2)ei 

ALCOHOL, or rather Alrool, 



alfo the Artills themfelves ate called mirnu, poets, Makers, 
and X5 vjr ™'°"' 7li i, Gold-makers. 



An Univerfal Medicine, adequate to all Difeafes. See 
Elixir. 



3 , An Univerfal Diffolvent, or Alkaheft. See Alka- and 

HEST. 

4°, An Univerfal Ferment ; or a Matter which being 
plied to any Seed, fhall increafe its Fecundity to Infii 



ap- 



If, e.g. it be applied to Gold, it changes the Gold into the 
Philofopher's Stone of Gold ; if to Silver, into the Philofo- 
pher's Stone of Silver, i. e. into a Matter which tranfmutes 
every thing into Silver ; if to a Tree, the Refult is the Phi- 



Chymifiry, an Arabic 

Term, chiefly underftood of the pureft Spirit of Wine, railed 

reflify'd by repeated Diffillations to its utmoft Subtility, 

1 Perfection ; fo that if Fire be fet thereto, it burns whol- 
ly away, without leaving the leaft Phlegm or Faxes behind. 
See Spirit, Distillation, Rectification, £5>c. 

The Word Alcohol is fometimes alfo ufed for a very fine, 
impalpable Pouder. See Powder. 

The Word is form'd from the Arabic or Hebrew ^xp 
Kaal, to leffen, attenuate, fubtilize. 

ALCORAN, the Mahometan Gofpel ; or the Revela- 



1 r 1 > 6 r 1 rxi . .m-.uw.n.ii..., mi, inM(ju«««f* wuiuci 1 or tne is-eveia- 

lolophers Stone of the Tree, which tranfmutes everything tions, Prophefies, &c. of the Impoflor Mahomet See My- 
itis applied to into Trees, c^c. HOMETANISM. F 

I he Origin and Antiquity of Alcbymy are much contro- The Word Alcoran is Arabick, and literally denotes ei- 
It regard may be^had to Legend and Tradition, ther Reading, or Colleflion ; but 'tis in the foil of thefe 

Senfcs that the Alcoran of Mahomet feems beft under- 



it muft be as old as the Flood ; nay, Adam himfelf is 
prcfented by the Alcbymifts as an Adept. A great part, not 
only of the Heathen Mythology, but of the Jewijh and 
Chriftian Revelations, are fuppofed to refer hereto : Thus, 
Suidas will have the Secret of the Philofopher's Stone 
couch'd in the Fable of the Argonauts ; others find it in the 
Books of Mofcs, ckc. 

But, if the jEra of the Art be examin'd by the Monu- 
ments of Hillory ; it will lofc a deal of this fancied Anti- 
quity.— The learned Dane, 01. Sorricbius, has taken im- 
menfc Pains to prove it known to the antient Greeks and 
Egyptians. Her. Conringius, on the contrary, with equal 
Addrefs, undertakes to ihew its Novelty. 

In effect, not one of the antient Poets, Philofophers, or 
Phyficians, from Homer till 400 Tears after Chrift, mention 
any fuch thing. — The firft Authc 



Hood ; Mahomet purpofing to have his Book call'd Read- 
ing, by way of Eminence j in imitation of the Je-ws and 
Chriftians, who call theNewandtheOldTeftament Writing, 
Scripture, 3"inDn Socks, ™ gifcix, on the fame account. 
See Scripture, and Bible. 

The MuJJiilmen alfo call it I^piD^N Alpharkan ; from 
the Verb p^ Pbaraca, to diftinguijh : either by reafon 
it makes the Diftincfion between what is true, and falfe, or 
between what is lawful to do, and what not ; or elfe on 
account of its containing the Divilions, or Heads of the 
Law : in which, again, they imitate the Hebrews, who 
give divers Books the like Name D'pliD Perakim, q. d. Ca- 
pita, Capitula, Chapters, Heads ; e. g. the I112X *)1V13 
Capita Patrum ; ify'Sx 1'p"13 Capitula Rabbi Eliezcr. 
lenominated Alzechr, Adver- 
as ferving to retain or retrieve 



... who fpeaks ol making 

Gold, is Zoaimus the Panopolitan, who lived towards the La %. the Alcoran is alfo 

Beginning of the Vth Century, and who has an exprefs "lenient, or Remembrance 

Treatife, CT s e , T », isgjis ts^w t» X8" m **< t" <wre otsiiu-ik the Knowledge of the Law. 
0/ 'he drjwe Art of makmg Gold and Sliver, ftill extant in 'Tis the common Opinion among us, that Mahomet, af- 

Manufcript in the French King's Library. The uaxt is JE- fiftci1 b y one Se >S." n > a Monk > compos'd this Book 3 but 

Q- ths 



A L C 



ALE 



the Miifulmans believe it as an Article of their Faith, 
that the'Prophe', who they lay was an illiterate Man, had 
no hand in it ; but that it was given him by God, who, 
to that end, made ufe of the Miniftry of the Angel Gi- 
hriel ; that however it was communicated to him by little 
and little, a Verfe at a time, and in different Places, during 



The Word is deriv'd from the Spanifh Alaba ; and that 
from the Arabick Elcanf, a Cabinet or fleeping Place ; or 
from Elcobat, a Tent. 

ALCYON. See Halcyon. 

ALDEBARAN, an Arabian Name, for a fixed Star of 
the 6rft Magnitude, in the Head of the Sign or Conftclk- 



,L SVmW *M ££&*&. V™*& ^nfaurus, or the Bull , and hence popularly called the 



that Diforder and Confufion vifible in the Work ; which ; 
in truth, is fo great, that all their Doctors have never been 
able to adjuft it. For Mahomet, or rather his Coptic, hav- 
ing put all thefe loofe Verfes promifcuoully in a Book to- 
gether, it was impoffible ever to retrieve the Order wherein 
they were deliver'd. 

Thefe 23 Years which the Angel employ'd in conveying 
the Alcoran to Mahomet, are of wonderful Service to his 
Followers ; inafmuch as they furnilh them with an Aniwer 
to fuch as tax them with thofe glaring Contradiflions where- 
with the Book is full : thofe Contradiftions they pioufly fa- 
ther upon God himfelf; alledging, that in the Couric of io 
long time, he repeal'd and alter'd feveral Doflrines and Ire- 
ceprs, which the Prophet had before receiv'd ot him. 

M. d'Herbelot thinks it probable, thar when the Herefies 
of the Neftorians, Eutycbians, &c. had been condemn'd 
by Oecumenical Councils; many Bifhops, Prietts, Monks, 
iSc. being driven into the Defarts of Arabia and Egypt, fur- 
nilb'd the Impollor with Paflages, and crude ill-conceiv'd 
Doctrines out of the Scriptures : And it was hence, that the 
Alcoran became fo full of the wild and erroneous Opinions 
of thofe Hereticks. 

The Jews, alfo, who were very numerous in Arabia, 
contributed their Quota to the Alcoran ; nor is it without 
fome Reafon that they boaft, twelve of their chief Doctors 
to have been the Authors of this deteftable Work. 

The Alcoran, it is to be obferv'd, while Mahomet lived, 
was only kept in loofe Sheets : His Succeffor, Abubeker. 



Bull's Eye. 

Its Longitude, Latitude, (yc. fie among the reft of the 
Conftellation Taurus. 

ALDERMAN, an Affociatc to the Mayor or Civil Ma- 
giftrate of a City or Town, for the better Adminiltration 
thereof. See City, Town, S?f. 

The Aldermen are an Order of Magiftrates, in our Cities 
and moll of the municipal or incorporate Towns ; who form 
a kind of Council, and regulate Things relating to the Po- 
licy of the Place. — They fometimes alfo take Cognizance of 
Civil and Criminal Matters ; but very rarely, and only in 
certain Cafes. 

Their Number is not limited ; but in fome Places more, 
in fome lefs, from 6 to 16. 

Out of thefe are annually elected the Mayors or chief 
Magiilrates of Places; who, at the Expiration of their May- 
oralry, return again into the Body of the Aldermen, whofe 
Delegates they were before. See Mayor. 

The 16 Aldermen of London, prefide over the %6 Wards 
of the City. See Ward. 

When any of 'em die, the Wardmote return two, out of 
which the Lord Mayor and Aldermen chufe one. 

All the Aldermen that have been Lord Mayors, ajid the 
thtee eldeft Aldermen who have not yet arriv'd at rhat Dig- 
nity, are by Charter, Juftices of the Peace. 

Formerly, there were alfo Aldermen of the Merchants, of 
Hofpitals, of Hundreds, iSc. See Senator. 

Alderman, among our anticnt Saxon Anceflors, was one 

i 1 ^ 1. ... . t-» .cv.ui:^. c — u n ..-.«» 



firft colleflcd'-em into aVolume, and committed the keeping of the three Orders or Degrees of INobillty. See >°j»"™. 

thereof to Haphfa, the Widow of Mahomet, in order to be Mthelmg was the firft, Alderman too iecond, and Thane 

confuted as an Original. And rhere being a good deal of the lowed .See Atheling, and T hane. 

Djverficv between the feveral Copies already difperled thro'- The Alderman was the fame as our Earl or Count ; which 

out the Provinces ; Ottoman, Succeffor of Abuieker, procur'd Appellation, after King Atbelftanes Time, took place in 

a great Number of Copies to be taken from that of Haphfa ; lieu of Alderman. See Earl, and Count. 

»t the fame time fuppreffing all the others not conformable In the Time of King Edgar, Alderman was alfo ufed for 

rhereto a 7 lul ge, or Juftice.— In this Senfe, Alwin Son of Ethel- 

The' chief Differences, then, in the prefent Copies of ftane, is Ailed Atdermannus totius Angli* ; which Sptmait 

this Book, confift in the Points ; which were not in ufe in the interprets, Jllfticiarius Anglic. 



Time of Mahomet and his immediate Succeffors, but were 
added face, to afcertain the Reading ; after rhe Example 
of the Mafforctes, who put the like Points to the Hebrew 
Text of Scripture. See Point. 

The Work is divided into Surates, or Chapters ; and rhe 
Surates fubdivided into little Verfes, which are all compofed 
in a broken inerrupted Sryle, refembling Profe rather than 

Verfe. -The Divifion into Surates is' but of a late ftand- 

ing : The ufual Number of 'em is 60. 

"There are' feven principal Editions of the Alcoran ; two 
at Medina, one at Mecca, one at Confa, one at Sarfora, one 
in Syria, and the Common or Vulgate Edition. The firft: 
contains 6000 Verfes ; the others furpafftng this Number by 
aoo, or 236" Verfes : But the Number of Words and Let- 
ters is the fame in all, viz. 77639 Words, and 323015 Let- 
ters. See Massoretes. 

The Number of Commentaries on the Alcoran, is fo 
large, that the bare Titles would make a huge Volume. — 
Sen Ofihair has wrote the Hiftory thereof, intitled, Tarikb 
'Ben Ofihair. The principal among 'em are Reidhaori 
Thaalebi, Zamalcbfcbari, and Bacai. 

which is the Bafis of the Mahometan 



Thomas Ellenfis, in the Life of St. Ethelred, interprets 
Alderman by Prince, or Count ; Egelwinus qui cogmmina- 
ttis eft Alderman, quod intelligitur princcps five comes.— 
Matthew Paris, in lieu of Alderman, ufes the Word Jufti- 
ciarizts ; and Spelman obferves, that it was the Norman 
Kings, who, inllead of the Saxon Aide rman, introdue'd the 
Word Juftice. 

The Word in its original, is compos'd of Alder, Senior 
or Elder, and Man. 

ALE, a popular, or Beverage Drink, made from Malt. 
See Malt, and Drink. 

For the Method of Brewing Ale, fee Brewing. 

Ale is chiefly diftinguilh'd lirom Beer, another potable Li- 
quor made from the fame Ingredients, by the Quantity of 
Hops ufed therein ; which is greater in Beer, and rhercfore 
renders rhe Liquor bitterer, and fitter to keep. See Beer, 
Hops, i$c. 

The Brewers alfo diflinguifh "Pale or Fine Ale, Brown 
Ale, &c. Their feveral (Properties, Effetls, &c. fie un- 
der the Article UiLh-r-Ziquor. 

The Zytbum and Curmi mentioned by Tacitus, as the 
Bcvetage of the antient Germans, are fuppofed by Matthio- 



Befide tbe Alcoran, ...,. t .. ,„ . — ~ „....„... 

Faith they have alfo a Book containing their Traditions, lus to correlpond to our Ale and Beer. 

which they call Soma. See Sonna, Tradition, Maho- Ale, Cerevifia, is alfo a Denomination 

metanism, l$c. medicated Liquors, or Diet-Drinks, whereof Ale is the Ea- 

The Mahometans have a pofitive Theology, built on the fis, or Vehicle. See Diet-Z>WkL 

Alcoran and Tradition; as well as a Scholatiical one, built The medicated Wines, Waters, and Ales, make a^large 

on Reafon. —They have likewife their Cafuifts, and a kind Article in our Difpenfatones. See Wine, Water, he. 
of Canon Law ; wherein they diftinguifh between what is 



ven to divers 



of divine, and what of pofitive Right. 

They have their Beneficiaries too, Chaplains, Almoners, 
and Canons, who read a Chapter every Day our of the Al- 
coran in the Mofques ; and have Prebends for fo doing. — 
The Hatib of the Molque, is what we call the Parfon of 
rhe Parifh ; and the Scheics are rhe Preachers, who take 
their Text out of the Alcoran. 

Among the Perfians, Alcoran likewife fignifies a kind of 
Tower, or Steeple ; very high and narrow ; furrounded 
without by two or three Galleries, one over another ; 
whence their Moravites or Priefts repeat their Prayers thrice 
a Day, with a very loud Voice ; making the Tour of the 
Gallery all the while, that they may be the better heard all 
around. 

ALCOVE, in Building, a part of a Chamber, reparo- 
led by an F.ftrade, or Partition of Columns, and other 
correiponding Ornaments ; in which is placed a Bed of State, 
and fometimes Scats, to entertain Company. 



Such are the Cerevifia Oxydcrica, for the Eyes ; Cercvi- 
fia Anti-Arthritica, againft the Gout ; Cerevifia Cefhalica, 
for the Head ; Cerevifia Epileptica, &c. 

Gill Ale, is prepared by infufing the dry Leaves of He- 
dera Terreftris, i. e. Ground-Ivy, in Malt-Liquor ; which 
hereby becomes impregnated with the Virtues of the Sim- 
ple ; and is therefore reputed Abilerfive, and Vulnerary ; 
good in Diforders of the Breaft, and againft Obftruclions of 
the Vifcera. 

2)r. Butler's 'Purging Ale, is prepared of Polypody, Sens, 
Sarfaparilla, Anifceds, Scurvygrafs, Agrimony, and Maiden- 
hair, pur up in a Bag, and hung in a VeiTel of Ale. 

We alfo meet in fome Difpenfatories with Syrcp of Ale, 
made by boiling that Liquor to a Confiftence ; ufed againit 
Obftructions in the Kidneys, iSc. 

A-LTL-Berry, is Ale boil'd with Bread and Mace 5 fweet- 
ncd, ftrain'd, and drank hot. 

ALZ-Meajure. See Measure. 



ALE 



(59 ) 



ALG 



Ai^Conner, an Officer in the City of London, whbTe 
Sufineis is to inlpeft the Meafures of the Publick Houfes. — 
There are four of them, and they are chofen by the Com- 
mon-Hall of the City. See Measure. 

Ax&Silver, a Rent or Tribute yearly paid to the Lord 
Mayor of London, by thofe who fell Ale within the City. 

Lt,%' t fa$er\ is an Officer appointed, and fworn in every 
Court-Leet, to look that there be a due Size and Goodncis 
of Bread, Ale, and Beer, fold within the Jurifdi&ion of the 
Leet. See Assize, &c. 

ALECTORIA, in Natural Hiftory, a Stone fometimes 
found in the Stomach, Liver, or rather Gall-Bladder of old 
Cocks. See Stone. 

It is ordinarily of the Figure of a Lupine, and feldom 
exceeds the Bignefs of a Bean. — It has abundance of Vir- 
tues attributed to it, but molt of them arc fabulous. 

The Word is deriv'd from dhvtj&f, a Cock. 

ALECTOROMANTIA, an anticnt Kind of Divination, 
perform 'd by means of a Cock. See Divination. 

This Art was in ufe among the Greeks 5 and the manner 
of it was this. — A Circle was made on the Ground, and 
divided into 24 equal Ponions, or Spaces $ in each of which 
Spaces was written one of the Letters of the Alphabet, and 
upon each of thefe Letters was laid a Grain of Wheat. 

This done, a Cock was turn'd loofe into the Circle, and 
careful Obfervarion made of the Grains he peck'd. — The 
Letters correfponding to thofe Grains, were afterwards form'd 
into a Word ; which Word was to be the Anfwer defired. 

'Twas thus that Libanius and Iamblichas fought who 
Jhould fucceed the Emperor Valcn$ ; and the Cock eating 
the Grains anfwering to the Spaces 0EOA, they concluded 
upon Theodore, but by a Miftake inftead Q? e Pheodo$u$, 

The Word comes from the Greek a'AS*7®fi a Cock, and 
fj&vj'tct, 'Divination. 

ALEMBICK, or Limbeck, a Chymical Veffel, confin- 
ing of a Matrafs, fitted with a roundim Head, perforated in 
a Doping Tube, for the condenfed Vapours to pafs thro' in 
Diftillation. See Cucurbit, and Distillation. 

Alembick is popularly understood of the whole Inftrument 
of Diftillation with all its Apparatus} but in the proper 
Senfe of the Word, it is only a Part hereof, viz. a Veffel 
uiually of Copper, whereto a concave, globular, metalline 
Head is clofely luted 5 fo as to flop the riling Vapours, and 
direct, them into its Rofirum or Beak. 

The Heat of the Fire raifing the volatile Parts of the 
Subject, expofed in the bottom of the Veffel ; they are 
received into its Head, where they arc condens'd, either 
by the Coldnels of the ambient Air, or by Water exter- 
nally apply'd ; and become a Liquor, which runs out at the 
Beak into another Veffel, called the Recipient. See Reci- 
pient. 

The Head or Capital of the Alembick, is fometimes in- 
compaffed with a Veffel full of cold Water, by way of Re- 
frigeratory ; tho this Intention is now more commonly an- 
fwered by a Serpentine, See Refrigeratory, Serpen- 
tine, &c. 

There are divers Kinds of Alembicks : An Open Alem- 
hick, where the Capital and Cucurbit are two feparate 
Parts ; a "Blind Alembick, or Blind Head, where the Capi- 
tal is fealed Hermetically upon the Cucurbit, &c. 

The Word is form'd of the Arabick Particle Al, and the 
Greek *{*&%, a fort of earthen Veffel, mention 'd by Athenens, 
and Hefychius. Tho, Matth&m Silvaticus, in his Tan deft 
Medicine, afferts the Word Alembick to be Arabick, and 
that it literally denotes the upper Part of a diltilling Veffel. 

ALEXANDRINE, or Alexandrian, in Poetry, the 
Name of a kind of Verfe, which confifis of twelve and 
thirteen Syllables alternately ; the reft or Paufe being always 
on the fixth Syllable. See Verse. 

It is faid to have taken its Name from a Poem on the 
Life of Alexander, intitled, the Alexandriad ; written, or 
at leatt tranilated into this kind of Verfe by fome French 
Poets : tho others will have it denominated from one of the 
Tranflators, Alexander 'Paris. 

This Verfe is thought by fome very proper in the Epo- 
pca,and the more fublimc Kinds of Poetry : for which Rea- 
fon it is alfo called Heroic Verfe. See Heroic. 

It anfwers in our Language to tbe Hexameters in the 
Greek and Latin. — Chapmans Translation of Homer., con- 
fills wholly of Alexandrines. 

ALEXIPHARMIC, in Medicine, expreffes that Properry 
which a Remedy, either fimple or compound, hath to refiit, 
or deftroy every thing of a poifonous Nature : For the An- 
tients had a Notion, that there was Poifon in all malignant 
Difcaies, and in the generality of thofe whofe Caufe is un- 
known. See Poison. 

Alexiterlal, Cardiac, Antidote, Alexipharmic, and Coun- 
ter poifon, are all Terms of the fame Signification. See An- 
tidote, Cgunterpoison, £5?c. 

Alexipharmics are ordinarily divided into fuch as are ge- 
neral ; and thofe more particular, fuppoled only to combat 



fome particular Difeafe.-But this Divifion is founded more 
on Speculation than Experience. 

Alexifbarmic Medicines, contain a great Number of vo- 
latile farts, and fuch as render fluid tho Mafc of Blood The 
greatcit part of them are aromarick, and pungent to the 

Tatte. See Aromatic. -Among the reft,°it is true 

there are fome acid Plants and Juices ; but thefe are only 
reckon dm the Number, on account of their Ufe in malio- 
nanf, colliquative Fevers. ° 

Alexipharmics chiefly aft by exciting or increafing a Dia- 
phoreiis, or Peifpiration ; by which the noxious Matter is 
thrown off. See Diaphoreticks, Perspiration, £V. 

Alexipharmics, whether fimple or compound, are alfo 
efteemed Preservatives againfl malignant, and pestilential 
Fevers : But they arc to be ufed with Caution ; fome being 
only proper in Condcufations, and others in Colliquations of 
the Blood. Sec Preservative, Plague, $$c. 

The Word is derived from the Greek dh^a, arceo, to 
drive out, or expel ; and wV""') Venerium, Poifon. 

AtExiPHASMic Waters, &c. See Water, igc. 

ALEXITERIAL, in Medicine, a Term of the fame im- 
port with Alexipharmic. See Alexipharmic. 

It is form'd from the Greek zte.!;n, arceo, 1 drive away, 
or Opitulor, I aflilr. 

ALFET, antiently fignified the Cauldron in which boiling 
Water was put, for the Accufed to plunge his Hand in up to 
the Elbow, by way of Trial or Purgation. See Water. 

ALGAROT, or Algarel, in the Arabian Chymi'dry, 
a Poudcr prepared of Butter of Antimony ; being in rea- 
lity no more than the Regulus of that Mineral, diffolv'd in 
Acids, and feparatcd again by means offcveral Lotions with 
lukewarm Water, which imbibes rhofe Acids. See Regulus. 

This is alfo called Mercurius Vit<e, or (imply Emetic 
'Ponder. — It purges violently both upwards and 'downwards. 
See Antimony. 

By collecting all the Lotions, and evaporating two third 
Parts, what remains is a very acid Liquor, called Spirit of 
1>bilofophi'Cal Vitriol. 

ALGEBRA, a Method of refolving Problems by means 
of Equations. See Problem, and Equation. 

Some Authors define Algebra the Art of foiving all Pro- 
blems capable of being folv'd : But this is rather rhe Idea 
of Analyfis, or the Analytic Art. See Analysis. 

The Arabs call it, tho Art of Reftimtion and Comiari- 
fon ; or, the Art of Refolution and Equation.— Lucas de 
Burgos, the firft European who wrote at Algebra, calls it, 
the Rule of Reflorathn and Ofpojilion.— The Italians call 
it, Regula Rei ££? Cenfus, that is, the Rule of the Root and 
the Square ; the Root with them being called Res, and the 
Square Cenfus.— Others call it Specious Aritbmetick ; others 
Univerfal Aritbmetick, &c. 

Menage derives the Word from the Arabic Algebra, 
which fignifics the fetting of a broken Bone ; fuppofing 
rhat the principal Part of A'gebra is the Consideration of 

broken Numbers. Others rather borrow it from the 

Slianifb Algebrifla, a Petfon who re-places diilocated Bones ; 
adding, that Algebra has nothing to do with Fraction ; in 
that it confiders broken Numbers a« if they were entire, and 
even expreffes its Powers by Letters, which are incapable of 
Fraction. 

Some, with M. d'Herbelot, arc of Opinion, that Algebra 
takes its Name from Geber, a celebrated Phiiofopher, Chy-- 
mifl, and Mathematician, whom the Arabs call Giaber ; 
and who is fuppofed to have been the Inventor. — Others, 
from Gefr, a kind of Parchment, made of the Skin of a 
Camel, whereon Alt and Giafar Sadek wtote in myftick 
Characters the Fate of Mahomet anifm, and the grand Events 
that were to happen till the End of the World. — But 
others, with more probability, derive it from Gebr, a Word 
whence, by prefixing the Particle Al, we have formed 
Algebra, which is pure Arabic, and properly fignifies tha 
Reduction of broken Numbers to a whole Number. 

However, the Arabs, it is to be obferved, never ufe the 
Word Algebra alone, to cxprefs what we mean by it 5 but 
always add to it the Word Macabelah, which fignifies Oppo- 
fition and Comparifon. — Thus, Algebra- Almocabelak, is what 
we properly call Algebra. 

Algebra is a peculiar kind of Aritbmetick, which takes 
the Quantity fought, whether it be a Number, or a Line, or 
any othet Quantity, as if it wcte granted ; and by means 
of one or more Quantities given, proceeds by confequencc, 
till the Quantity at firll only fuppos'd to be known, is 
found to be equal to fome Quantity or Quantities which 
are certainly known, and confequently it fclf is known. 
See Quantity, and Arithmetic. 

Algebra is of two Kinds, viz. Numeral, and Literal. 

Numeral, or Vulgar Algebra, is that of the Antients, 
which only had place in the Relblution of Arithmetical Quel- 
tions. — In this, the Quantity fought is reprelented by fome 
Letter or Charafler ; but all the given Quantities are ex- 
prefs'd by Numbers. See Number, and Numerous. 

Literal, 



A L G 



t*>) 



A L G 



Ziieral, or Specious Algebra, <5r the K'wAlgeera, the Quantities, both known and unknown, by Symbols ot 
is that wherein the given or known Quantities, as well as Letters. — He alfo introduced an ingenious Method of cx- 
the unknown, are all expreffed or reprelentcd by their Spe- tracking the Roots of Equations, by Approximation; fi[ lcft 
cies, or Letters of the Alphabet. See Species, and Spe- much facilitated by Raphfon, in his Analyjis Jiiquationum 
'eio-os. Vleta was follow'd by Oughtred, who in his Clavls Ala- 

Thiseafes the Memory and Imagination of that vaftStrefs thematica, printed in 1631, improved Vieta's Method ■ and 
or Effort, requir'd to keep the feveral Matters neceffary for invented feveral compendious Characters, to fhew the Sums 
the Difcovery of the Truth in hand prefent to the Mind : Differences, Re&angles, Squares, Cubes, &e. 
For which Reafon this Art may be properly denominated 
Metaphyseal Geo?netry. 

Specious Algebra, is not, like the Numeral^ connVd to 
certain Kinds "of Problems ; but ferves univerlally for the 
Inveftigation or Invention of Theorems, as well as the Solu- 
tion and Demonftration of all kinds of Problems, both Arith- 
metical, and Geometrical. See Theorem, t$c. 

The Letters ufed in Algebra, do each feparately repre- 
fent either Lines or Numbers, as the Problem is Arithme- 
tical or Geometrical ; and together, they reprefent Planes, 
Solids and Powers more or lefs high, as the Letters are in 
a greater or lefs Number. — For inftance, if there be two 



Mr. Harriot, anoiher Englijhman , cotemporary with 
Oughtred, left feveral Treatifes at his Death ; and among 
the reft, an Analyfis, or Algebra, which was printed in 
11J31 5 where Vieta's Method is brought into a iHll more 
commodious form, being that which obtains to this Day. 

r " 1S57, 2to Cartes publifh'd his Geometry, wherein 



In 



he made ufe of the Literal Calculus and the Algebrakk 
Rules of Harriot ; and as Oughtred in his Cla-vis, and Ma- 
rin. Ghctaldus, in his Books of Mathematical Compofuion 
and Refolution publifti'd in 1630, applied Vieta's Arithme- 
tick to Elementary Geometry, and gave the Conftru&ions of 
Simple and Quadratick Equations ; fo Ties Cartes applied 
Letters, ab, they reprefent a Rectangle, whofe two Sides Harriot's Method to the Higher Geometry, explaining the 
are expreffed, one by the Letter a, and the other by b ; fo Nature of Curves by Equations, and adding the Contfruc- 
that by their mutual Multiplication, they produce the Plane t i Dns of Cubic, Biquadratic, and other higher Equations. 
a b. Where the fame Letter is repeated twice, as a a, they fQ es Cartcs's Rule for confronting Cubic and Biquadratic 
denote a Square. — Three Letters, a be, reprefent a Solid, Equations, was further improved by Tho. Baker, in his 
or a reftangled Parallelopiped, whofe three Dimenfions are Qavis Gcometrica Catholica, publifh'd in 1684; and the 
expretted by the three Letters a be; the Length by a, Foundation of fuch Conftruttions, with the Application of 
the Breadth by b, and the Depth by c : fo that by their Algebra to the Quadratures of Curves, Queftions de maxims 
mutual Multiplication they produce the Solid a be. an d minimis, the Centrobaryc Method of Gu!dinus } 8ic. was 
As the Multiplication of Dimenfions is expreffed by the gj ven by R. Sh/fius, in 166%; as alfo by Fermat, in his 
Multiplication of Letters, and as the Number of thofe may opera Mathematical Roberval, in the Mem. de Mathem. 
be fo great as to become incommodious; the Method is, only gef fo phyjique - and Barrow, in his Left. Geomet. Iq 



to write down the Root, and on the right hand to write the 
Index of the Power, that is, the Number of Letters where- 
of the Power to be expreffed does confift $ as, a x , a*, a*, a s : 
the laft. of which fignifies as much as a multiplied five 
times into it felf 5 and fo of the reft. See Power, Root, 
Exponent, t£c. 

For the Symbols, CharaBcrs, &c. ufed in Algebra, with 



1708, Algebra was applied to the Laws of Chance and 
Gaming, by R. de Montmcrt ; and fince by de Moivre, and 
James Bernoulli. 

Thus much for the Progrefs of Algebra. — The Elements 
of the Art were compiled and publifh'd by Kerfey in 
1671 ; wherein the Specious Arithmetick, and the Nature 
of Equations are largely explain'd, and illuflrated by variety 



their Application, &c. fee the Articles Character, Quan- f Examples : The'wholc Subftance of ' Diophantus is here 

tity, &c. deliver'd ; and many Things added concerning Mathemati- 

For the Method of performing the feveral Operations in AI- CA \ Composition and Refolution, from Ghetaldus. The like 

gebra,y£<? Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication,^, has been fince done by Prefiet in 1^04.; and by Ozanam in 

As to the Origin of this Art, we are much in the dark.— 1703.— But thefe Authors omit the Application of Algebra 

The Invention is ufually attributed to Z)iopbantus, a Greek to Geometry ; which Defect is fupplied by Quifnee in a 

Author, who wrote thirteen Books, tho only fix of 'em are ex- French Treatife exprcfly on the Subject, publifh'd in 1704* 

tant, firft publifhed by Xylander, in 1575 ; and fince com- am i fHopital'm his Analytical Treatife of the Conic Seg- 
mented on and improved by Gafper Sachet, of the French 
Academy ; and fince by M. Fermat. 

And yet Algebra feems to have been not wholly unknown 



to the antient Mathematicians, long before the Age of 2)io- 
■phantus : We fee the Traces, the Effects of it in many 
Places ; tho, it looks as if they had defignedly concealed 
it.— Something of it there feems to be in Euclid^ or at 
leaft in "itheon upon Euclid, who obferves that 'Plato had 
begun to teach it. — And there are other Inftances of it in 
'Pappus, and more in Archimedes and Apollonius. 

But the Truth is, the Analyfis ufed by thofe Authors is 
rather Geometrical than Algebraical ; as appears by the 
Examples thereof which we find in their Works : So that 
we make no fcruple to fiiy, that e Diophantus is the firft, and 
only Author among the Greeks who has treated of Algebra 
profeffedly. 

This Art, however, was in u(e among the Arabs much 
earlier than among the Greeks. And 'tis faid the Arabs 
too borrow'd it from the Perfians, and the Perflans from 
the Indians. — 'Tis added, that the Arabs carried it into 
Spain ; whence, fome are of opinion, it pafs'd into Eng- 
land, befor.e "Diophantus was known among us. 

The firft who wrote on the Subject in this part of the 
World, was Lucas Pacciolus, or Lucas de Burgos, a Cor- 
delier ; whofe Book, in Italian, was printed at Venice in 
14.94. — This Author makes mention of one Leonardus Pi- 
fanus, and fome others, of whom he had learnt the Art ; 
but we have none of their Writings. — He adds, that Algebra 
came originally from the Arabs j and never mentions Dio- 
phantus : which makes it probable, that that Author was 
not yet known in Europe. — Flis Algebra goes no further than 
Simple and Quadratick Equations. See Quadratic, He. 

After Pacciolus appear 'd Stifclius, a good Author ; but 
neither did he advance any further. 

After him, came Scipio Ferreus, Cardan* Tartalea, and 
fome others ; who reach'd as far as the Solution of fome Cu- 
bick Equations. — Bombelli follow'd thefe, and went himfelf 
a little further,— At laft came Nonnius, Ramus, Schoner, 
Saliguac, Clavius, Sic. who all of them took different Cour- 
fes, but none of them went beyond Quadraticks. 

About the fame time, jOiophantus was firft madepublick j 
whofe Method is very different from that of the Arabs, 
which had been follow'd till then. 

In 1590, Vleta enter'd on the Stage, and introdue'd what 
he calfd his Specious Arithmetick, which confifts in denoting 



tions, in 1707. — The Rules of Algebra are alfo compendi- 
oufly deliver'd by Sir /. Newton, in his Arithmetica Uni- 
verfalis, firft publifh'd in 1707 5 which abounds in choice 
Examples, and contains feveral Rules and Methods invent- 
ed by the Author. 

Algebra ^has been alfo applied to the Confideration and 
Calculus of Infinites; from whence a new and very extenfive 
Branch of Knowledge has arofe, call'd the UoElrine of 
Fluxions, wc Analyfis of Infinites, or the Calculus Differev.- 

tialis. See Fluxions. .The Authors on this Subject, fee 

under the Article Analysis. 

ALGEBRAICAL, fomctbing that relates to Algebra. 
See Alceur a. 

InthisSenfe, we fay, Algebraical Characters, or Symbols. 
See Character. 

Algebraical Curve, is a Curve, wherein the Relation 
of the Abfciffes to the Semiordinates, may be defined by an 
Algebraical Equation. Sec Curve. 

Thefe are alfo called Geometrical Lines. See Geome- 
trical Lines. 

Algebraical Curves ftand contradiftinguifh'd to Mechani- 
cal or Tranfcendental ones. See Mechanical, and Tran- 
scendental. 

Algebraical Solution. See Resolution. 

ALGENEB, in Aftronomy, a Fixed Star of the fecond 
Magnitude, on the right fide of Perfeus— Its Longitude, La- 
titude, gefc. fee among the rcfl of the Conftcllation Perseus. 

ALGOL, or Mcdufa\ Head, a Fixed Scar of the third 

Magnitude, in the Conftellation Perfeus. Its Longitude, 

Latitude, &c. fee under the Article Perseus. 

ALGORISM, a Term ufed by fome Arabick Authors for 
the practical Operation of the feveral Parts of Specious A- 

rithmetick, or Algebra. Ses Algebra.- Sometimes it 

is alfo ufed for the Practice of common Arithmetick, by the 
ten numeral Figures. See Arithmetick. 

ALGORITHM, an Arabic Term, which fome Authors, 
and especially the Spaniards, make ufe of to fignify uie 
Doctrine of Numbers. See Numeer. 

Algorithm is properly the Art of numbering truly, w& 
readily; and comprehends the fix Rules of common Arith- 
metick.— It is fometimes called Ltgiflica Nunieralis. Sec 
Arithmetics, Rule, &c. 

In this Senfe, we fay, the Algorithm of Integers, the 
Algorithm of Fractions, the Algorithm of Surds, i$c $™ 
Fraction, Surp, &c. 

4 ALGUA- 



Tab . Al m,bb.a . 



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Sfy.t CmuirMOm &if -3^4 Construct &f Sj£flu&Jn 

D 
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B 




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A L I 



ALGUAZIL, in the Spanijb Policy, a Serjeant or Offi 
cer, who arrefts People, and executes the Magistrate's Or- 
ders. See Serjeant, &c. 

ALHANDAL, a Term in the Arabian Pharmacy. — 
The Troches of Alhandal, -Trocbifci Alhandalce, are a kind 
of Troches, compofed of Colocynthis, Bdellium, and Gum 
Tragacanth. See Troche. 

They are efteemed good Purgatives, and are ufed on di- 
vers Occafions. See Purgative. 

The Word is formed of the Arabic Handel, or Handhal, 
a Name for Colocynthis, See Colocynthis. 

ALHIDADE, or Alidade, the Index or Label of an 
Aftronomical, or Geometrical Initrument, for taking of 
Heights or Diftances. — The Alhidade is a kind of Ruler, 
moveable on the Centre of the Inftrument; and carrying the 
Sights. See Index, Sights, $$c. See alfo Astrolabe, 
Theodolite, £5>c. 

The Word is Arabic, where it fignifies the fame thing. — 
In Greek and Latin., it is called cfWJ^, T>ioptra, and Linea 
Fidticiee, Fiducial Line. 

ALIEN, in Law, a Perfon born out of the King's Al- 
legiance, and confequently not capable of inheriting Lands 
in England, till naturalized by Act of Parliament. See Na- 
turalization. 

Of thefe there are two Kinds, viz. Alien-Friends, who 
are of thofe Countries which are at peace and league with 
us 5 and 'Enemies, who are of Countries at war with us. 

A Man born out of the Land, fo it be within the Limits 
of the King's Obedience beyond the Seas ; or of Englijb 
Parents out of the King's Obedience, fo the Parents at the 
Time of the Birth be of fuch Obedience, is no Alien, but 
a Subject of the King : Stat. z. 25 Ed-iv. III. commonly cal- 
led the Statute 2)e natis idtra marc. 

Add, that if one born out of the King's Allegiance come 
and dwell in England 5 his Children begotten here are not 
Aliens, but Denizens. See Denizen. 

Alien (Priories, were thofe Cells of Monks, formerly 
eftablifhed in England, which belonged to foreign Monaite- 
ries. See Priory, Abuy, Monastery, &c. 

ALIENATION, Alienatio, in Law, the Act of ma- 
lting a thing another Man's $ or the altering, and transfer- 
ring the Property and PofTeffion of Lands, Tenements, or 
other Things, from one Man to another. See Transfer- 
ring, Possession, &c. 

To alienate, or alien, in Mortmain, is to make over Lands 
or Tenements to a Religious Community, or other Body 
Politick. See Mortmain. 

To alienate in Fee, is to fell the Fee-fimple of any Land, 
or other incorporeal Right. See Fee. 

Crown-Lands are only alienable under a Faculty of per- 
petual Redemption. See Redemption. 

The Council of Lateran, held in 112.3, forbids any Clerk 
to alienate his Benefice, Prebend, or the like. See Pre- 
bend, &c. 

Alienation-0#zc<?, is an Omce to which all Writs of 
Covenants and Entry, upon which Fines are levied and 
Recoveries furTer'd,are carried 5 to have Fines for Alienation 
fet and paid thereon. See Covenant, Recovery, Fine, &c. 
ALIFORMES 'Proccjfus, in Anatomy, the Prominences 
of the Os Cimeifonne. See Cuneiforme. 

Aliform es Mufcidi, a Pair of Mufcles, arifing from the 

*Pterygoide Bone, and ending in the Neck of the lower Jaw, 

towards the internal Seat of the Head. SccPterygoides,^. 

They are thus called from the Latin Ala, Wing, and 

Forma, Shape 5 as rcfembling Wings. 

ALIMENT, Alimentum, Food, in a phyfical Senfe, is 
whatever may be diffolved and turn'd into Chyle, by the 
Liquor of the Stomach, or the Natural Heat ; fo as to be 
afterwards converted into Blood, for augmenting the Body, 
or repairing the continual Expence of Parts. See Food, 
Chyle, Blood, Nutrition, £i?c. 

The Word is Latin, form'd of the Verb Alere, to nouriJh. 
ALIMENTARY, Alimental, fomething that relates 
to Aliment, or Food. See Food. 

The antient Phyficians hold that every Humour confifts of 
two Parts 5 an Alimentary, and an Excrementitious one. 
See Humour, and Excrement. 

Alimentary 1)u£i, Z)ii£iiis Alimentalis, is a Name 
oiven, by Dr. i lyfon and fome others, to that Part of the 
Eody thro' which the Food partes, from its Reception into 
the Mouth, to its Exit at the Anus 5 including the Gula, 
Stomach, and Inteftines. Sec Ductus AUmentalis, Sto- 
mach, ES?c. 

Alimentary 2)u£l is fometimes alfo underftood of the 
Thoracic Duct. See Thoracic linB, 

Alimentarii Tlteri, &c. in Antiquity, were certain 
Children maintained and educated by the Munificence of 
the Emperors, in a fort of publick Places, not unlike our 
Hofpitals. See Hospital. 

Trajan was the firft that brought up of thefe Alime?i- 
tary Soys. He was imitated by Adrian. Antoninus 
Tins did the fame for a Number of Maids, at the Solli- 
4- 



(61 ) 



A L K 



citation of Fauftina : And hence, in fome Medals of that 
Empress, we read PUELLjE F A U STI NI AN M — 
Alexander Severus did the like, at the Requeft of Mam- 
m£a; and the Maids thus educated vtvteciXteiMammeaiuet 

ALIMONST, Alimonia, in Law, antiently fienify'd 
Nouriflmicnt, or Maintenance; but in a more modern 
Senfe, denotes that Portion, or Allowance which a married 
Woman fues for, upon any occafional Separation from her 
Husband, wherein {he is not charged with Elopement or 
Adultery. See Wife, Dower, ££c 

This was antiently called Rationabile Eftoverium, Rea- 
fonable Maintenance, and was recoverable in the Spiritual 
Court ; but now only in Chancery. 

ALIQUANT Tart, is that which will not meafure or 
divide any Number exactly, but fome Remainder will full 
be left. — Or, an Aliquant Part, is that which being taken 
any Number of times, is always either greater or leffer 
than the Whole. See Part, Measure, t$c. 

A fahle of Aliquant Parts of a Toiind, fee under the 
Article Multiplication. 

Thus, 5 is an Aliquant Tart of 12 ; for being taken 
twice, it falls Ihort, and when taken three times it ex- 
ceeds 12. 

ALIQUOT Tart, is fuch Part of any Number, or 
Quantity, as will exactly meafure it, without any Remain- 
der. — Or, it is a Part, which being taken a certain Num- 
ber of times, becomes equal to the Whole, or Integer. See 
Part, &c. 

Thus, 5 is an Aliquot Tart of 12 ; becaufe being taken 
four times, it will juft meafure it. 

The Word is form'd of the Latin Aliquoties, any number 
of times. 

A Table of Aliquot Parts of a Totind, fee under the 
Article Multiplication. 

ALKAHEST, or AlcahEst, inChymiflry, anuniverfal 
Menltruum or DifTolvent, wherewith fome Chymifts have 
pretended adequately to refolve all Bodies into their firft 
Matter. See Menstruum, Dissolvent, Matter, i$c. 

Thofe two eminent Adepts, Tarccelfus and Helmont, 
exprcfly declare, that there is a certain Fluid in Nature, ca- 
pable of reducing all fublunary Bodies, as well homogene- 
ous as mixed, into their Ens frimum, or Original Matter 
whereof they are compos'd ; or into an uniform equable 
and potable Liquor, that will unite with Water and the 
Juices of our Bodies, yet retain its feminal Virtues ; and 
if mixed with it felf again, thereby be converted into pure 
elementary Water. — Whence they alfo imagin'd, it would at 
length reduce all Things into Water. See Water. 

This Declaration, feconded by the Affeveration of Hel- 
mont, who religiouily fwears himfelf poffeffed of the Secret, 
has excited the fucceeding Chymifts and Alchymifls to the 
Purfuit of fo noble a Menftruum. Mr. Boyle was fo fond 
of it, that he frankly acknowledges he had rather have 
been Mafter thereof than of the Philofopher's Stone. See 
Alchvmt. 

Indeed, 'tis not difficult to conceive, that all Bodies 
might originally arife from fome firft Matter, which was 
once in a fluid Form. — Thus, the primitive Matter of Gold 
is, perhaps, nothing more than a ponderous Fluid, which 
from its own Nature or a flrong Attraction between its 

Parts, afterwards acquires a folid Form. See Gold. 

And hence, there does not appear any Abfurdity in the 
Notion of an univerfal Ens, that refolves all Bodies into 
their Ens genitale. 

The Alkabeft is a Subject that has been canvaffed by an 
infinite Number of Authors ; as, Tantaleon, Tbilaletbes, 
Tacbenius, Ludovicvs, &c- — Boerbaave fays, a Library- 
might be collected out of 'em. Weidenfelt, in his Treatife 
de Secretis Adeptortim, has given us all the Opinions that 
have been entertained about it. 

The Term Alkabeft is not peculiarly found in any Lan- 
guage : Helmont declares he firft obferved it in Taracelftis, 
as a Word that was unknown before the Time of that Au- 
thor, who in his fecond Book, 2)e virions Membrorum t 
treating of the Liver, has thefe Wotds : Eft ctiam Alkaheft 
liquor, magnam hefatis conferomdi i£ confortandi, &c. 
" There is alfo the Liquor Alkabeft, of great efficacy in 
" preferving the Liver ; as alfo in curing hydropical and all 
" other Difeafes arifing from Diforders of that Part. If it 
" have once conquer'd its like, it becomes fuperior to all 
" other hepatick Medicines; and tho the Liver it felf 
" were broken and diflblved, this Medicine fhould fupply 
" its Place." 

'Tisthis fingle Paflage of ' Taracelfus, that excited the fuc- 
ceeding Chymifts toanInquiryaftcrthe^/W»</?i there being 
but one other indirect E'xpreffinn about it in all his Works. 

Now it being a frequent Practice with this Author to 
tranfpofe the Letters of his Words, and to make ufe of Ab- 
bfeviations, and other ways of Concealment 5 as in Tartar, 
which he would write Sutratar ; for Nitmm, Mntrin, 
&c. 'tis fuppofed Alkabeft may be a Word thus difauis'd.— 
R Hence 



A L K 



(62 ) 



A L K 



Hence Tome imagine it formed of Jlkidi eft ; and accord- 5 , 'Tis incapable of Mixture, and therefore remains frcp. 

ingly, that it was the Alkaline Salt of Tartar volatiliz'd. from Fermentation and Putrefaftion ; coming off as pur e 

This feems to have been Glauber's Opinion; who indeed from the Body it has diffolved, as when firft put there? 

performed furprizing things with fuch a Mcnftruum upon on ; without leaving the leaft Foulnefs behind. 

Subjects of all the three Kingdoms. ALKALY, Alkali, or Alcaly, in Chymiftry, a Name 

Others will have it the German Word Algeifi, q. d. originally given, by the Arabians, to a Salt extracted from 

wholly fpirituous, or volatile : Others are of Opinion, that the Allies of a Plant called Kali ; and by us Glafs-wort 

Alkahejl is taken from Salls-geijl, which dignifies Spirit of becaufe ufed in the making of Glafs. Sec Kali and' 

Salt ; for the Univerfal Menflruum, 'tis laid, is to be Glass. 

wrought from Water ; and 'Paracelfiis himfelf calls Salt Afterwards, the Term Alkaly became a common Name 

the Centre of Water, wherein Metals ought to die, i£c. — for the lixivious Salts of all Plants ; that is, for fuch Salts 

In efteft, Spirit of Salt was the great Menllruum he ufed as are drawn by Lotion from their Alfies. See Lixivious 

on moil Occafions. — The Commentator on Paracelfiis, who and Ashes. ' 

gave a Latin Edition of his Works at Delft, affures that And hence, again, in regard the original Alkali was 

the Alhiheft was Mercury, converted into a Spirit.— pmelr found to ferment with Acids ; the Name has fince become 

fer judg'd it to be a Spirit of Vinegar reflify'd from Verdi- common to all volatile Salts, and all terreflrial Subftanccs 

grcafe.— And Starkcy thought he difcover'd it in his Soap. which have that Effefl. See Acid. 

There have been Tome fynonymous and more fignificant Alkaly, then, in its modem extenfive Senfe, is any Sub 

Words ufed for the Alkahejl.— The elder Hclmont mentions fiance, which being mixed with an Acid, an Ebullition and 

the Alkahejl by the compound Name of Igms-aqua, Fire- Effervcfcence enfues thereon. See Effervescence & c 

Water : But he here feems to mean the circulated Liquor And hence arifes the grand Divifion of Natural 'Bodies 

of Paracelfiis ; which he terms Fire, from its Property of into the two oppofite Claffes of Acids and Alkalies. See 

containing all things ; and Water, on account of its liquid Acid. 

form. The fame Author calls it Igms-gehenn<e, infernal Zoerbaave fcarce takes this Circumflance to be enough to 

Fire ; a Word ailo uled by 'Paracelfiis : He alfo intitles it conftitute any determinate Clafs of Bodies.— In effeS Al 

' Summum p fchcifjimum omnium falium, the principal kalies are not of one fimilar homogeneous Nature • ' but 

' and moll fuccefsful among Salts, which having obtained there are two feveral forts. 

' the higheft degree of Simplicity, Purity, and Subtility, The firft obtain'd from Vegetable and Animal Subilances 

alone enjoys the Faculty of remaining unchanged and un- by Calcination, Difiillation, Putrifeaion, £S?c fuch are Spirit 

j impaired by the Subjects it works on, and of diflblving f Urine, Spirit of Hartihorn, Salt of Tartar &c — The fe 

the mottflubborn and untraflable Bodies, as Stones, Gems, cond are of the terreflrial Kind = as Shells, Bole 13c 

Glals, Earth, Sulphur, Metals, (5c into real Salt, equal 



' in weight to the Matter diffolved ; and this with as much 
' eafe as hot Water melts down Snow.' — ' This Salt, coa- 
' times be, by being feveral times cohobated with Paracel- 
4 fus's Sal circulation, lofes all its Fixednefs 5 and at length 
6 becomes an infipid Water, equal in quantity to the Salt 
' it was made from.' 

Helmont is exptefs that this Menflruum is intirely the 
Product of Art, and not of Nature. — ' Tho, fays he, a ho- 
L mogeneal Part of elementary Earth may be artificially con- 
4 verted into Water, yet I deny that the fame can be done 
" by Nature alone ; for no natural Agent is able to tranf- 
c mute one Element into another.' And this he offers as a 
Reafon why the Elements always remain the fam 
may let fome light into this Affair, to obferve that Hclmont, 
as well as 'Paracelfiis, took Water for the univerfal Inflru- 
ment of Chymiflry, and Natural Philofophy ; and Earth 
for the unchangeable Bafis of all Things : That Fire 
was deligned as the efficient Caufe of all Things ; that fe- 
minal Impreflions were lodged in the Mechanifm of Eatth ; 
and that Water, by diffolving and fermenting with this 
Earth, as it does by means of Fire, brings every thing to 
light ; whence originally proceeded the Animal, Vegetable, 
and Mineral Kingdoms ; even Man himfelf being thus at 
firft created, agreeably to the account of Mofes. 

The great Character or Property of the Alkahefl, we 
have obferved, is to diffolve, and change all fublunaty Bo- 
dies ; Water alone excepted. — The Changes it induces pro- 
ceed thus : i°, The Subject expofed to its Operation, is con- 
verted into its three Principles, Salt, Sulphur, and Mercury 5 
afterwards, into Salt alone ; which then becomes volatile 5 
and at length is wholly turned into infipid Water. — The 
manner of Application is by touching the Body propofed 
to be diffolved, c. g. Gold, Mercury, Sand, or the like, once 



The two Species, Soerbaave obferves, differ widely from 
each other ; having fcarce any thing in common, but their 
being effervefcible with Acids. — The one is a Clafs of na- 
tive, fixed, fcentlefs, infipid, mild, aftringent, foffil Bodies: 
The other a Set of fuch as are volatile, odorous, fapid, cau- 
ftick, aperitive, and procured by Art. 

Hence, adds the fame Author, mere Eftervefcence with 
Acids, mill be allow'd to be of it felf infufficient to detet- 
mine the Nature o{ an Alkaly: and that fuch a Name, which 
properly denotes a cauftick fiery Subftance, ihould not be 
affixed to any mild and gentle Body, as Chalk, ci?c. but 
other Properties and Confiderations are to be taken in 
a and particularly their Tafte, manner of procuring, and the 
t Change of Colour they produce in Bodies. 

With regard to this lafl Circumflance, thofe Liquors which 
being pour'd on Syrup of Violets, change it of a green Co- 
lour, are Alkalies ; as thofe which turn it red, Acids.— Thus 
Oil of Tartar turns it of a kindly green ; and Oil of Vittiol 
of a Carmine red : And if to the Syrup thus made red by 
Oil of Vitriol, Oil of Tartar be pour'd, it turns that part 
wherewith it comes in contafl, green ; leaving the reft red • 
and the like holds of Oil of Vitriol, pour'd on Syrup made 
green by Oil of Tartar. ' V 

To the like effefl M. Homherg obferves, that ' a mere heat 
' and bubbling arifing upon the Admixtute of a Body with 
' an Acid, docs not feem an adequate Criterion of the Alka- 
' line Nature ; fince diflill'd Oils of all kinds are found to do 
' thus much ; and many of 'em with more vehemence than 
* -A'foztothemfelves, foasfometim.es even to take fire, which 
c Alkalies never do.' 

To the Definition and Charafler of an Alkaly therefore, 
M. Hemherg adds this Circumflance ; ' rhat after the Aftion, 
' the Mixtures coalefce and flioot into a Salt, or faiine Mat- 
ter.'— This excludes the Oils above mention'd ; which do 



or twice with the pretended Jikabeji ; and if the Liquor not, after Eflertefcence, unite" with the Adds "into^a'fH 
be genuine, the Body will be converted into its own Qaan- Subflance, but rather compofe a refinous one 
tity of Salt _, All lixivious Salts have thefeCharaaersof^&a/y.— And 
A- 'a J A T f fir °> r| the f = m ' nal \ lrlues °/* e B °- ™t only lixivious, but alfo all urinous Salts ; which ate con- 
dies diffolved therebv-rhus, Gold is, by us Action, re- flantly found to imbibe Acids with great eagernefs, and af- 
duced to a Salt ot Gold ; Antimony to a Salt ot Antimony ; ter Ebullition, to unite and cryftallize with 'em. " 
Saftron to a Salt of Saffron, i$c. of the fame feminal Vir- nods Salt. 



tues, or Charaflers with the original Concrete. — By feminal 
Virtues, Helmont underflands thofe Virtues which depend 
upon the Conttruaion or Mechanifm of a Body, and which 
make it what it is. Hence, an aflual and genuine Aurum 
fotabile might readily be gained by the Alkahejl, as con- 
verting the whole Body of Gold into a Salt, retaining its 
feminal Virtues, and being withal foluble in Water. 

5°, Whatever it diffolves, may be render'd volatile by a 
Sand-heat ; and if after volatilizing the Solvend, it be dif- 
till'd therefrom, the Body is left pure infipid Water equal 

in quantity to its °«»nal felf but deprived of its feminal have their peculiar and appropriate'lcids't'o "al 
V,rtue,-Thus, if GoU be diffo ved by the 40, fbejl, the Gold, Tin/and Antimon^ which on? diffoht 



Metal firft becomes Salt, which is potable Gold" ■ but 
when the Menftruum is diftilled therefrom, 'tis left mere 
Elementary Water, Whence it appears, that pure Water is 
the lafl Production or Effea of the Alkahejl. 

4°, It fuffers no Change or Diminution of Force by dif- 



Sec Uri- 

Hence we have two Kinds of Alkaly Salts, viz. Fix'd, 
or Lixmmis Alkalies ; and Volatile, or Urinous ones. See 
Salt ; fee alio Fix'd, Volatile, i$c. 

But befide Alkaly Salts, there are an Infinity of other 
Bodies, not falme ; which anlwer to the CharaBers of Al- 
kaly, l. e. produce much the fame Effefls with Acids, 

as the Alkaly Salts above mention'd. And thefe alkaline 

Matters arc in other refpefts of different Natures. 

Some, e.g. are merely Earthy ; as Quick-lime, Marble, 
Seal d Earths, (gc.~ Others are Metalline ; among which, fome 

on 'em, as 
y, which only diffolve with . 



Aqua 



Regia; Sliver, Lead, and Mercury, with Aqua fords ; a'nd 
the others with otr.er forts of Acids, as Iron, Copper, Zink, 

Bilmuth, e?c. There are others of the Animal Clafs ; 

confiding, 1% Of ftony Matters found in the Vifcera 
. ot certain Species ; as the Calculus humamis Be7oards, 
folving the Bodies it works on, and therefore fuflains no Crabs Eves ' ftc -^— ,° T*l 11 ' f ci 11, 

Reactionfromthem.beingtheonlyimmutableMenitruum .TO^Ic^W^i 
ln - *""■ Coats of Lobfters, Crabs, £i?c— 3 », The Parts of Animals, 

which 



ALK 



C*3) 



which by length of time, or fome other Caufe, are become 

flony, or even earthy ; as the folTil Unicorn's Horn, C?c. 

Laftly, almoft all Stone Marine Plants, as Coral &c. 

After all, the Alkaline Property does not appear to be na- 
tive, but rather producible by Art. — This Opinion feems 
to have been firft flatted by Helmont : before him, it was 
the flanding Opinion, that Fix'd Alkalies pre-ex'ifted in 
mix'd Bodies ; and were only feparated or extricated from 
the Parts of the Compound. Helmont advanced, that they 
did not thus pre-exift in their alkaline Form, but were Pro- 
duflions of the Fire, by whofe violenr Aflion, part of the 
Salt which in the Concrete is all volatile, lays hold of fome 
part of the Sulphur of the fame Body ; and both melting 
together, are fixed into an Alkaly : which Fixation he ex- 
emplifies, by what happens when Salt-petre and Arfenick, 
tho both volatile, being expofed to the Fire, are flux'd by 
the Operation thereof, and made to fix each other. 

Some late Chymifts, and particularly M. Geoffrey, carry 
the Point fomething further, and affert, that all Alkaly 
Salts whatever, both Fix'd and Volatile, are wholly the Ef- 
fea of Fire ; in that before any Aflion of the Fire, they 
did not pre-exift in the Mixt wherein they afterwards ap- 
pear'd. See Fire. 

Notwithflanding all the feeming Oppofition and Hoftility 
between Acids and Alkalies, they may be converted into one 
another ; at leaft, Acids are convertible into Alkalies ■ as is 
Ihewn at large by M. Geoffrey in a Difcourfe exprefs, in the 
Mem. de I' Acad. An. 1717, where the Nature and Origin 
of Alkalies is excellently explain'd. 

Alkaly Salts, according to this Author, are only Acids 
concentrated in little Molecules of Earth, and united with 
certain Particles of Oil, by means of Fire. 

When an Add, which we conceive in the general as a 
final!, folid, pointed Spiculum, happens to be abfotb'd or 
concentrated in a proper Portion of Earth ; the whole be- 
comes denominated a Saline, Compound, Neutral, or Inter- 
mediate Salt 3 by reafon the Acid, thus inclofed in a Sheath, 
cannot excite the fame Savour as when difengag'd there- 
from ; and yet excites a faline Tafte : and for this reafon is 
compound, S3c. 

Now, Fire is the only Agent capable of difengaging the 
Acid, from the Earth it is thus invefted withal. Upon this, 
the Acid being lighter than the Earth, rifes, and evaporates ; 
leaving the Earth at the bottom of the Veffel ; which for 
this Reafon is called Fix'd, in contradiftindlion to the Acid, 
which is Volatile. This Earth, thus bereav'd of its Acid, is 
Jeft with its Pores open and empty, which before were 
fiU'd ; and withal, in iiiftaining the Aflion of Fire, it necef- 
farily retains fome of the Particles thereof, which give it 
an acrimonious Tafte, that mere Earth could never have. — ■ 
From this Tafle it is called Salt ; and from its Pores being 
open, and thus difpofed to admit and imbibe new Acids, it 
is called Alkaly Salt. See Earth, Salt, gfc. 

Now, it is not to be imagin'd, that an Earth which has 
once been impregnated with Acids, can ever be perfeftly di- 
verted thereof; there will flill remain fome, tho much lefs 
than before. So that an Alkaly may be conceived as only a 
too fmall Quantity of Acid, inclofed in too large a Quantity 
of Earth. 

The vifible and fenfible Fire is not the only Agent capa- 
ble of feparating Acids from their Earth ; Fermentation has 
the fame Efteci, in virtue of that pure active Fire produced 
or concern'd therein. Alkalies, therefore, are the Produc- 
tion, either of the one, or the other Fire ; and the fame 
may be faid of the Acids difengag'd therefrom ; it being 
the Dif-union of the Parts of the fame Salt occafion'd by 
Fire, that yielded both the Acids as well as the Alkalies. 
All the Difference is, that the Alkaly imbibes and retains 
certain Corpufcles of the Fire, whereas nothing foreign is 
fuperadded to the Acid. 

On this Principle every Acid is volatile, and every Alkaly 
JTiould be fix'd, if the Alkaly were only Earth : But, in re- 
gard the little Acid ftill remaining in the Alkaly, may be 
united with a Portion of Oil, as well as a Pottion'of Earth ; 
and Oil is known to be volatile ; the Compound, that is, 
the Alkaly, muft be volatile, in cafe the Oil prevail therein. 
In this Cafe, the Alkaly is found to have a ftrong, pene- 
trating, urinous Tafte and Smell ; and is what we call a Vo- 
latile urinous Alkaly Salt. 

Thefe things well confider'd ; it will be eafy to affign „ 
what muft enfue upon the Separations, or new Unions of per Camp, 
the Parts of a Mixt. j t raav 

An Acid, 'tis evident, may become an Alkaly, in that after 
having been feparated from its Matrix, it may be reftored in a 
fmall Quantity to another Matrix, either wholly earthy or 
earthy and oleaginous. — In the firft Cafe, it will become a 
Fix'd Alkaly ; in the fecond, it may be, a Volatile Alkaly, 
if in the fuppofed Matrix the Proportion of Oil prevail over 
that of Earth ; and in this Cafe it will be urinous. 

Again, what before was a fix'd Alkaly, may become Vo- 
latile and Urinous, by depofiting or letting go part of its 
Earth, and taking Oil in its flead. 



ALK 



Thefe Tranfmutations are not found equally eafy and 
praflicable in the three different Kinds of Mixts or the 
three Kingdoms ; by reafon of the Diverfity of Circumftan- 
ces that muft concur thereto.— They are much the moll rare 
and difficult in the Mineral Realm ; by reafon, no doubt 
that the Parts of Minerals are more clofely ty'd together and 
have, as it were, lefs play. The only inftance B Chymiflry 
hath hitherto produced, of a Mineral Acid's being converted 
into a Fix'd Alkaly, is in the Operation of fixing Saltpetre. 

The Vegetable Kingdom, it is obferv'd, furmiTies a large 
Quantity of fix'd Alkaly Salt ; and a little volatile Alkaly : 
The Animal Kingdom, on the contrary, affords a deal of 
volatile Alkaly Salt, and but little fix'd. The Foflil King- 
dom affords a very little native fix'd Alkaly Salt, as the 
Egyptian Natrum, and the Salts procured by Lotion from 
faline Earth about Smyrna and fome other Places of the 
Eafl ; and the Chymifts have alfo found a Method of con- 
verting Nitre into a fix'd Alkaly : But no body hath hitherto 
produced a volatile Alkaly from rhe Acids of the Mineral 
Kingdom.— And yet, if Acid Salts of the Vegetable Kind 
be convertible either into fixed or volatile Alkalies, why may 
not Mineral Acids be fufceptible of the fame Change ? 
fince Vegetable Acids are originally no other than Mineral 
ones : For, from whence but the Earth jhould Plants derive 
their acid Juice ? 

In effefl, M. Geoffroy has at length fliewn the Operation 
feafable, by an actual Transformation of the fame Acid, 
Nitre, into a volatile urinous Alkaly. See the Mem. de 
(Acad, ubi fupra. See alfo Salt-petre, f$c. 

By the way, it is to be noted, that the Inttance of Egyp- 
tian Natrum or Nitre, furnishes an Objection againft'the 
general Affertion of all Alkalies being artificial, or°produccd 
by Fire : Mr. "Boyle, who had fome of this Salt lent him 
by the EngliJJj Ambaffador at the Tone ; found that 
Vinegar would work brilkly on it, even in the Cold 5 
" Whence, fays he, it appears, that the T' jptian Nitre, 
" acknowledged to be a native Salt, and mad? 'only by the 
" Evaporation of the fuperfluous Water of the Nile, is yet 
" of a lixivious Nature, or at leaft abounds with Particles 
" that are fo, tho produced without any precedent Incinera- 
" tion, and the Matter of it expofed to no Violence of the 
" Fire, to make it afford an Alkaly." Troducib. of Cbym. 

frivcip. He adds, " However, he does not know any 

" other Body in Nature, except this, wherein the Alkaline 
" Properties are not produced." Ibid.— And proceeds to 
give Inftances of Alkalies being made from Sea Salt, and 
other Acids ; and fticws, " how the fame Body, without 
" the Addition of any other Salt, may by varying the man- 
" net of the File's Application, be made cither to afford 
" little elfe than Acids, or a greater 
" kaly." Id. ibid. 

For the Theory of the Operation of Acids upon Alkalies. 
See Acid. 



1 greater or lefs Quantity of Al- 



Hypothefis of Alkaly and Acid. 

Tachenius, and Sylvius de la Soe, fbllow'd by the Tribe 
of vulgar Chymifts, ftrenuouliy affcrt Sal Alkaly and Acid 
to be the only univerfal Principles of all Bodies ; and by 
means heteof, account for the Qualities of Bodies, and the 
reft of the Phenomena of Nature ; particularly thole in the 
Animal Occonomy.— In a word, Alkaly and Acid are fubfti- 
tuted in the Head of Matter, and Motion. See Princi- 
ple, Element, ££c. 

Mr. Soyle attacks this Hypothefis with great force of Ar- 
gument. — In effect, 'tis at bell but precarious to affirm, that 
Acid and Alkaline Parts are found in all Bodies. 

When the Chymifts fee Aqua fortis diffolve Filings of Cop- 
per, they conclude, that the acid Spirits of the Menftruum 
meet in the Metal with an Alkaly, upon which they work 5 
but how unfafe a way of arguing this is, appears hence, that 
Spirit of Urine, which is allowed a volatile Alkaly, and ac- 
cordingly makes a great Conflia with Aqua fortis, readily 
diffolves Filings of Copper, and more genuinely than the 
acid Liquor. — So, when they fee the Magiftery of Pearl or 
Coral, prepared by dropping Oil of Tartar into the Solu- 
tion of thofe Bodies made with Spirit of Vinegar ; they af- 
cribe the Precipitation to the fixed Alkaly of the Tartar, 
which mortifies the Acidity of the Spirit of Vinegar: where- 
as, the Precipitation would no lefs enfue, if, inftead of the 
alkalizate Oil of Tartar, that ftrong Acid, Oil of Sulphur 
ipanam, were ufed. 

y alfo be doubted, whether it be juft to fuppofe, 
that when an Acid is difcover'd in a Body, the Operation 
of that Body on another, abounding with an Alkaly, muft 
be the Effe£c of a Conflia between thofe two Principles.*** 
For, an acid Body may do many things, not limply as an 
Acid, but on account of a Texture or Modification, which 
endows it with other Qualities as well as Acidity. Thus 
when the Chymifts fee an acid Menftruum, as Aqua fortis. 
Spirit of Salt, Oil of Vitriol, i$c. diffolve Iron, they ptefent- 
ly afcribe the Effea to an Acidity in the Liquors ; tho well 
dephlegmed urinous Spirits, which they hold to have a ■? eas 

Ami. 



A L K 



ALL 



tipathy to Acids, will readily diffolve crude Iron even in 
the Cold. . ,. ., 

Further, the Patrons of this Hypotheiis, feem arbitrarily 
to have affigned Offices to each of their two Principles.as the 
Chymifts do to each of their trie, prima ; and the Peripa- 
teticks to each of their four Elements.— But tis not 
enough to fay, that an Acid, for inftance, performs theie 
things, and an Alkaly thofe ; and that they div.de the Ope- 
Phainoinena of natural Bodies between them ■ 



(«4 ) 

dity in the Mouth ; the latter having a faccharine Sweet- 
nefs, and the former an extreme Bitternefs. And even in 
Vegetable Subftances of a manifeft Tafte, 'tis not eafy to 
know by that, whether it be the Acid or the Alkaline 
Principle which predominates in 'em : As, in the effential 
Oils of Spices, and the grot's empyreumatical Oils of Wood - 
and even in Alcohol of Wine, which fome contend to be an 
Acid,andothers,an^fai/r. ImperfeS.ofCbym. DcR.oft%u a i 
ALKALIZATE, or Alkaline Bodies, among (Jhy- 



fether Proof, indeed, the fery Distribution of Sahs into the, , are & , to . b 



Acids and Alkalies, has fomewhat arbitrary in it ; there be- 
ing not only feveral things wherein the Acids agree with 
Jkalies, bur alfo feveral things wherein each differs rom 
it felfi— To fay nothing of the Diverfity of fix d and volatile 
Alkates ahovemention'd ; fome, as Salt of Tartar, will 
precipitate the Solution of Sublimate into an Orange-taw- 
ny • others, as Spirit of Blood and Hartftiorn, precipitate 
fuch a Solution into a milky Subftance ; and Oil of Tartar 
very (lowly operates upon Filings of Copper, which Spi- 
rits of Urine and Hartihorn will readily diffolve in the Fire. 
And among Acids themfelves the difference is no lefs ; tor 
fome of them will diffolve Bodies that others will not : and 
this even where the Menftruum that will not diffolve the 
Body, is reputed much fironger than that which does ; as 
dephlegmated Spirit of Vinegar will diffolve Lead reduced 
to minute Parts in the cold, which is an Effect that Chy- 
inifls expect not from Spirit of Salt. Nay, one Acid will 
precipitate what another has diffolved, and i contra ; as, Spi- 
rit of Salt will precipitate Silver out of Spirit of Nitre. 
Add, the Properties peculiar to fome particular Acids, as 
that Spirit of Nitre or Aqua fortis, diffolves Camphire 
into an Oil, and coagulates common Oil into a confident 
Subllance like Tallow ; and tho it will both corrode Silver, 
Copper, Lead, and Mercury, and keep them diffolved, it 
quickly lets fall almoft the whole Body of Tin. 

'Tis no wonder that the Definitions given of Acid and 
Alkaly (hould be inaccurate and fuperficial ; fince the Chy- 
mifts themfelves do not feem to have any determinate No- 
tion of furc Marks, whereby to know them diiiinftly.— For, 
to infer, that, becaufc a Body diffolves another, which is 
diffoluble by this or that known Acid, the Solvent mull alb 
be Acid ; or to conclude, that, if a Body precipitates a dii- 
folved Metal out of a confeffcdly acid Menftruum, the ire- 
cipitant nil be an Alkaly, is precarious : fince Filings of 
Spelter will be diffolved by fome Alkalies, viz. Spirit of Sal 
Ammoniack.^c. as well as bv Acids; and Bodies may be pre- 
cipitated out of acid Menttrua, by other Acids, and by Li- 
quors wherein there appears not the lead Alkaly. Add, 
that a Solution of Tin-glafs, made in Aqua fortis, would 
he precipitated both by Spirit of Salt, and by con ™ on 
Water. — Nor does that other Criterion of Acids and Alka- 
lies, viz. the Heat, Commotion, and Bubbles excited upon 
their being put together, appear more determinate; fince 
almoft any thing fitted varioufly and vehemently to agitate 
the minute Parts of a Body, will produce heat in it.— Thus, 
tho Water be neither an Acid nor an Alkaly, it will quick- 
ly grow very hot, not only with the highly acid Oil ofVi- 
trio", but with the alkalizate Salt of Tartar. See Heat. 

Neither is the Production of Bubbles, tho accompany'd 
with a hiffing Noife, a certain Sign ; fuch Produftion 
not being a neceffary Effect of Heat, excited by Con- 
flict, but depending on the peculiar Difpofition of the Bo- 
dies' put together, to extricate, produce, or intercept Parti- 
cles of Air.— Hence, as Oil of Vitriol, mix'd in a due Pro- 
portion with fair Water, may be brought to make the Wa- 
ter very hot, without exciting Bubbles : fo Mr. "Boyle has 
found, that alkalizate Spirit of Urine, drawn with fome 
kinds of Quick-lime, being mixed with Oil of Vitriol 
moderately flrong, would afford an intenfe heat, whillt 
it produced either no manifeft Bubbles at all, or fcarce 
any ; tho the urinous Spirit was ftrong, and in other Trials 
operated like an Alkaly : and tho with the Spirit of Urine 
made per fe, in the common way, Oil of Vitriol will pro- 
duce a great hiffing, and a multitude of confpicuous Bubbles. 
On the other fide, fome acid Spirirs, as of Verdegreafe, 
made pure, poured on Salt of Tarrar, will frequently make 
a Conflict, and produce a large froth ; tho not accompany'd 
with any manifeft heat. Sec Ebullition. 

Many make the Tafte the Touchftone whereby to try 
Acids and Alkalies : But there is a multitude of Bodies, 
wherein we can fo little dilcern by the Tafte which of the 
Principles is predominant, that one would not fufpect there 
was a Grain of either of them therein : Such are Dia- 
monds, moll Gems, and many ignobler Stones ; Gold, Sil- 
ver, Mercury, ££*c There are alfo Bodies abounding with 
acid or alkalizate Salts ; which either have no Tafte, or a 
quite different one from that of the chymical Principles.— 
Thus, tho Venice-glafs be in great part compofed of a fix'd 
Alkaly, it is infipid on the Palate : And Cryflals of Silver 
and Lead, made with Aqua fortis, and containing numerous 
acid Particles of the Menftruum, manifeft nothing of Aci- 



pierced, and put into Motion by the 
Points of an Acid poured upon them. See Alkaly. 

ALKEKENGI, a Medicinal Fruit, produced by a Plant 
of the fame Denomination, and popularly called Winter- 
Cherry. 

The Plant bears a near refemblance to Solanum or Kight. 
fhade ; whence it is frequently called in Latin by that 

Name, with the Addition or Epithet of Veficarinm It ; s 

fometimes alfo called Halicacabum. 

The Fruit is celebrated for its lithontriptic Quality; and 
prefcribed to cleanfe the Urinary Paffages of Gravel, and 
other Obftruclions. Its deterfive Quality alfo recommends 
it againft the Jaundice, and other Diforders of the Vifcera. 

The Trocbifibi Alkekengi, prepared from it, are but lit- 
tle prefcrib'd in the modern Practice. See Troche. 

ALKERMES, in Medicine, iSc. a Term borrow'd from 
the Arabs.— The Confection of Alkermes, is a celebrated 
Remedy, of the Form and Confidence of a Confection ; 
whereof the Kermes Berries are the Bafis. See Confec- 
tion, and Kermes. 

The other Ingredients, as prefcribed by the College, are 
Pippin-Cyder, Rofe-Water, Sugar, Ambergreafe, Mufk, 
Cinnamon, Aloes Wood, Pearls, and Leaf Gold. — But the 
Sweets ate ufually omitted. 

It is much ufed as a Cordial ; efpecially, fays Dr. §>uiMy, 
among Female Prefcribers, and in complaifance to them : 
But that Author decries its Value in that Intention, and 
thinks it ought only to be regarded as a Sweetner. 

ALLANTOIS, Allanyoipes, in Anatomy, a third 
Coat or Membrane of a Fcetus, invefling part thereof, in 
manner of a Scarf, or Collar, extending from the Cartilega 
Xiphoides, to the bottom of the Hips. See Foetus. 

The Allantois makes part of the Secundine. — It is con- 
ceived as an urinary Tunic, placed between the Amnion and 
Chorion, which by the Navel and Urachus receives the U- 
rine that comes out of the Bladder. See Secundine, and 
Urine. 

'Tis a Point controverted among Anatomifls, whether the 
Allantois be found in Man. — M. (Drelincourt, Profeffor of 
Anatomy at Leiden, in an exprefs Differtation on this Mem- 
brane, maintains ir peculiar to the Ruminating Kind. See 
Ruminant. 

Dr. Hale, on the contrary, has given an accurate Defcrip- 
tion of the human Allantois ; and affign'd the Reafon why 
thofe who believed its Exiftence had not before fully found 
it out ; and alfo an anfwer ro thofe who yet deny its reality. 
See "Pbiloftpb. Tranfetl. N° 271. 

The Word is derived from aAAaV, Farcimen, a Gut, and 
lijln, Forma, Shape ; becaufe, in many Brutes, it is in the 
Shape of a Gut- pudding : but in Man, and fome others, it 
is round. — It is likewife called Farciminalis. 

ALLEGATION, the Citation, or Quotation of an Au- 
thority, Book.Paffage, £?c to make good any Point.or Affer- 
tion. See Quotation, Citation, Authority, £S?c. 

ALLEGIANCE, the legal Faith and Obedience, which 
every Subject bears to his Prince. See King, Fealty, £J?c. 

This was antiently called Ligence ; from the Latin Li- 
care, and Alligare, to bind, q.d. Ligamenfidei. See Liege. 

Oalb of Allegiance, is an Oath given in England to 
the King, in quality of a Temporal Prince or Sovereign ; 
to diflinguifh it from the Oath given to him as Primate, or 
fupreme Head of the Church, which is called the Oath of 
Supremacy. See Oath ; fee alfo King, and Supremacy. 

In this Senfe, the Word Allegiance comes from the Latin 
ad Legem. — The Quakers arc difpenfed with not taking the 
Oath of Allegiance ; and in lieu thereof are only enjoin'd a 
Declaration. See Declaration. 

ALLEGORY, Allegoria, a Figute in Rhetorick, 
whereby we make ufe of Terms which in their proper Sig- 
nification, mean fomething elfe than what they are here in- 
tended to denote : Or, it is a Figure, whereby we fay one 
thing, expecting it ihall be undcrllood of another, to which 
it alludes. See Figure, Allusion, ££c. 

An Allegory is properly a Series, or Cominuation of Me- 
taphors. See Metaphor. 

Such is that beautiful Allegory in Horace, Lib. J. Od. 14. 

Navis, referent in mare te novi 
FluBus, &c. 
Where the Ship, Hands for the Republick ; Waves, for 
Civil War; "Port for Trace and Concord; Oars for Soldi- 
ers ; Mariners for Magiftrates, ckc. 



ALL 



The Old Teftament is fuppofed by many to be a perpe 
tual Allegory, or typical Reprefentation of the Myfleries of 
the New. See Type. 

In effect, Allegory has a good Share in moll Religions. — 
The feist, we know, abound with 'em : Thilo Judam has 
three' Books, Of the Allegories in the Hiftory of the Six 
Days. See Hexameron. 

Nor are the Heathens without Allegories in their Reli- 
gion : it may even be faid, that the Ufe hereof is of a 
much earlier {landing in the Gentile, than in the j&B&'ifk 
World- — Some of their Philofophcrs undertaking to give a 
Rationale of their Faith, and to flicw the Reafon and 
Scope of their Fables, and the antient Hiltorics of their 
Gods ; found it neceflary to put another ConftrucYion on 
'em, and maintain, that they fignify'd fomething very diffe- 
rent from what they feem'd to exprefs. — And hence came 
the Word Allegory : for a Difcourfe that in its natural Senfe, 
ct^ho dyo&v'ei, iignifies iomething other than what is intended 
by it, makes what we properly call an Allegory. 

This Shift they had recourfe to, in order to prevent Peo- 
ple from being fhock'd wirh thole Abfurdities which the 
Poets had introduced into their Religion ; and to convince 
the World, that the Gods of Greece had not been thofe vile 
Perfons which their Hiftories rcprefented them to be. By 
this means, the Hiftory, as well as the Religion of Greece, 
was at once converted into Allegory; and the World left to 
feek for them both in a Heap of Fables, few of which have 
been folved to any purpofe to this Day. See Mythology. 
The %ws finding the Advantages of this way of explain- 
ing Religion 5 made ufe of it to interpret the Sacred Wri- 
tings, fo as to render 'em more palatable to the Pagans. 

The fame Method was adopted by the primitive Writers 
of Chriftianity. See Allegorical. 

ALLEGORICAL, fomething containing an Allegory. 
See Allegory. 

The Divines find divers Senfcs in Scripture ; a Literal, 
a Myltical, and an Allegorical Senfc. See Mystic, &c. 

The Prophecies, in particular, delivered in the Old Tefla- 
ment, are laid to be many of 'em accomplifh'd in the New - 7 
not in their primarv and literal, but in their fecondary, or 
Allegorical Senfe. See Prophesy. 

The Fathers, and other antient Interpreters of Scripture, 
are almoft all Allegories ; as Origen, Clemens Alexandrians, 
St. Augujlin, Gregory Xfaz>iaaze& t &c. See further under 
the Article Type. 

ALLEGRO, in Mufick, a Word ufed by the Italians to 
denote one of the fix Distinctions of Time. See Time. 

Allegro expreffes a very quick Motion, the quickeH of all 
excepting tPrpjU, 

The ulual fix Distinctions fucceed each other in the follow- 
ing Order, Grave, Adagio, Largo, Vivace, Allegro, andPrefto. 
It is to be obferved, that the Movements of the fame 
Name, as Adagio or Allegro, are fwifter in Triple than in 
Common Time. — The Triple | is ufually Allegro, or Vivace 5 
the Triples ^§, |, §, --J, are moft commonly Allegro. See 
Triple. 

ALLELUJAH. See Hallelujah. 
ALLEMAND, Almain, a kind of grave, folemn Mufick, 
where the Meafure is good, and the Movement flow. See 
Musick, Song, Measure, ££c. 

ALLER Good, in our antient Writers. — The Word Alter 
ferves to make the Exprcflion of fuperlative Signification. 
So, Alter Good is the greater! Good. Sometimes it is wrote 
Alder. 

— - — — 1 ALLERION,or Alerion, in Heraldry,as 

n^Kril (rVt£) I fort of Eaglet, without either Beak, or 
Wi WA Wings. See Eaglet. 

1 The Allerion appears much the fame with 
the Martlet, except that the Wings of the 
former are fhut, and they are reprefented,as 
it were, Paffant 5 whereas the Allerion is 
fpread, and is rcprefented In pale. Add, 
that among our Heralds, the Martlet has a Beak. See 
Martlet. 

The Name is French ; and is faid to have been introduced 
for the Word Eaglet : "Tis added, that the Practice of calling 
JLagltts, Allerions, and of reprcfenting'em fpread, without Feet 
and Beaks, is not above an hundred Years old. Hence, Menage 
derives the Word from Aquilario, a Diminutive of Aquila, 

ALLEU, or Allode, in our ancient Cuftoms. See Al- 
lodial. 

ALLEVIARE, in old Records, to levy or pay an accuf- 
tomed Fine or Compofition. See Levy. 

ALLEVIATION, the Act of alleviating, i. e. of allay- 
ing, or eafing any Grievance : as a Pain, Difeafe, £*?c. See 
Palliating; fee alfo Pain, &g. -The Word is com- 
pounded of ad, and levis, Light. 

ALLEY, in Gardening, a (trait parallel Walk, border'd 
or bounded on each hand with Trees, Shrubs, or the like. 
See Garden, Walk, Edging, %$c. 

Alleys are ufually laid either with Grafs or Gravel, See 

GRASS-W^f/fe, and GRAVEL-J%/fc. 

An Alley is diftinguifh'd from a Tatb, in this ; that in an 



C«iO 



ALL 




Alley there muft always be room enough for two Perfons. it 
leaft, to walk a-breall : So that it mutt never be lefs than 
five Feet in breadth ; and there are feme who hold that it 
ought never to have more than fifteen. 

Counter-Alleys, are the little Allies by the Sides of the 
great ones.— A From- Alley, is that which runs {trait in the 
Face of a Building.— A Tranfvsrfe Alley, that which cuts 
the former at right Angles.— A Diagonal-Alley, that which 
cuts a Square, Thicket, Parterre, (£c. from Angle to Annie. 
—A Sloping- Alley, is that which either by reafon of The 
Lownefs of the Point of Sight, or of the Ground, is neither 
parallel to the Front, nor to the Tranfverfe Alleys. 

An Alky in Ziiczac, is that which has too great a Defcent, 
and which, on that account, is liable to be damaged by 
Floods ; to prevent the ill Effects whereof, it has Plat- 
bands of Turf running acrofs it from Space to Space, which 
help to keep up the Gravel. This I aft Name is likewifo 
given to an Alley in a Labyrinth, or Wildernefs, form'd by 
feveral returns of Angles, in order to render it the more fo- 
litary and obfeure, and to hide its Iffue. 

Alley in Terfietlive, is that which is larger at the En- 
trance than at the Iffue 5 to give it a greater Appearance of 
length. 

Alley of Compartiment, is that which feparates the 
Squares of a Parterre. 

The Word Alley is derived from the French Verb Alter, 
to go ; the ordinary ufe of an Alley being for a Walk, Paf- 
fage, or Thorow-fare from one Place to another. 

ALLIANCE, the Union or Connection of two Perfons, 
or two Families, by means of Marriage; called &l(o Affi- 
nity. See Marriage, and Affinity. 

The Law of the Twelve Tables forbids all Alliance be- 
tween Perfons of unequal Rank and Condition.— And in 
'Portugal, we are told, the Daughters of the Nobility are 
prohibited to ally with fuch as have never been in the Wars. 
The Word is form'd of the Latin ad ligatio, q. d. a tying 
together. 

Alliance is alfo extended to the Leagues, or Treaties of 
Peace concluded between fovereign Princes and States, for 
their mutual Safety and Defence. SeeTREATY,LEAGuE,!2?<;. 
The Triple Alliance between England, Holland, and Sice- 
den, is famous.' — So is the Qjiadnple Alliance, between 
England, Holland, the Emperor, and King of France. 

In this Senfe, we fay, Allies, for Confederates : The 
King and his Allies ; the Allies of the Treaty of Hanover, 
&c. See Confederate. 

ALLIGATION, in Arithmetick, a Rule or Operation, 
whereby Queftions are refolved, relating to the Mixture of 
divers Commodities or Ingredients together, with the Value, 
Effect, igc. thereof. See Rule, Mixture, &c. 

The Word is form'd of the Latin Alligare, to tie toge- 
ther ; byre.fon, perhaps, of a fort of Vincuta, or circular 
Ligatures, ordinarily ufed to connect the feveral Numbers 
together. 
Alligation is of two Kinds, Medial and Alternate. 
Alligation Medial, is when from the feveral Quanti- 
ties and Rates of divers Simples given, we difcover the 
mean Rate of a Mixture compounded out of 'em. 

The feveral Cafes hereof, will come under the following 
Rules. 

The Quantity of the Ingredients, and the Trices of each 
being given 5 to find the Trice or Value offome part of the 

Mixture. Multiply the Ingredients feverally by their own 

Prices, and divide the Sum of thofe Products by the Sum of 
the Ingredients ; the Quotient anfwers the Queftion. 

'the Trices of the feveral Ingredients, and the Sum paid 
or received for the Mixture being given ; to find what 

quantity of each was bought or fold. Divide the Sum 

paid or received, by the Sum of the particular Prices ; the 
Quotient is the Anfwer. 

The Ingredients of a Mixture being given, to augment 
or diminijb the Mixture proportionally. — Sum up the Ingre- 
dients ; then fay, As that Sum is to the Augmentation or Di- 
minution, fo is the Quantity of each Parcel of the Mixture, 
to the Quantity of the Mixture defired. 

The Nature, Quality, &c. of the feveral Ingredients of a 
Mixture being given, to find the Temperament or Degree of 
Finenefs refuting from the IVhde.—Vtece the feveral Quan- 
tities of the Mixture in Rows ; againft which place orderly 
their feveral Qualities of Finenefs ; and multiply each Quan- 
tity by its own Quality or Degree of Finenefs: then, as the 
Sum of the Quantities is to their Products, fo is Unity, to 
the Quality or Finenefs of the Mixture. 

The Quantities of a Mixture being given ; to find the 
particular Quantities of any Ingredient in any part of tie 
Mixture.— — -'If the Mixture be of only rwo Things, fay, As 
the Total of the Ingredients in the Compofition, is to the 
Part of the Mixture propofed ; fo is the Quantity of the 
Ingredient propofed in the whole Compofition, to the Quan- 
tity of the Ingredient in the Part defired. — If the Mixture 
confift of more Ingredients, repeat the Work for each. 

Given the Total of a Mixture, with the whole Value, and 

the Values of the feveral Ingredients ; to find the feveral 

S Qjian- 



? 



ALL 



(66) 



ALL 



Quantities mixed, tbo unequally. Multiply the Total of 

the Mixture by the leaft Value, fubtraet the ProduS from 
the total Value ; and the Remainder is the firft Dividend : 
Then take the faid leaft Value from the grcateft valued 
Ingredient, and the Remainder is the firft Divifor. The 
Quotient of this Divifion fhevvs the Quantity of the high- 
eft-pric'd Ingredient, and the other is the Complement to 
the Whole. And when more Ingredients than two are in the 
Compofition, the Divifors are the fevers! Remains of the 
leaft Value, taken from the other : The Dividends are the 
Remains left upon the Divifions, till none remain there ; 
which will be one fhort of the Number of Ingredients : 
and this defective Ingredient is to be fupplied as a Comple- 
ment ; and in Divifion, no more muft be taken in every 
Quotient, than that there may remain enough for the other 
Divifors ; and the laft to leave nothing remaining. See Di- 
vision. . 

Alligation Alternate, is when the Rates or Qualities 
of divers Simples are given ; and the Quantity of each is 
required neceffary to make a Mixture of the given Rate or 
Quality. 

Alligation Alternate, mews the due Proportion of feveral 
Ingredients ; and counter-changes the Places of fuch Excef- 
fes or Differences as arife between the mean Price and the 
Extremes ; afcribirig that to the greater Extreme, which pro 
ceeds from the letter ; and contrarily. 

The Rules which obtain in Alligation Alternate, are as 
follow. 

Every greater Extreme to be linked with one leffer. 

If either of the Extremes be fingle, and the other Ex- 
tremes plural ; the fingle Extreme to be linked to all the 
reft. 

If both greater and leffer Extremes be not plural, they 
may be linked fo diverfly, that feveral Differences may be 
taken, and a Variety of Anfwers be made to the Queftion, 
yet all true : But if one of the Extremes be fingle, there 
can be but one Anfwer. 

The Numbers being linked, take the Difference of each 
from the mean or common Price ; and place this difference 
againft the Number it is linked to, alternately. 

Every Number linked with more than one, muft have 
all the Differences of the Numbers it is linked to, fet 
againft it. 

Thofe Differences refolve the Queftion, when the Price of 
every of the Ingredients is given without their Quantities ; 
and the Demand is to mix them fo as to fell a certain 
Quantity at a mean Rate. 

But when the Quantity of one, with the Price of all the 
Ingredients is given ; and the Demand is to know the 
Quantities of the other Ingredients ; then, the Rule of 
Three is to be ufed. 

And when the Price of every Ingredient is given, without 
any of their Quantities, and the Demand is to make up 
a certain Quantity to be fold at a mean Rate ; then all the 
Differences added together will be the firft Number in the 
Rule of Three ; the whole Quantity to be mixed the fe- 
cond Number ; and each Difference apart the feveral third 
Numbers : And fo many Sorts mixed, fo many Operations 
of the Rule of Three. See Rule of Three. 

We fhall add an Example, wherein both the Kinds of 

Alligation have place. Suppofe a Mixture of Wine of 

119 Quarts, required to be made of Wines of the following 
Prices 7 d. 8 d. i$d. and I'jd. per Quart ; and fo, as that 
the Whole may be afforded at izd. per Quart. 

Having linked 8 to 14, and 7 to I 5, and counterchang'd 
their Difference from the common Price, 12 d. the Sum of 
their Difference is found to be 14 ; by which dividing 119, 
the Quotient is 8f 4 -, or 8;, or for conveniency in Opera- 
tion, *f. 

Quarts. 
8?» ^4-;==-J = I7 

14S3 -i.J+4= 6 !-=34 

7?4 -tJ-f-3 = ! T=*5r 

15S 5 i i+5 = 't = 4*i 



ALLIOTH, in Aftronomy, a Star in the Tail of the 
Great Bear, whofe Obfervarion is much ufed at Sea. See 
Star. 

Its Longitude, Latitude, &c. fee among the reft of Ur- 
sa Major- 
To find the Latitude, or Elevation of the 'Pole by this 
Star. See Latitude, and Pole. 

ALLOCATION, Allocatio, the admitting, or allow- 
in" of an Article in an Account ; and palling it as fuch. 
See Account. 

The Word is form'd of the Latin Alloco. 

Allocation is alfo an Allowance made upon an Ac- 
count ; ufed in the Exchequer. See Allocatione. 

ALLOCATIONE Facienda, a Writ direfted to the 
LordTrcafurer and Barons of the Exchequer, upon the Com- 



plaint of fome Accountant ; commanding them to allow 
him fuch Sums as he hath in execution of his Office lawful- 
ly expended. 

ALLODIAL, Allodian, in antient Cuftoms.. Terra 

Allodia, or Allodial Land, is that whereof a Perfon 
has the abfolute Property ; or which he holds without pay- 
ing any Service or Acknowledgment to any Superior Lord. 
See Property, $$c. 

Such an Inheritance is Allodial, i. e. not fubjecf to any 
Charge, Service, t£e. See Free Land. 

In this Senfe, Allodial ftands oppofed to Feudal, or Bene- 
ficiary. See Fee, Benefice, &c. — See alfo Allodium. 

ALLODIUM, Allode, Allodus, or Alleud, Land 
held of a Man's own Right. — Bollandus explains Allodium 
to be c Prt£diu?n, feu qtidevis poffefjh libera jurifque proprii 
& non in Fcudam Clientelari onere aceepta. See Allodial. 

After the Conqueft of the Gauls, the Lands were divided 
in two manners, viz. into Benefices, Beneficia 5 and Allodia. 

Benefices, coniifted in Lands given by the King to his 
Officers and Soldiers ; either for Life, or for a Time fixed. 
See Benefice. 

Allodes, or Attends, were fuch Lands as were left in Pro- 
perty to the antient Poffeffors. — The 6zd Title of the Salic 
Law, is, 2)c Aliodis ; where the Word fignifies Hereditary 
Lands, or thofe derived from a Man's Anceftors. Whence, 
Allodittm and 'Patrimcnium are frequently ufed indifcrimi- 
nately. Sec Patrimony. 

In the antient Capitulars of Charlemaign and his Succef- 
fors, we find Allode conftantly oppofed to Fee 5 but, toward 
the Period of the fecond Race of Kings, it loft the Prero- 
gative 5 the Feudal Lords obliging the Proprietors of Allo- 
dial Lands to hold of them for the future. The fame 
Change alfo happened in Germany, &c. See Tenure. 

The Ufurpation of tke Feudal Lords over the Allodial 
Lands, went fo far, that they were almoft all either fubjecV 
ed to 'em, or converted into Fees : Whence the Maxim, 
Nulla Terra fine %)omino, No Land without a Lord. 

The Origin of the Word is infinitely controverted. CaJJi- 
neuve fays, it is almoft as obfeure as the Head of the Nile. 
Few of the European Languages, but one Etymologift or 
other has derived it from. 

ALLONGE, in Fencing, a Thruft, or Pafs at the Ene- 
my. See Pass, Guard, 0£c. 

The Word is French, form'd of the Verb Allonger, to 
lengthen out a thing by piecing another to it. 

ALLOTTING, or Allotment of Goods, in Matters of 
Commerce, is when a Ship's Cargo is divided into feveral 
Parts, to be bought by divers Perfons, whofe Names are 
wrote on as many Pieces of Paper, which are apply'd by 
an indifferent Perfon to the feveral Lots or Parcels ; by 
which means, the Goods are divided without Partiality ; 
every Man having the Parcel which the Lot with his Name 
on, is appropriated to. 

ALLOT, or Allay, in Matters of Coinage, ?3c. a Pro- 
portion of a bafer Metal, mingled with a finer, or purer. 
See Metal, Mixture, £J?c. 

Such is the Quantity of Copper mingled with Gold, in the 
Coining of Species of that Metal. See Gold, Money, cifc. 

The Intention of Alloy, is to give the Gold a due hard- 
nefs, that it may not wafte with wearing ; and to increafe its 
Weight, fb as to countervail the Charges of Coinage. See 
Seigneurage. 

Gold that has more of this, than it ought to have ; is faid 
to be of a coarfer or greater Alloy, or below Standard. See 
Standard. 

The Proportion of Alloy for Gold ufed in our Mints, is 
about a 1 2th Part. See Coining. 

The Word feems derived from the French, Loy, Law j 
in regard the Alloy is fix'd by Law. 

ALLUM, or Alum, Alumen, a kind of Mineral Salt, of 
an acid Tafte, leaving in the Mouth a Senfe of Sweetnefs 
accompany'd with a confiderable Degree of Aftringency. 
See Salt. 

The antient Naturalifts allow of two forts of Alluni ; the 
one Native, the other Factitious. — The Natural is found in 
the Ifland of Milo, being a kind of whitifh Stone, very light, 
friable and porous 5 and ftreak'd with Filaments reiembling 
Silver. 

The Facfirious Allum, is prepared in different manners, 
according to the different Materials whereof it is made. 

Allum is of divers Kinds, Red, Roman, Citron, 'Pitt- 
mofe, Saccharine, and •Burnt. The three laft of which, are 
not proper native Allmns. 

England, Italy, and Flanders, are the Countries where 
the Allum is principally produced. — The Engl/fb Allum, "'" 
led alfo Roche-Allum, Allumen Rupemn, is made from a 
bleuifh mineral Stone, frequent in the Hills in Torkfoire and 
Lancafhire. This Stone they calcine on a Hearth or Kiln ; 
then fteep it fucceflively in feveral Pits of Water : then boil 
it for about 24 Hours : Laftly, letting it ftand for about two 
Hours j the Impurities fubfide, and leave a pure Liquor j 
which, removed into a Cooler, and ibme Urine added to it, 

begins, 



ALL 



(67) 



ALM 



begins, in three or four Days, to gather into a Mafs ; which 
being taken out, wafhed, and melted over again, is fit 
for ufe, 

The Mineral Stone, before it is calcined, being expofed 
to the Air, will moulder in pieces, and yield a Liquor 
whereof Copperas may be made $ but being calcined it is fit 
for Allwn. — As long as it continues in the Earth, or in Wa- 
ter, it remains a hard Stone. — Sometimes a Liquor will ifTue 
out of the Side of the Mine, which by the Heat of the Sun 
is turned into a Natural Alhim. 

In the Atlum-Works at Civita Vccchia, theProcefs, as de- 
fcribed by M. Geoffrey, is fomewhat different.— The Stone, 
which is of a ruddy hue, being calcined, they boil and dif- 
folve the Calx in Water 5 which imbibing the Salt, i. e. the 
j#/zMB,feparates it felf from the ufelefs Earth. Laftly, leav- 
ing the Water thus impregnated with Salt to ftand for fome 
Days, it cryftallizcs of it felf, like Tartar about a But, and 
makes what they call Roche or Roman- Allum. 

At Solfatara, near Puzznoli, is a considerable oval Plain, 
the Soil whereof is wholly faline; and fo hot, that the Hand 
cannot long bear it.— From the Surface hereof, in Summer- 
time, there arifes a fort of Flour, or faltifli Duft 5 which 
being fwept up, and caft into Pits of Water at the bottom 
of the Plain ; the Heat of the Ground, without any other 
Fire, evaporates the Water, and leaves an Allum behind. 

Atlum diffolves in Water, and what remains undiffolved 
at bottom, is a fort of Calx, which diffolves readily enough 
in Oil, or Spirit of Vitriol— And hence there arifes fome 
doubt, whether Allum, as it does not leave an Earth be- 
hind, does properly belong to the Clafs of Salts. — Mr. Boyle 
affures us, that Allum Ore robb'd of its Salt, does in tra6t of 
Time recover it again in the Air. See Air. 

The Swedifb Aihtm is made of a Mineral which contains 
a great deal of Sulphur and Vitriol, not to be taken away 
but by Calcination or Diftillation. The Matter remaining in 
the Iron Veflels ufed in feparating the Sulphur from the 
Mineral, being expofed to the Air for fome time, becomes 
a kind of blueifh Afhes, which they lixiviate, cryttallize, and 
convert into Allum. 

The Word Allwn comes from the Greek «M, Salt • or 
perhaps from the Latin Lumen^ Light 3 becaufe it adds a 
Luftre to Colours. 

Allum is of fome ufe in Medicine, in quality of an Ab- 
forbent ; but being apt to excite Vomiting, is not much ufed 
inwardly, and rarely without fome fmooth Aromatick, as a 
Corrector. — Tis ufed outwardly in aftringent Lotions, and is 
an Ingredient in feveral Dentifrices. 

It is a principal Ingredient in Dying and Colouring 5 nei- 
ther of which can be well performed without it. — It ferves 
to bind the Colour upon the Stuffs, and has the fame Ufes 
there, that Gum-water and glutinous Oils have in Painting. 
It likewife difpofes Stuffs to take the Colour, and adds a 
degree of Brifkneft and Delicacy to it $ as we fee vifibly in 
Cochineal, and the Grain of Scarier. 

The Effects of Alhim feem owing to its ftyptick, or aflrin- 
gent Quality, by which it binds the finer Parts of Colours to- 
gether, and prevents their exhaling. Hence alfo it preferves 
Paper that has been dipp'd in its Water, from finking when 
wrote upon. See Colour, Dying, ££?c. 

Saccharine Allum, bears a near refemblance to Sugar. — 
It is a Compofition of common Allum with Rofe-watcr, and 
"Whites of Eggs, boil'd together to theConfiftence of a Pafte, 
and thus moulded at pleafure. As it cools, it grows hard as 
Stone. 

Burnt Allum, Alumen Ufium > is Allum calcined over 
the Fire, and thus render'd whiter, more light, and eafily 
pulveriz'd. 

Plumofe Allum, Alumen c Plumofiffii, is a fort of faline, 
mineral Stone, of various Colours, moft commonly white 
bordering on green j refembling Venetian Talc, except that 
inftead of Scales, it rifes in Threads or Fibres, refembling 
thofe of a Feather $ whence its Name, from (Pluma, Feather. 
Some will have this to be the Lapis Amianthus of the 
Anticnts. Sec Amianthus. 

ALLUMINOR, or Enluminor, or Illuminer, one 
who by Trade coloureth, or paints upon Paper or Parchment. 
See Colour, Painting, $$c. 

ALLUSION, Allusio, inRhetorick, a Figure whereby 
fome thing is applied to, or underftood of, another, by reafon 
of fome Similitude of Name, or Sound. 

Camden defines Allujion a dalliance, or playing with 
Words like in Sound, but unlike in Senfe 5 by changing, 
adding, or fubtracting a Letter, or two ; whence Words re- 
fembling oneanother, become applicable to different Subjects. 
Thus the Almighty, if we may ufe facred Authority, 
chang'd Abram, i. e. high Father, into Abraham, i. e. Father 
of many. — Thus the Romans play'd on their tippling Em- 
peror Tiberius Nero, by calling him Biberius Mero : and 
thus in gumtftian the four Fellow <Placidus, is call'd Acidus. 
Allufiom come very near to what we popularly call 'Puns, 
See Pun. 
The Word is form'd of the Latin ad> and ludere i to play. 



ALLUVION, Alluvio, in the Civil Law, an Acceffion 
or Accretion made along the Sea-fhore, or the Banks of 
large Rivers, by means of Tempcfts or Inundations. See 
Accretion, &c. 

The Civil Law places Alluvion among the lawful means 
of Acquifition ; and defines it to be a latent imperceptible 

Accretion. Hence, where any considerable Portion of 

Ground is torn away at once, by an Inundation 5 and joinM 
to fome neighbouring Eftate ; this is not acquired by riTht 
of Alluvion, but may be claim'd again by the former Pro- 
prietor. 

The Word is form'd of the Latin Adluo, I wafli to ; com- 
pounded of ad, and lavo, I warn. 

ALMACANTARS, Almacantaras, or Almacanta-* 
rats, in Aftronomy. See Almucantars. 

Almacantars Staff. See Almucantars Staff. 
ALMAGEST, the Name of a celebrated Book, compofed 
by 'Ptolemy ; being a Collection of many of the Obferva- 
tions and Problems of the Antients» relating both to Geometry 
and Aftronomy. 

In the Original Greek it was called *$[*%& fffip'sn, q. d> 
Grcatcfl Conjlrntlion, or ColleBion ; Which lalt Word Ms- 
gifle, join'd to the Particle Al, gave occafion to its being cal- 
led Almagcfle by the Arabians, who translated it into their 
Tongue about the Year 800, by Order of Mai won, Caliph 
of Babylon. — The Arabic Word is Almaghcfti. 

Rtcciclus has alfo publifh'd a Reformed Ailronomy, which 
he intitles, after Ptolemy, the New Almagejl ; being a Col- 
lection of anticnt and modern Obfervations in Aftronomy. 
See Astronomical Obfervation. 

ALMANACK, or Ephemeris, a Calendar or Table, 
wherein are fet down the Days, and Feafts of the Year, the 
Courfe of the Moon, ££t. See Calendar, Year, Day, 
Month, Moon, &c. 

The Original of the Word is much controverted among 
Grammarians. — Some derive it from the Arahick Particle 
Al, and Mana, to count. — Others, and among them Scali- 
ger, rather derive it from Al, and fwaxo?, the Courfe of the 
Months: Which is contradicted by Gc//"z/;,who advances ano- 
ther Opinion ; He fays, that throughout the Eafl, 'tis the 
Cuflora for Subjects, at the Beginning of the Year, to make 
Prefents to their Princes ; and among the reft, the Aftrolo- 
gers prefent them with their Ephemerides for the Year en- 
fuing ; whence thofe Ephemerides came to be called Al- 
manha t i. e. Handjels t or New- Years Gifts. See Ephe- 
merides. 

To fay no more, Verjlega?z writes the Name Almon-ac ; 
and makes it of Saxon Original : Our Anceffors, he ob- 
ferves, ufed to carve the Courfes of the Moon of the whole 
Year upon a fquare Stick, or Block of Wood, which they 
called Al-monaght, q. d. Al-moon-beed. 

The modern Almanack anfwers to the Fajli of the antient 
Romans. See Fasti. 

\Tbe Neceffaries for making an Almanack, the Reader 
will find under the Article Calendar. 

Henry III. of France, very prudently decreed by an Or- 
donnance of 1579, that L No Almanack- Maker fliould pre- 
e fume to give Predictions relating to Civil Affairs, either 
* of States or private Perfons, in Terms either exprefs or 
' covert.' See Astrology. 

In the Philofiph. ColleB. we have a perpetual Almanack^ 
defcribed by Mr. R. Wood. 

ALMANDIN, or Albandin, a Precious Stone, of the 
Ruby Kind 5 fomething lighter and fofter than the Orien- 
tal Ruby : and as to Colour, partaking more of that of th® 
Granat than the Ruby. See Ruby, Granat, &c. 

It is rank'd among the richeft of Stones ; and takes its 
Name from Albana, a City of Carta, whence Pliny fays 
it is brought. See Precious Stone. 

ALMARIA, for Armaria, in our antient Records, ths 
Archives of a Church, or the like. See Archive. 
ALMERY. See Ambry. 
ALMOIN, in Law. See Fr&kk- Almoin. 
ALMOND, Amygdala, a kind of Fruit, inclofed with a 
thick Stone, and under a thin Skin. See Fruit. 

The Almond is the Produce of a pretty tall Tree, refem- 
bling a Feach Tree 5 frequent in Germany, France, and the 
neighbouring Countries 5 as alfo in Barbary, &c. — Its Flow- 
ers are pentapetalous, and ranged in the Rofe manner: The 
Piftil becomes a flefhy Fruit, containing a Seed, which i3 
the Almond and which drops out when the Fruit is arrived 
at Maturity. 

Almonds are chiefly of two Kinds, Sweet and Bitter, 
The Sweet Almonds, Amygdala -Dulces, are of a foftj 
grateful Tafte ; and are reputed cooling, healing, emollient, 
and nutritive : are much prefcribed in Emulfions, and found 
of good etfea in all Diforders from cholerick and acrimoni- 
ous Humours.— The Oil of Sweet Almonds, drawn without 
Fire, is a fafe and ufeful Remedy in nephntick Pains. It is 
alfo of good repute for CoftiveneG and Gripes in Children. 

4 For 



A L M 



(68 ) 



A L N 



Por the manner of procuring the OU, of Sweet Almonds, 
fee the Article Oil. 

Sitter Almonds, AmygdaU Amar<e, are held aperient, 
deterfive, and diuretick ; and on thofe Accounts commend- 
ed in Obftru&ions of the Liver, Spleen, Uterus, S£c— Some 
eileem 'em good to take off the Effects of Drunkcnnefs. 
Accordingly, 'Plutarch relates, that Ttrufush Phyfician, a 
fiout Drinker, took down at every Cup five Sitter Almonds, 
to allay the Heat and Fumes of the Wine. 

The exprefs'd Oil of Sitter Almonds, is much ufed to 
foften and deterge the Wax out of the Ear.— Some affirm, 
that Sitter Almonds bruis'd, kill or ttupify Fowl ; fo that 
they may be taken with the Hands : which, they fay, is a 
Secret praclis'd among the Sohemians : And that the Hufks 
remaining after the Oil is exprefs'd, have the fame Effect. 

The "Word Almond comes from the French Amende ; 
which Menage derives from the Latin Amandala, a Term 
occurring in the Capitulars of Charlemaign : Others rather 
derive it from the Greek dytfy fitter % which iignifies the fame 
thing. 

Almonds give the Denomination to a great Number of 
Preparations in Confe&ionry, Cookery, &c. whereof they 
are the Balis ; as Almond Cakes, Almond Cream, Crifp'd 
Almonds, Almond Milk, Almond Pafte, Almond Snow, Be. 

Almonds of the 7*broat, called alfo Tonfill<e, and impro- 
perly Almonds of the Ears. See Tonsil. 

They are two round Glands, placed on the Sides of the 
Bails of the Tongue, under the common Membrane of the 
Fauces, with which they are covered. See Gland, 
Tongue, $$g. 

Each of 'em has a large oval Sinus, which opens into the 
Fauces ; wherein are contain'd a great Number of leffer 
ones, which difcharge rhro' the great Sinus a mucous and 
flippery Matter into the Fauces, Larynx, and Oefophagus, 
for the moiftening and lubricating of thofe Parts. See La- 
rynx, &c. 

When the Oefophagus Mufcle a£ts, it compreffes the Al- 
monds ; and as they are fubjeel to Inflammation, they fre- 
quently are the Occafion of what the common People call a 
jore "Throat. See Oesophagus, Raocebo, &c. 

Almond, or Alm an- Furnace, is a peculiar kind of Fur- 
nace, ufed in Refining ; to feparate all kinds of Metals from 
Cinders, pans of Melting-Pots, Tefts, Bricks, gjfc. See Fur- 
nace, and Refining. 

The Almond-Furnace, called alfo the S-zveep, is ufually fix 
Foot high, four wide, and two thick ; built of Brick, and 
having a Hole in the middle of the Top, eight Inches over ; 
which grows narrower towards the bottom, where, on the 
Fore-part it ends in a Point, encompafa'd with a Semicircle 
of Iron, to keep the melted Metal. — About the middle of 
the Back, there is another Hole, to receive the Nofe of a 
pair of Bellows, which require the continual Strength of 
two Men to work. 

The Matter, then, on which the Operation is to be per- 
form 'd, being beat final], they kindle Charcoa|in the Fur- 
nace, to anneal it ; and when hot, they throw in two or 
three Shovelfuls of Coals to one of the foremention'd Sniff; 
and fo proceed during the whole Work, putting Lay upon 
Lay of one and the other. After eight or ten Hours the 
Metal begins to run ; and when the Receiver below is pret- 
ty full, they lade it out with an Iron Ladle, and call it in 
Sows, in Cavities, or Forms made with Allies. 

ALMONER, antiently alfo wrote Almner, or Aumo- 
nier, an Officer in a King's or Prince's Houfhold, whofe 
bufinefs is to diftribute Alms to the Poor. See Alms. 

The Lord Almoner, or Lord fflgb Almoner, is an Eccle- 
fiaftical Officer, who has the Forfeiture of all Deodands, 
and the Goods of Felo's dc fe, which he is to difpofe of to 
the Poor. See Deodand. 

He had likewife, by an antient Cuftom, a Privilege to 
give the firft Di.fh from the Royal Table, to whatfoever 
poor Perlbn he pleafed, or, initead thereof, an Alms, in 
Money. 

He alfo diftributes daily to 24 poor Men, nominated by 
the Parifhioners of the Paiim adjacent to the King's Place 
of Refidence, to each, %d. in Money, and an Aims of 
Bread and Small Beer ; each Perlbn firft repeating the 
Creed and the Lord's Prayer, in prefence of one of the 
King's Chaplains, deputed by the Lord Almoner to be his 
Sub- Almoner ; who is alfo to fcatter new-coin'd Two-pences 
in the Towns and Places thro' which the King paffes in his 
Pr ogre fs. 

He has alfo the Charge of feveral poor Peniioners to the 
Crown, below Stairs ; confifling of fuch as have fpent their 
Youth, and become fuperannuatcd in the King's Service ■ 
or the Widows of luch Houfhold Servants as died poor, and 
were not able to provide for their Wives and Children, whom 
he duly pays. 

Under the Lord Almoner is a Sub- Almoner, a Teoman, 
and tivrj Grooms of the Almonry, chofen by his Lordfhip. 

ALMONRY, or Aumry, the Office or Lodgings ot the 
Almoner ■> alfo the Place where the Alms are given. 



ALMS, Eteemofyna, fomething given out of Charity r 
Liberality, to the Poor. See Charity, Almoner, ^ c 

The Romanifis alfo extend the Term to what is given to 
the Church, or other pious Ufes. — Hence, what the Church 
holds on this footing, is called Tenure in Alms • for accord 
ing to Rajlal, Alms, or ^tenure in Alms, is Tenure by Di- 
vine Service. See Tenure, and Service. 

The EcclcfiafHcks were antiently fubfifled wholly on Aim' 
See Clergy, Tithe, &c. . 

The Alms of the primitive Chrifiians were divided into 
three Parts ; one whereof belonged to the Bifhops, another 
to the Priefts, and a third to the Deacons and Subdeacons 
— Sometimes they divided 'em into four ; the laft whereof 
went to the Poor, and the Repairing of Churches. 

Chrodedang, Bifhop of Met-z, in the VHIth Century, en- 
joins, in the Aid Chapter of his Rule, that a Priefl to 
whom any thing was offer 'd for faying of Mafs, or for Con- 
feffion ; or a Clerk for ringing of Pfalms, or Hymns ; fhould 
not receive ir on ony other Condition than as Alms. 

M. Tillemont obferves, upon the 'Theodojian Code, p. 257. 
that from the IVth Century there were Women emplov'd 
to collect Alms for the Prifoners. In all probability thefe 
were the DeaconefTcs of the Churches. See Deaconess. 

Sr. Paul, in his fecond Epifile to the Corinthians, C. IX. 
explains the manner of collecting Alms in the Affemblies 

of the primitive Chriftians. -This Practice they had bor- 

row'd from the Jewijb Synagogue, where it {till obtains. 
Leon de Modena defcribes it in the ift Book of the Ceremo- 
nies and Cu(lo?iis of thofe of his Nation, C. XIV. 

The 54*1 call Alms, Tfedeka, i. e. Juftice.— The Evan- 
gelifts and Apoflles have alfo given it the fame Appellation 
in the New Teftament. 

ALMSFEOH, or Almesfeok, among our Saxon An- 
ceftors, Alms-Mojtey ; that is Peter- pence, antiently paid in 
England on the firft of Avgnfh; called alfo Romefeoh, Rome- 
fcot, and Hearthpening. See ^WE-K-Pence. 

KLNLS-Houfe, a Houfe built by a Perfbn in a private Ca- 
pacity, and endow'd with a Revenue, for the Maintenanc& 
of a certain Number of poor, aged, or difabled People. See 
Hospital. 

ALMUCANTARS, Almacantaras, or Almocan- 
tarats, in Aflronomy, are Circles parallel to the Horizon, 
imagin'd to pafs thro* all the Degrees of the Meridian. See 
Circle, and Horizon. See Parallel. 

As the Meridians pafs thro' the feveral Degrees of the 
Equator ; the Alnmcantars pafs thro' thofe of the Meridian 
of any Place. See Meridian. 

The Almucantars are the fame Thing with regard to the 
Azimuths and Horizon, that the Parallels are with regard to 
the Meridians and Horizon. 

They ferve to fhew the He-ght of the Sun and Stars ; 
and are defcribed on many Quadrants, g£c. being alfo called 
(Parallels of Altitude. See Parallel of Altitude'. 

The Word is form'd of the Arabic Almocantharat. 

Almucantars-^W^, is an Instrument ufually made of 
Pear-tree or Box, with an Arch of 15 Degrees ; chiefly ufed 
to take Obfervations of the Sun, about the Time of its ri- 
ling and fetting 5 in order to find the Amplitude, and confe- 
quently the Variations of the Compafs. See Amplitude, 
and Variation. 

ALNAGE, or Aulnage, q.d. Ell-meafurc 5 the mea- 
furing of woollen Manufactures with an Ell $ and the other 
Functions of the Alnager. See Alnager. 

The Word is French 5 form'd of Aune, or Abie, an Ell. 
See Ell. 

All our Laws relating to the Alnage, Sir J. Child obferves, 
contribute nothing to the well making of our Manufactures, 
but are rather chargeable, and prejudicial thereto. 

ALNAGER, Alneger, or Aulneger, q. d. a Meafth 
rer by the Ell ; fignifies a fworn publick Officer, who, by 
himfelf or Deputy, is to look to the Affize of woollen 
Cloth made thro' the Land, i. e. the Length, Width, and 
Work thereof; and to the Seals for that purpofe ordained. 
See Alnage, Cloth, $c. 

There are now three Officers relating to the Alnage or 
Regulation of Cloth ; all which were antiently compriz'd in 
one Perfon. — Thefe bear the diflinft Names of Searcher, 
Meafurer, and Alnager. 

A Duty being impofed on woollen Cloths, for the Mainte- 
nance of an Office to look to that Manufacture, and the 
Loyalty, as they call it, of the Stuffs produced therein ; the 
Alnager, who had the Direction of the whole, is now be- 
come only the Collector of that Duty or Subfidy granted to 
the King : tho he ftill holds the antient Denomination, be- 
caufe the Collection of that Subfidy was committed to him* 
— Nor was he abridg'd of his Meafuring and Searching, till 
by his own neglect it was thought proper to feparate the 
two Offices. So that there is now a peculiar Meafurer, di- 
ftinct from the Alnager, or Collector, to allow the Affize of 
the Length and Breadth of every Cloth made in Eng '"' 
and Wales, 

■2 ALOES, 






A L O 



(<*9) 



ALP 



ALOES, Aloe, in Medicine and Pharmacy, the infpiffa- The Heart, of innermofl part, is called Tambac ' arid 

ted Juice of a ferulaceous Plant of the fame Name 5 much more valued by the Indians than Gold it felf. It affords a 

ufed as a purgative Remedy. See Purgative. very itrong, but agreeable fmell; and is ufed as a Perfume 5 

The ^tePlant grows in divers Parts of the Eaft and and is withal held a fovereign Remedy againft the Palfy, 

Weft-Indies; and is alfo found in fome Countries of Europe, Deliquiums, WeakneOfes, £jc. 

as Spain, and particularly the Mountains of Siera Morena. 'Tis the Calambou alone that is known among us< It ia 

Its Leaves are green, very rhick, hard, and prickly ; brought in fmall bits of a very fragrant fcent ; efpecially 

yielding a kind of Cotton, whereof Laces may be made, when cafl on the Fire, where it melts like Wax. The betl 

Out of the middle of the Leaves arifes a Stem, which is of a blackilh purple Colour, and fo light as to fwim on 

bears the flower, and the Fruit, the Seed whereof is very Water : It is hot and drying ; and efteem'd a great Streng- 

light and hemifpherical. thener of the Nerves. 

Diofcorides, 'Pliny, and the antient Naturalifls, feem on- Some pharmaceutical Writers make a Diftinflion between 

ly to have been acquainted with one Species of Aloes ; Aloes, Lignum Aloes and Xylo Aloes ; which may amount 

which is the Aloe Vulgaris above delcribed : But the late to the three Orders of Wood abovemention'd. Tho among 

Travels imo Afia, Africa, and America, have occafion'd us they are the fame thing. 

the Difcovery of forty more forts, unknown to Antiquity. ALOETICS, Medicines wherein Aloes is the chief and 

Mr. Bradley allures us, he has feen above fixty feveral Kinds fundamental Ingredient. See Aloes. 

in the Phyfick-Garden at Jmfterdam. So that Aloe is The Word is form'd of Aloe, which is further derived 

now become the Denomination of a Genus. — -Among the from om, the Sea, or Sail ; that Plant being chiefly found 

Number, however, there are not above twelve that yield near the Sea-Coafts. 

the purgative Juice above mentioned. ALOGU, or Alogians, a Sect of antient Hereticks j 

The Juice or ExtratS of Aloes, is ufually diftinguifh'd in- who denied that Jefui Chrilt was the Eternal Word. See 

to three Kinds. — The firil, which is called Succotrine as AriAn. 

being brought from Succotra, is the pureft and moil tranf- 'Theodore of "Byzantium, by Trade a Currier, having 

parent; being friable, inodorous, black in the Lump, but apoflafiz'd, under rhe Perfecution of the Emperor Severus 



of a beautiful yellow Colour when bruis'd. — It is brought 
in Skins from the Levant and Baft Indies. 

The fecond is called Hepatic, becaufe of its Liver-colour : 
It is refinous, fmells like Myrrh, has a yellow Colour when 
pounded, and is brought from China. — Some confound this 
with the following fort ; as, in effecl, there arc but two 
forts commonly known in our Shops. 

The third is the ruoffc impure, the blackefl, and the 



defend himfelf againft thofe who reproach'd him there- 
with, faid ; That it was not God he denied, but only Man. 
Whence his Followers were called in Greek cLteyu, in regard 
they rejected the Word ; from the Privative a, and boy©-, 
Verbum. 

ALOOF, a Sea Term, fignifying as much as, keep your 
Luff: being a Word of Command from him that conns, to 
the Man at the Helm, to keep the Ship near the Wind, 



ilrongefl. — It was formerly ufed by the Indians to pitch their when flie fails upon a Quarter-wind. See Conner, &c. 



Veffels withal : and is of little Ufe among us, excepting tor 
Horfcs and Cattle^ fot which reafon it is call'd Caballine, i. e. 
Horfe-y^fcw. 

Befides thefe, fome mention another kind of Aloes pre- 
pared in Barbadoes, and brought over in large Gourds: but 
moll Writers make this the Caballine kind 



ALOPECIA, or Alopechy, in Medicine, i$c a Falling 
of the Hair, from what Caufe foever that arife. See Hair. 

The Word is form'd from a.hini, Vulpes, a Fox ; whofe 
Urine, it is faid, will occafion Baldncfs ; or becaufe fuch a 
Dileafe is common to that Creature. 

ALPHA, the Name of the firfl Letter of the Greek AI- 



Some have imagin'd, that thefe differences of Aloes were phabct. See Letter, and Alphabet 



owing only to the greater, or lefs Purification of the Juice : But 
this is a Miflake ; it having been found that no Diffolu- 
tions, how often foever repeated, will change Hepatic into 
Succotrine, nor Caballine into Heparic Aloes. 

The manner of preparing Aloes is very eafy, there being 



The Alpha, in Compofirion, denotes, fometimes, 'Priva- 
tion, in the fame Scnfe withers?, without 3 fometimes Aug- 
mentation, as ayav, much; and fometimes Union, as a-y^i 
together. 

It was alfo ufed as a Letter of Order, to denote thefirfts 



nothing to do but to cut the Leaves of the Plant, and to ex- and of Number, to fignify one ; but when it was a nume- 

pofe the Juice that fponteneoufly oozes out of them to the rical Letter, a little Stroke, or an acute Accent was drawn 

Sun, till it becomes of a proper Confluence. above it thus 'A, to diflinguifli it from the A, which was a 

Aloes is extremely bitter, and purgative ; externally ap- Letter of Order. r 

plied, either in Subflance or Tincture, it prevents Putrcfae- The Word is originally Hebrew, and comes from fptf 

tion and Gangrene. — Its Bitternefs makes it fo naufeous, that Alaph, which fignifies to learn ; whence M^>N the Leader 

it is tarely ufed in liquid Forms, but is generally made into cr fi r ji of a Company. In this Senfe, the Hebrews call the 

Pills, wheteofhalfa Dram is an ordinary Dofe.— Scarce any j r(l L etter f tne i r Alphabet Aleph, the Syrians Olaph, the 

of the Officinal Pills are without this in their Compofition. Arabs Eliph, and the Greeks Alpha. See A. 
See Pill. Alpha and Omega, in the Divine Writings, fignify the 

Its cathartick Virtue, is befl employ'd in watery, cold, Beginning and the End ; and therefore the Hieroglyphick 

and corpulent Conftitutions, as ir heats and attenuates ; f God is f orrn y of thefe two Letters, A and a. 
being bad for thin and heaick Conflitutions. It is account- ALPHABET, the feveral Letters of a Language, difpo- 

ed efficacious in promoting the Menfes ; and is alfo good to f ed in tneir natural or accuilom'd Order. See Letter, 

defltoy Worms. and Lancuace. 

M. Boulduc, by his Analyfis of Aloes, has found that the The Wor(i is f oim >& f rom the Names f the tw0 fj r ft 

Succotrine fcarce contains half the Refin or fulphurous Part, L etters f tnc Greek Alphabet, Alpha, Beta ; which were bor- 

but one third more of the falme Part, found in the Hepatic. row y f rom thofe of the Hebtcw,Aleph,8eth. See Alpha, &c. 
Hence the Succotrine comes to be preferable for internal j n the E ng ]ifh Alphabet we reckon 16 Letters, viz. a b 



Ufes, and the Hepatic for external. 

Aloe Rofata, is a Preparation of the Aloes Juice, made 
by diffolving it in Juice of Damask Rofcs, and evaporating 



cdefghijklmnopqrfttt'wvxyz. See 
each under its proper Article. 

But as there is a much greater Number of different 



it to the Confidence of a Pafle. Then, more Juice is ad- Soun j s - m om Language ; 'tis not without Reafon that fome 

ded, and the Evaporation repeated, again and again.— This Grammarians maintain, that there ought ro be a greater 

is held a gentler and lafer Cathartick than the Aloes alone. jj um ber of Letters : As alfo, that the double Letters, £ 

Aloes is alfo a kind of fragrant Indian Wood ; thus an( j ^ and thc fuperfluous ones, k and g , ftiould be re- 
called from its exceeding Bitternefs, which refembles that trenc h'd. See Consonant, Vowel, &c. 
of the Aloes Juice. The French Alphabet only contains 23 Letters.— 'Pafquier 

This Aloes, called alfo Agallochum, is infinitely valued; ; ndee<1 ma j mains it to con fift f 2?1 by reafon he adtis the 



and divers flrange Fables have been invented as to the Ori- 
gin of the Tree that yields it : Some feign that it grew in 
Paradife, and was only convey'd to us by means of the Ri- 
vers overflowing their Banks, and fweeping off the Trees 
in their way. Others fuppofe it to grow on inacceffible 
Mountains ; where it is guarded by certain wild Bcails, &c. 
— The Siameje EmbafTadors to the Court of France, in 
16&6, who brought a Preterit of this Wood from their Em- 



two double Letters ££ for et, and * for us ; but thofe are 
only Abbreviarures. The Abbe d ' Ar.geau, on better Grounds, 
reckons 34 different Sounds in the French Tongue ; and 
urges, that the Alphabet ought of Confequence to confift of* 
34 different Characters, fetting afide the double Letters x and 
y, and the fuperfluous one q. See French. 

The Difference between Languages, with refpect to the 
Number of Letters, is very confiderable : The Hebrew, 



peror, firfl gave the Europeans any confillent Account of it. chaldee, Syriac, and Samaritan Alphabets, have each 22 ; 

The Tree grows in China, Lao, and Cochinchma ; and is the j ra y lc 2 g. me Perfian 31 ; the Turkifb 33 ; thzGcor- 

much about the Size and Figure of our Olive Trees.— The &im , 6 . the Cophtick 32 ; the Mufcovitc 43 ; the Greek 

Trunk confitls of three forts of Wood, very different in Co- 24 . tll6 Ijxtin 22 the Sc i avm j c k 27 ; the Dutch 16 ; the 

lour, and Properties : Immediately under the Batk it is spanifb 27 ; the Italian 20 ; the Indians of Bengal 21 j the 

black, compadl, and heavy, call'd by the 'Portuguese, 'Pao jj aramas ,„. 

d'Aquila, q. d. Eagle- Wood. That next under this, is of a The ^ t h'jopic has no lefs than 202 Letters in its Alphabet, 

Tan colour, light and veiny, refembling rotten Wood ; and t herebeine7Vowels,whicb they combine with each of their 16 

called Calambou. 6/ T Cod- 



ALP (7°) ALT 

Confonants ; to which they add *o other afpirated Syllables, in the Vnherfal Alphabets , or ' Cha™a e « of Mr. Zodovk, 

-The like is faid of the Tartarian ; each of their Let- B.fhoj iWilkms &c See Umverjal Character 

rers is a Syllable: having one of the Vowels joined to In the French King s Library is an Arabic Work, mtitled 

its Conlonan. : as /,*, Le, Li, &c. *#<« ^<"» *. <° nt <T n g *J£f? ««• * imaginary ^. 

The CW«/e have no ^&**0, properly fpeaking ; ex- F>»*fi which the Author diftributes into Prophetical, 

• -it whole Language their Alphabet ; Myftical, Philofophical, Magical, Tahfmanical, &c. 



cept we call their whole Languag 

their Letters are Words, or rather Hieroglyphicks, and are 

in Number about 80,000. See Chinese, and Character. 

In effect, Alphabets were not contrived with Defign, ac- 
cording to the jufl Rules of Reafon and Analogy ; but fuc- 

cefiively framed, alter'd, i£c. as occafion ofter'd.- And 

hence many grievous Complaints as to their Deficiencies J 

and divers attempts to eftablifh new, and more adequate ferent Words or Combinations that may be made out „f 

ones in their place. thofe *4 Le " er \ tak,B l them fi , r ! 1 onc b y one - , then two by 

Bifliop WillCms charges the Alphabets extant with great two, three by three, Sto would amount to the following 
Irregularities with refpeft both of the Order, Number, Number, 139,172428,887151, 959425, 128493,401200. Seo 



Monfieur Leibnitz had it in view to compofe an Alphabet. 
of Hitman "Thoughts. Mem. de V Acad. R. An. j-jiC. 

'Tis no wonder that the Number of Letters in mo ft Lan- 
guages /hou'd be fo fmall, and that of the Words fo great ■ 
fince from a Calculation made by Mr. 'Prefect, it appears' 
that, allowing only 24 Letters to an Alphabet, the dif- 



Power Figure fife. As to the Order, it appears inarti- Combination 



ficial, precarious, and confufed ; in that the Vowels and 
Confonants are not reduced into Gaffes, with fuch order of 

precedence and fubfequence as their Natures will bear. - 

Even the Hebrew Alphabet, fiom which the reft are deri- 
ved, is nor free from this Imperfection. 

As to Number, they are both redundant, and deficient : 
Redundant, either by allotting fevcral Letters to the fame 
Power, and Sound ; as in the Hebrew Q and jy,- and the 
ordinary Latin cand k,f and ph : or by reckoning double Let- 
ters among the fimple Elements of Speech ; as in the He- 
brew y, the Greek ? and 4-, the Latin q cu, x cs, and the 
j Confonant, or Jod. — Deficient in divers rcfpecls, gfpecially 
in regard of Vowels, of which there are feven or eight 
kinds commonly ufed ; tho the Latin Alphabet only takes 
notice of five ; whereof two,' viz. i and U, according to our 
Bnglijb Pronunciation, are not properly Vowels, but Dip- 
thongs. 

Add, that the Difference among Vowels in rcfpecT: of 
long and fhort, is not furficiently provided for : The An- 
tients, we know, ufed to exprefs a long Vowel by doubling 
its Character; as Amaabam, Naata, Rce, Seedes, SanBij'- 

fimih 3 tho the Vowel i, inftcad of being doubled, was fre- that of the Words in any Language known 
quently prolonged, as *ih.,s, pIso, vIvns.-The ways ufed „? f alloth" Languages, the Greek h look'd 
in JBwglyb for lengthning and abbreviating Vowels, viz. by 
adding e quiefcent to the End of a Word, for prolonging 
a Syllable ; and doubling the following Confonants, for the 
ihortening of a Vowel, as Wane Wann, Ware Warr, &c. or 
elfe by inferting fome other Vowel, for the lengthning of 
it, as Meat Met, Read Red, ckc. are all improper; in that 
the Sign ought ever to be where the Sound ' 



Sea 

It may be here obferv'd, that every Combination may 
make a Word, even tho that Combination have not any 
Vowel in it ; becaufe the e mute or quiefcent infinuates it 
felf imperceptibly between the Confonants, or after the Con- 
fonants, where there are but two 5 the latter of which would 
not be heard without it. — The ufe of this quiefcent c is ve- 
ry remarkable in the Armenian, Welch, arid CDutch Lan- 
guages ; wherein the generality of Words have feveral Con- 
fonants together. 

Nor muit it be omitted, that every fingle Letter ma? 
make a Word : which is very apparent, where that Letter 
is a Vowel ; Words of that kind being found in moft Lan- 
guages. Thus, a. and a make Words in the Greek ; a, 0, 
in the Latin ; a, i, o, in Englijh ; a, 0, y, in French ; a, e, 
i, 0, in Ltalian ; a, y, in Spanijb ; a, 0, in the 'Pofflignefe ; 
0, in moft Languages, and even in the 2)utcb and S-wediJh. 
A Confonant alio becomes a Word, by adding an e mute to 
it in Pronunciation. 

In fine, tho a confiderable Number of the poffible Com- 
binations of 24 Letters were retrenched, yet the Number 
remaining would {till be immenfe, and vaftly fiiperior to 



A upon as one 
of the moft copious, the Radices of which are only eftcem'd 
about 32445 but then it abounds exceedingly in Compounds, 
and Derivatives. Bilhop Wilkins thinks thefe may be mo- 
derately computed at about ten thoufand. 

Hermannm Hugo, indeed, aflferts, that no Language has 

fo few as rooooo Words; and Varro is frequently quoted 

by learned Men, as if he affirmed that there are in theZa- 

As TO their lowers, again, thofe are not always fixed to ** , no ** *"* J?° oco **& U P?" Squiring into the Scope 

the fame Signification : The Vowels, for inftance, are gene- ? f the Paira .8?> «!™$ F llkm obferves, that this Number 



rally acknowlcdg'd to have each of 'em feveral Sounds : Vo- 
cales o?;mes flurifonce, fays Lipfitis ; and Vcjjius affures us, 
the Antients ufed their Vowels very different ways, aliqiian- 
do tenitius cxilhtfque, nunc crajjius, nunc intermedio fono. 
Thus the Power or" the Vowel e is cxprcfled in writing no lefs 
than fix feveral' ways, viz. by e ; as in he, me, jloe, ye : 
■ — by ee, in thec, free, ive ; — by ie, in field, yield, JJyield, 
chief ■-, — by ea, in near, dear, hear ; — by co, in people ; — 
by 1, in privilege. So is the Power of the Vowel a ; as in 
all, an!-, a-zv, fault, caught, brought : which are all only va- 
rious ways of writing the fame long Vowel ; befides thi 



iiUll.i wit ys ul wiiiiuii tuu mint, iuiit^ v wwt,i j u^nuv.o 111^ ' i I n 

other diftina ways of expreffing the fame Vowel when ufed are t0 . kee P b y them - * 

fhort : Again, the Power of the Vowel o is written five . l } '. s P5 P cri y an Alpk, 

co, in JJjco, 



is not intended by him to exprefs the jufl: Number of 
Words in the Latin ; but the grear Variety made thereof, 
by the Inflection and Compofition of Verbs. — To this pur- 
pofe he lays it down, that there are above one thoufand 
Radical Verbs in the Latin; and that each Verb admits 
of five hundred feveral Varieties : He further fuppofes, that 
each of thefe may be compounded with nine Prepofitions j 
as ceffit, rcccjjit, acceffit, decejfit, &c. which amounts to 
five Millions. See Word. 

Alphabet, in Matters of Polygraphy, is a duplicate of 
the Key or Cypher, which each of the Parties correfponding 
See Cypher. 



fhort : Again, the Power of the Vowel o is written five . " ,s propeny an Alphabet of the ufual Letters difpofed 

ways ; 0, as in to, who, move h —oe, in doe.— 00, in Jlmo, '" their Order ; oppofite to or underneath which, are the 

moon, noon;— en, in could, would ;— u-o, inr-.ro; and fo of fecret Charafters correfponding thereto .with the blank or 

,I ie re ft. Nor are the Confonants of more determinate ufe r leIs Letters, and the other Signs or Symbols ferving to 

Powers: witnefs the different Pronunciation of the fame °blcure, and render it difficult to decypher. See Decy- 

Lettcr (c).in the fame Word, Cireo ; and of g in negligence. PH ?J I i' T ?i,r^ a ■ «a «■ >i *v '. ■' „ .' 

—To fay no mote, the Letters c, f, t, are ufed alike, to ALPHETA, in Aftronomy, a Fix A Star in the Northern 

denote the fame Power; and the Letter^ is commonly Crown-, otherwife ; called Lllcida Corona. See Lucida. 

ufed for z : and which is yet worfe, fome Lettets of the '" Longitude, Latitude, (go. fee among the reft of the 

fame Name and Shape, are ufed at one time for Vowels, Cm j hl 'Z t '™ Co^oKK&pteatnoaalis. 

and at another for Confonants ; as j; v, w, y . which yet AL ,™°? ■ »? %■ See Taele - , r ., , , 

differ from one another, fays Bifhop Wllkins, ficut corpus AL1HOS, in Medicine, a Diftemper defenbed by Cclfus, 

££? anima under the Name of Vitiligo ; wherein, the Skin is rough, 

From this Confufion in the Power of Letters, rhere arife ? nd loo !; s as if !t ha<1 Dr0 P s of white u P on !t . not mucn aif- 



divers Irregularites ; as, that fome Words are diftinguifliM 
in Writing, which are the fame in Pronunciarion, e. g. Ceffio 
end SeJJio, &c. and others are diftinguinYd in Pronunciation, 
which are the fame in Writing ; as give, dare, and Give, 
vinculum, &c. Hence alfo the Latin Mall-, is a Diffyllable, 
and the F.nglifii Male, a Monofyllable. 

The Names alfo, in moft Alphabets, are very improperly 
Exprels'd by Words of divers Syllables ; as Alpha, Seta, &c. 
in which refpect, the Roman and our Englifh Alphabets, 
which only name the Letters by their Powers, have a great 
Advantage over the reft. 

Laftly, their Figures are not well concerted ; there being 
nothing in the Characters of the Vowels anfwerable to the 
difterent.Degrees of Apertion : nor in the Confonants, ana- 
logous, to the Agreements or Difagreements thereof. 

"All thefe Imperfections are endeavour'd to be obviated 



fering from Morphew. See Morphew. 

ALRAMECH, or Abramech, in Aftronomy, the Arabic 
Name of a Star, otherwife called ArBurus. See Akctu- 
rus. 

ALT, in Mufick. See Diagram, and Scale ; fee alfo 
Alto. 

The Word is form'd of rhe Latin altlts, high. 

ALTAR, Ara, Altare, a Place or Pile whereon to 
offer Sacrifice to fome Deity. See Sacrifice. 

The Jews had their Brazen Altar, for Burnt offerings, 
and a Golden Altar, or Altar of Incenfe. See Taberna- 
cle, £$c. 

Among the Romans, the Altar was a kind of Pedeflal, 
either fquare, round, or triangular ; adorn'd with Sculpture, 
with Baffo Relievo's, and Infcriptions, whereon were burnt 
the Viclims iacrificed to Idols. See Victim. 

Thol> 



ALT 



(7i ) 



ALT 



Thofc Altars. fet apart for the honour of the celeftial 
Gods, and Godis of the higher Clafs, were placed on fome 
pretty tall Pile of Building ; and for that reafon were called 
Altaria, from the Words Alta and Ara t a high elevated 
Altar. — Thofe appointed for the terreflrial Gods, were laid 
on the Surface of the Earth, and caliM Arte. — And on the 
contrary, they dug into the Earth, and open'd a Hole for 
thofe of the infernal Gods, which they called Scrobiculi. See 
God. 

The Greeks alfo diflinguifh'd two forts of Altars ; that 
whereon they facrifie'd to the Gods, was called £«f%?f, and 
was a real Altar ; different from the other, whereon they 
facrifie'd to the Heroes, which wasfmallcr, and called &%*■- 
£